Articles
  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Inflammation of the cerebral arteries: lifting the veil on the pathobiology of intracranial aneurysms

    Dale Ding
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Advances in the imaging of cerebral aneurysm inflammation

    Michael R. Levitt , M. Yashar S. Kalani , Karam Moon , Cameron G. McDougall , Felipe C. Albuquerque
    Cerebral aneurysm formation, growth and rupture are thought to be the result of a complex interaction between cerebrovascular hemodynamics and pathobiology. Recently, new evidence has emerged regarding the role of inflammation in the walls of cerebral aneurysms. Noninvasive methods to characterize the degree of inflammation in aneurysms could enable clinicians to estimate the risk of future aneurysm growth and rupture, influencing treatment. This review examines emerging techniques of imaging inflammatory biomarkers in cerebral aneurysms.
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Cerebral aneurysms and inflammation

    Toshihiro Yokoi , Makoto Saito , Yayoi Yoshimura , Keiichi Tsuji , Kazuhiko Nozaki
    Multiple inflammatory factors, playing a crucial role in cerebral aneurysm formation, have been identified. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been revealed to have a close connection with several risk factors that affect aneurysm formation. Remarkable expression in aneurysm walls of mRNA for TNF-α has been observed in humans. Possible therapeutic interventions to reduce the formation of cerebral aneurysms may include the inhibition of mediators of inflammation.
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Hemodynamics, inflammation, vascular remodeling, and the development and rupture of intracranial aneurysms: a review

    Francesco Signorelli , Benjamin Gory , Roberto Riva , Paul-Emile Labeyrie , Isabelle Pelissou-Guyotat , Francis Turjman
    The central nervous system is an immunologically active environment where several components of the immune and inflammatory response interact among them and with the constituents of nervous tissue and vasculature in a critically orchestrated manner, influencing physiologic and pathologic processes. In particular, inflammation takes a central role in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). The common pathway for aneurysm formation involves endothelial dysfunction and injury, a mounting inflammatory response, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) phenotypic modulation, extracellular...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Inflammation and intracranial aneurysms: mechanisms of initiation, growth, and rupture

    Peter S. Amenta , Edison Valle , Aaron S. Dumont , Ricky Medel
    Outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remain poor in many patients, despite advances in microsurgical and endovascular management. Consequently, considerable effort has been placed in determining the mechanisms of aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture. Various environmental and genetic factors are implicated as key components in the aneurysm pathogenesis. Currently, sufficient evidence exists to incriminate the inflammatory response as the common pathway leading to aneurysm generation and rupture. Central to this model is the interaction between the vessel wall and...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Inflammation in human cerebral aneurysms: pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, genetics, and therapeutics

    Sarah A. Dooley , Joseph S. Hudson , David M. Hasan
    Intracranial aneurysms are a life-threatening cerebrovascular pathology with a probability of spontaneous rupture. Current intervention techniques carry inherent risk. Recent investigation has reinforced inflammation’s role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral aneurysms. These data suggest alternative diagnostic and noninvasive therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, novel characteristics of the underlying disease have been elucidated through distinct bioinformatic and gene expression profile analyses. This article will emphasize the most recent investigation, highlighting findings of...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Inflammation mediates the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm and becomes therapeutic target

    Tomohiro Aoki
    The treatment of cerebral aneurysms (CAs) is of social importance, because poor outcomes result in subarachnoid hemorrhages after rupture. However, there is currently no medical treatment available to prevent the progression and rupture of CAs, which results in a large number of patients without receiving treatment. Recent studies using human samples have revealed the presence of inflammatory responses in lesions and also the possible correlation of inflammation with CA progression or rupture. Furthermore, experimental studies using animal models of CAs have supported the notion from human...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Role of the complement cascade in cerebral aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture

    Blake E. S. Taylor , Geoff Appelboom , Robert Zilinyi , Ariana Goodman , David Chapel , Melissa LoPresti , Edward Sander Connolly Jr.
    Rupture of intracranial aneurysms is the most common cause of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, but the intricate neuroinflammatory processes which contribute to aneurysm pathophysiology are not well-understood. Mounting evidence has implicated the complement cascade in the progression of aneurysms from their formation to rupture. In this article, we identify and review studies that have sought to determine the role of the complement system in the aneurysm pathogenesis. The studies were generally conducted by immunhistological analyses on aneurysm tissue collected intraoperatively, and...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    The role of inflammation in cerebral aneurysms

    Ali H. Turkmani , Nancy J. Edwards , Peng R. Chen
    The natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is poorly understood. At present, risk factors for aneurysm rupture are limited to demographics and rudimentary anatomic features of the aneurysm. The first sign of aneurysm destabilization and rupture may be subarachnoid hemorrhage, a potentially devastating brain injury with high morbidity and mortality. An emerging body of literature suggests a complex inflammatory cascade likely promotes aneurysm wall remodeling and progressive ballooning of the arterial wall, ultimately terminating in aneurysm rupture. These events likely...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    The role of leukocytes in the formation and rupture of intracranial aneurysms

    Michael J. Strong , Peter S. Amenta , Aaron S. Dumont , Ricky Medel
    Ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) affect a small proportion of the population; however, the morbidity and mortality is disproportionally high. Although little is known about IA formation, progression, and rupture, mounting evidence suggests that inflammation may play an important role in IA pathogenesis. There is emerging evidence to suggest that leukocytes play a key role in generating and maintaining a pathologic inflammatory response that leads to aneurysm formation and rupture. We present the current literature pertaining to the role of leukocytes in aneurysm formation, progression,...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Editorial

    Astrocytes: everything but the glue

    Oscar Gonzalez-Perez , Veronica Lopez-Virgen , Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Case Report

    Concurrent occurrence of both intracranial and intramedullary tuberculomas

    Sreeramulu Diguvinti , Srinivasulu Damam , Kiran Kumar Ubara , Chennakesavulu Dara
    Tuberculosis involving spinal cord in the form of intramedullary tuberculoma is uncommon, and the concurrent occurrence of cranial and intramedullary tuberculomas is extremely rare. We report a case of disseminated tuberculoma involving brain and spinal cord with miliary tuberculosis in a 32-year-old male presenting with fever, cerebellar signs and motor weakness of both upper and lower extremities. Based on magnetic resonance imaging and polymerase chain reaction, we diagnosed as tuberculoma. He completely recovered with conventional antituberculous treatment and steroids. The follow-up of...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Case Report

    Primary supratentorial intracerebral malignant paraganglioma

    Ahmed A. Al Jishi , Boleslaw Lach , Ali Elgheriani , Edward Kachur , Aleksa Cenic
    Paragangliomas are extra-adrenal neuroendocrine tumors that derive from neural crest. In general, they are benign tumors but few cases had shown a tendency to metastasize. Malignant forms have been reported previously with intracranial metastasis from duodenal origin, but primary intracranial origin represents a rare and unusual location for such tumors. Here, we report a rare case of a 48-year-old lady who presented with symptomatic right-sided insular mass with negative metastatic work up. A complete surgical resection had been done with an unexpected diagnosis of primary gangliocytic...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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