• Editorial

    The role of glutamate excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation in depression and suicidal behavior: focus on microglia cells

    Gianluca Serafini , Zoltan Rihmer , Mario Amore
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Review

    Microglia and astroglia: the role of neuroinflammation in lead toxicity and neuronal injury in the brain

    Jin-Tao Liu , Mo-Han Dong , Jie-Qiong Zhang , Ya Bai , Fang Kuang , Liang-Wei Chen
    Lead (Pb2+), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, may widely affect the function of many organs or systems of human beings, especially the brain. Although lead is believed to transport into the brain through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cause direct neuronal injury, growing data have shown that lead exposure could induce brain dysfunction by triggering microglial and astroglial activation, pro‑inflammatory cytokine production and inflammatory response, generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, and finally result in BBB dysfunction and neuronal damage. This review...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Review

    Neuroinflammation and neurological alterations in chronic liver diseases

    Carmina Montoliu , Marta Llansola , Vicente Felipo
    Several million people with chronic liver diseases (cirrhosis, hepatitis) show neurological alterations, named hepatic encephalopathy (HE) with cognitive and motor alterations that impair quality of life and reduces life span. Inflammation acts synergistically with hyperammonemia to induce cognitive and motor alterations in patients with chronic liver disease and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Previous studies in animal models have suggested that neuroinflammation is a major player in HE. This would also be the case in patients with liver cirrhosis or hepatitis C with HE. Rats with...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Review

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation research on reading and dyslexia: a new clinical intervention technique for treating dyslexia?

    Maurits van den Noort , Esli Struys , Peggy Bosch
    Nowadays, several noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), exist. The working mechanism behind TMS is a rapidly changing magnetic field that generates an electric current via electromagnetic induction. When the coil is placed on the scalp, the magnetic field generates a physiological reaction in the underlying neural tissue. The TMS‑induced change in the participant’s behavior is used by researchers to investigate the causal relations between specific brain areas and cognitive functions such as language. A variant of TMS has been developed,...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Original Article

    Brain abscess: surgical experiences of 162 cases

    Forhad Hossain Chowdhury , Md Raziul Haque , Mainul Haque Sarkar , S. M. Noman Khaled Chowdhury , Zahed Hossain , Shisir Ranjan
    Aim: Brain abscess still poses a public health challenge in spite of the advent of modern neurosurgical techniques and antibiotics. Here, we present our surgical experiences and ultimate outcome in the management of brain abscess. Methods: Totally, 162 patients with proved brain abscess who underwent surgical treatment were included in this study. The prospectively recorded data of surgical management of brain abscess and the ultimate outcome (by Glasgow outcome scale) were studied retrospectively. Results: Total number of cases was 162, of which 113 were acute pyogenic abscess while 49...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Original Article

    Intrathecal dexamethasone and methotrexate treatment of neoplastic meningitis from solid tumors

    Wen-Jing Lv , Jun-Ying He , Yue-Li Zou , Ya-Juan Liu , Qin-Qin Zhang , Xin Liu , Hui Bu
    Aim: Neoplastic meningitis (NM) from solid tumors is an advanced malignancy with poor prognosis. Intrathecal chemotherapy is a reliable treatment, and we have obtained some experiences in the treatment of NM with intrathecal dexamethasone and methotrexate (IT DXM and MTX). Methods: Retrospective study of 23 patients with NM from lung cancer (n = 11), breast cancer (n = 3), gastric cancer (n = 1), malignant melanoma (n = 1), unknown cancer (n = 7) was conducted. Among these patients, eight received IT DXM and MTX treatment, and 15 patients were placed into a palliative care group. Overall...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Original Article

    Neurocysticercosis in Nepal: a retrospective clinical analysis

    Rajeev Ojha , Dinesh Bikram Shah , Amina Shrestha , Sunil Koirala , Apurba Dahal , Khem Adhikari , Anjal Bisht , Pratik Wagle
    Aim: The prevalence of epilepsy is higher in Nepal. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC) among seizure patients admitted to our center. Methods: We retrospectively studied all the NCC patients admitted to Neurology Department, Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from April 2012 to February 2014. Computer tomography/ magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) head, clinical profile, lab investigations and exclusion of other causes were the basis of the NCC diagnosis. Chi‑square and Student’s t‑test were used for comparison of variables. Results: Out...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Case Report

    A case report on subarachnoid and intraventricular neurocysticercosis

    Chen Shang , Hong-Zhi Guan , Li-Ying Cui , Bo Hou , Feng Feng , Ding-Rong Zhong
    Neurocysticercosis is the most common central nervous system helminthic infection in humans. We hereby present a case combining two rare manifestations of neurocysticercosis: the subarachnoid and intraventricular forms. The patient presented with hydrocephalus and neurologic deficits and although endoscopic removal of the cysts and two cycles of postoperative cysticidal drugs resulted in resolution of symptoms, they later recurred. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and a further cycle of albendazole plus dexamethasone led to substantial clinical improvement. Extraparenchymal...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Case Report

    A clinically isolated syndrome: butterfly glioma mimic

    Ramshekhar Menon , Bejoy Thomas , Hariharan Venkat Easwer , Samvedam Sandhyamani , Amita Nair , Muralidharan Nair
    The report explores a unique and treatable “butterfly”-glioma mimic and the neuroimaging characteristics that help to diagnose this entity. A 35-year-old patient presented with subacute-onset, progressive frontal lobe dysfunction followed by features of raised intracranial pressure. Neuroimaging features were consistent with a “butterfly” lesion that favored the possibility of a gliomatosis cerebri with significant edema and marked corpus callosum and fornix thickening. Contrast‑enhanced and perfusion images revealed a confluent tumefactive lesion with a characteristic “broken-ring” pattern...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Case Report

    Complete recovery from paraplegia following total spondylectomy for a primary diffuse B-cell lymphoma of the lumbar spine

    Atef Ben Nsir , Mohamed Boughamoura , Rym Hadhri , Mouroug Mahfoudh , Nejib Hattab
    Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the spine is very rare and occurs mostly in adults with strong male predominance. Here, we present the case of a 24-year-old girl harboring a primary diffuse B-cell lymphoma of L2 vertebral body, who was admitted in an emergency with cauda equina syndrome and completely recovered after total spondylectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Such findings have never been previously reported.
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Case Report

    Decompressive craniectomy in herpes simplex encephalitis

    Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal , Shirley Joan Fernandez , Prithvi Varghese , Murali Krishna Menon
    Intracranial hypertension is a common cause of morbidity in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). HSE is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis. Hereby we report a case of HSE in which decompressive craniectomy was performed to treat refractory intracranial hypertension. A 32-year-old male presented with headache, vomiting, fever, and focal seizures involving the right upper limb. Cerebrospinal fluid‑meningoencephalitic profile was positive for herpes simplex. Magnetic resonance image of the brain showed swollen and edematous right temporal lobe with increased signal in gray matter...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Case Report

    Gamma-aminobutyric-acid-B receptor antibodies in limbic encephalitis with small cell lung cancer

    Ke-Qin Liu , Sheng-Qiang Yan , Min Lou
    Encephalitis associated with antibodies to gamma-aminobutyric-acid B (GABA-B) is a subgroup of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis with typical features of limbic encephalitis and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We report a case of anti-GABA-B receptor encephalitis in a 57-year-old man who presented with seizures, memory loss, and abnormal behavior. He developed partially neurological responses to immunotherapy, but refused comprehensive tumor screening. The symptoms were aggravated again 4 months later. Workup showed antibodies to GABA-B receptors and tumor screening revealed SCLC. It...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Case Report

    Isolated palatal palsy: a clinical rarity

    Harpreet Singh , Rekha Mathur , Parminder Kaur
    Acquired isolated palatal palsy is a rare disease. It is commonly seen in children. It usually presents with acute onset nasal regurgitation of fluids, rhinolalia, and palatal asymmetry. Many causes of this disease, such as infections, trauma, tumor, and brainstem lesions, etc., have been reported. However, the most plausible explanation is immunological/ischemic damage to the affected nerve. After ruling out major potential causes of this disease, the damage is often considered to be idiopathic in nature. This disease has a benign self‑limiting course with excellent recovery. In accordance...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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