Articles
  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory mechanisms associated with mood disorders

    Gianfranco Spalletta , Gabriele Sani
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Bipolar disorder preceding the onset of multiple sclerosis

    Ciro Marangoni , Maria Giulia Nanni , Luigi Grassi , Gianni M. Faedda
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory demyelinating brain disease. The occurrence of psychiatric disorders, especially for major depression, in the course of MS is high. Reports concerning bipolar disorder (BD) remain rather scarce although early descriptions were found in the old neurological literature. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the epidemiology, comorbidity, and treatment findings regarding BD preceding the onset of MS.
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Microstructural brain abnormalities, affective temperaments, and suicidal behavior in patients with major depression

    Gianluca Serafini , Mario Amore , Zoltan Rihmer
    According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, brain white matter (WM) abnormalities have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and related suicidal behavior. However, MRI findings may be limited by low spatial resolution; therefore, an important contribution to the understanding of the role and significance of WM alterations derived by the development of the most recent magnetic resonance techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Several DTI studies reported an association between altered WM integrity and...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Neuroinflammation and excitatory symptoms in bipolar disorder

    Isabella Panaccione , Gianfranco Spalletta , Gabriele Sani
    Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a strong biological factor underlying the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. A role for dysregulation of the immune system was initially suggested in depressive disorders and subsequently extended to other illnesses, including bipolar disorder (BD). Indeed, there is growing evidence confirming the presence of a generalized pro‑inflammatory state in BD patients, involving alterations in cytokine, acute‑phase proteins, and complement factor secretion, white blood cell differentiation, microglial activation, arachidonic acid signaling pathways, and...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Psychotic and nonpsychotic mood disorders in autoimmune encephalitis: diagnostic issues and research implications

    Giuseppe Quaranta , Nunzio Bucci , Cristina Toni , Giulio Perugi
    Recent research on autoimmune disorders suggests additional links between systemic and central nervous system (CNS) pathophysiology, among which the identification of antibody-induced limbic encephalitis provided the strongest evidence for the potential involvement of autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of severe mood and psychotic symptoms. In these illnesses, psychiatric symptoms predominate in the initial phase of the disorder in up to 70% of the cases, and they often lead patients to early psychiatric evaluation. For this reason, it is very important to increase the limited knowledge among...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    The role of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies in mood disorders

    Marco Liguori , Mirko Manchia , Leonardo Tondo
    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) possibly plays a causative role in mood disorders. This hypothesis originated with studies on the beneficial effect of valproate in mania and as a mood stabilizer. Since valproate is known for its action in increasing the level of GABA, it was indirectly suggested that decreasing levels of GABA were responsible for mood alterations. To identify factors causing the decreased levels of GABA, studies have concentrated on the activity of the enzyme L-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), which catalyzes the transformation of glutamate to GABA, as a decreasing...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    The role of neuroinflammation in juvenile bipolar disorder

    Giulia Serra , Lavinia De Chiara , Ciro Marangoni , Gianni L. Faedda
    A pathophysiological relationship has been reported between inflammatory processes, decreased levels of neurotrophins, increased oxidative stress and psychiatric disorders in both juvenile and adult ages. Moreover, this relationship remains unclear in juvenile bipolar disorder (BD). We performed a systematic literature review of studies reporting measurements of inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or neurotrophins in juvenile and young adult subjects with BD. Concordant findings showed that inflammatory markers are increased since the earlier stages of BD. A positive correlation...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorders

    Georgios D. Kotzalidis , Elisa Ambrosi , Alessio Simonetti , Ilaria Cuomo , Antonio Del Casale , Matteo Caloro , Valeria Savoja , Chiara Rapinesi
    Recent literature based on peripheral immunity findings speculated that neuroinflammation, with its connection to microglial activation, is linked to bipolar disorder. The endorsement of the neuroinflammatory hypotheses of bipolar disorder requires the demonstration of causality, which requires longitudinal studies. We aimed to review the evidence for neuroinflammation as a pathogenic mechanism of the bipolar disorder. We carried out a hyper inclusive PubMed search using all appropriate neuroinflammation‑related terms and crossed them with bipolar disorder‑related terms. The search produced...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Review

    Neuroinflammatory modulators of oligodendrogenesis

    Ana Armada-Moreira , Filipa F. Ribeiro , Ana M. Sebastião , Sara Xapelli
    Oligodendrocytes are key neural cells that are responsible for producing myelin sheaths that wrap around neuronal axons in the central nervous system. Myelin is essential to insulate neurons and maintain a fast and saltatory propagation of action potentials along the axon. However, oligodendrocytes are very susceptible to damage, and thus demyelination may arise from a brain lesion or a neurodegenerative disorder. Consequently, demyelination produces a loss of axonal insulation leading to sensory or motor neuron failure. During adulthood, there are two main sources of oligodendrocytes:...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Review

    Progress in mechanisms of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

    Shao-Min Li , Ming-Shu Mo , Ping-Yi Xu
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Currently, only two classes of drugs, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and memantine are approved. AChEIs ameliorate cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in AD patients through activation of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors by increased synaptic ACh levels and also have protective effects against glutamate neurotoxicity and inflammation, whereas memantine appears to mainly protect against excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration. Herein, we review the pharmacologic properties of the available AChEIs and memantine,...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Review

    The endonuclease VIII-like proteins: new targets in the treatment of ischemic stroke?

    Long-Xiu Yang , Wei Wang , Xiao Zhang , Qi Zhu , Qing Zhao , Gang Zhao
    Oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage is one of the major causes of neuronal injury in ischemia. The endonuclease VIII-like (NEIL) DNA glycosylases have a specific role in recognition and removal of oxidative DNA damage. The NEIL family includes NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3, that differ in substrate specificity, catalytic efficiency, and subcellular/tissue distribution. This opens for a situation-dependent phenotype in their absence. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge on the involvement of the NEILs in ischemic stroke and discuss the potential of these enzymes to serve...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Case Report

    Isolated neurosarcoidosis presenting with recurrent hydrocephalus

    Frederick L. Hitti , Benjamin C. Kennedy , Yazmin Odia , Claire S. Riley , Sameer A. Sheth
    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory process that is characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. This protean disease may afflict nearly any organ system, including the central nervous system. Here, we present a case of isolated neurosarcoidosis that initially presented with hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. The patient’s hydrocephalus recurred multiple times and required two additional shunt placements over the 3‑year course of her illness. Due to the lack of systemic involvement, sarcoidosis was only diagnosed after a tissue biopsy of a Cauda equine...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Case Report

    Angioplasty and stenting for a young stroke patient diagnosed as cerebrovascular fibromuscular dysplasia

    Jia-Ping Xu , Yong-Jun Cao , Guo-Dong Xiao , Chun-Yuan Zhang , Ji-Jun Shi
    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a noninflammatory, nonatherosclerotic, and multifocal vascular disease, commonly involving the cerebral and renal arteries. Cerebrovascular stenosis and spontaneous dissection resulting from cerebrovascular FMD (cFMD) is one of the important causes of young stroke. Here, we reported the case of cFMD in a 28-year-old male patient with stroke. Digital subtraction angiogram demonstrated a dissecting aneurysm in the carotid artery and multiple stenoses in both vertebral arteries. Endovascular angioplasty with balloon predilation and stenting was successfully...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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