Articles
  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies targeting the voltage-gated potassium channel complex: immunobiology and clinical characteristics

    Domenico Plantone , Rosaria Renna , Tatiana Koudriavtseva
    Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) represent a group of tetrameric signaling proteins with several functions, including modulation of neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. Moreover, VGKCs give a key contribution to the generation of the action potential. VGKCs are complexed with other neuronal proteins, and it is now widely known that serum autoantibodies directed against VGKCs are actually directed against the potassium channel subunits only in a minority of patients. By contrast, these autoantibodies more commonly target three proteins that are complexed with...
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Encephalitis associated with autoantibody binding to the anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor: immunopathogenesis, mechanisms, and clinical characteristics

    Adhasit Nawa-apisak , Saharat Aungsumart , Metha Apiwattanakul
    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has been increasingly recognized in recent years. This condition may be the most common cause of antibody-mediated encephalitis worldwide. The majority of patients are young at the time of onset, female, and present with an acute-to-subacute onset of behavioral changes followed by seizure, abnormal movement, autonomic dysfunction, and finally hypoventilation with coma if left untreated. The immunopathogenesis of this disease may be due to antibody-mediated internalization of NMDARs from synapses, which results in the dysfunction of...
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Encephalitis associated with autoantibodies binding to γ-aminobutyric acid-A, γ-aminobutyric acid-B and glycine receptors: immunopathogenic mechanisms and clinical characteristics

    Amy May Lin Quek , Orna O'Toole
    Recent, discoveries of neural antibodies have facilitated the diagnosis of immune-mediated, immunotherapy-responsive neurologic disorders. Antibodies that target inhibitory central nervous system receptors, such as γ-aminobutyric acid-B, γ-aminobutyric acid-A, and glycine receptors, disrupt inhibitory regulatory synaptic functions, and lead to neuronal hyperexcitability. The myriad of neurologic, manifestations associated with these antibodies includes seizures, encephalopathy, muscle rigidity and stiffness. This article provides a review of the immunopathogenic mechanisms and the clinical...
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016
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  • Review

    Immunotherapeutic strategies for glioma treatment

    George A. Alexiou , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor. Despite intensive clinical investigation and several novel therapeutic approaches, the median survival continues to remain poor and it is usually in the range of fifteen months. Immunotherapy is a beacon of hope for cancer treatment and offers a different approach against glioma. Various approaches have been used, such as dendritic cell based vaccines, peptide vaccines, T-cell-based therapies and immune checkpoint blockade with promising results. This paper provided an overview of the results of the most exciting immune...
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016
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  • Original Article

    Assessment of health-related quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis living in the Fars province of Iran

    Nahid Ashjazadeh , Habib Hadianfard , Soodabe Feridoni , Elham Farjam
    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) living in the Fars province of Iran. Methods: A total of 100 patients with clinically definite MS who were referred to a clinic affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were eligible to participate in this study. The HRQoL was evaluated using a Persian version of the Medical Outcomes software. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, MANOVA, ANOVA and an independent t-test. Results: Patient variables in this sample included the following: 80%...
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016
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  • Case Report

    Bilateral facial weakness following dengue fever

    Samir Patel , Rajeev Ranjan , Ritu Verma , C. S. Agrawal , Pooja Gupta
    Dengue is highly endemic in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Neurological complications of dengue infection are widespread and may involve almost all parts of nervous system through various pathogenic mechanisms. It may be related to neurotropism, systemic complications or post-infectious. We report a case of a 30-year-old male who developed bilateral facial weakness after dengue fever.
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016
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  • Case Report

    Disc herniation or ependymoma recurrence?

    Aristeidis H. Katsanos , Ioannis Sarmas , Sotirios Giannopoulos , Sigliti-Henrietta Pelidou , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    We present a 41-year-old female with previous history of ependymoma who underwent gross-total resection of the tumor and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt placement, followed by radiotherapy. Three years later a small enhancing area was noted in the left anterolateral spinal cord at the level of the C1-C2 vertebrae and a left posterior-lateral herniated disk in the C5-C6 level which was not present in the earlier MRI. This is a unique case, in which herniated disk pressuring effects needed to be differentiated from both radiation-induced treatment effect and tumor recurrence.
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016
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