Articles
  • Review

    Human leukocyte antigens-immunogenetics of neuromyelitis optica or Devic's disease and the impact on the immunopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment: a critical review

    Maria Panos Gontika , Maria Constantinos Anagnostouli
    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder, predominantly characterized by severe optic neuritis, transverse myelitis and the high level of antibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4) or NMO-immunoglobulin G (IgG). Researches trying to correlate NMO with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles took place in a limited extend in the last few years. Nevertheless, it has become clear that HLAs play a crucial role in the genetic risk of NMO, in the understanding of its pathogenesis and the differential diagnosis mainly from multiple sclerosis (MS), and also from other...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Review

    Targeting glioma stem cells via the Hedgehog signaling pathway

    Yang Liu , Xing Liu , Ling-Chao Chen , Wen-Zhong Du , Yu-Qiong Cui , Xing-Yin Piao , Yong-Li Li , Chuan-Lu Jiang
    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Gliomas are among the most devastating tumor types, and current clinical therapies are unsatisfactory. Recent reports revealed the importance of glioma-propagating cells in the malignancy of gliomas. These cells, also referred to as glioma stem cells (GSCs), share similarities with neural stem cells (NSCs). The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway controls tissue polarity, patterning maintenance, and maintenance of NSCs during embryonic development. Aberrant activation of the Hh pathway resulting from mutation and deregulation has recently...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Review

    Pyroptosis and neurological diseases

    Zhen Xie , Gang Zhao
    Pyroptosis is a new process of programmed cell death, which has been discovered and confirmed in recent years. Its cardinal features include activation of caspase-1 and a massive release of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18), etc. The morphological characteristics, occurrence and regulatory mechanisms of the pyroptosis greatly, differ from other cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necrosis. It has already been proven that pyroptosis participates and plays an important role in a wide range of neuronal diseases. Here, we review the current understanding of the...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Review

    Chronic inflammation drives glioma growth: cellular and molecular factors responsible for an immunosuppressive microenvironment

    Edward T Ha , Joseph P Antonios , Horacio Soto , Robert M Prins , Isaac Yang , Noriyuki Kasahara , Linda M Liau , Carol A Kruse
    This review examines glioma disease initiation, promotion, and progression with a focus on the cell types present within the tumor mass and the molecules responsible for the immunosuppressive microenvironment that are present at each step of the disease. The cell types and molecules present also correlate with the grade of malignancy. An overall "type 2" chronic inflammatory microenvironment develops that facilitates glioma promotion and contributes to the neo-vascularization characteristic of gliomas. An immunosuppressive microenvironment shields the tumor mass from clearance by the...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Original Article

    Effect of conduction block in classification and prognosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Yu-Chen Wang , Guo-Dong Feng , Jing Wang , Xue-Dong Liu , Gang Zhao
    Aim: The aim was to investigate the electro-physiological characteristics in disease progression of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and observe the effect of conduction block (CB) in classification and severity of the disease. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-four patients with GBS were divided into acute inflammatory demyelinating poly-neuropathy (AIDP) group, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) group and equivocal group according to their electro-physiological results and then reclassificated after electro-physiological review. All of the patients were followed for 6 months since their...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Original Article

    A novel method for evaluating microglial activation using ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 staining: cell body to cell size ratio

    Iris Bertha Hovens , Csaba Nyakas , Regien Geertruida Schoemaker
    Aim: The aim was to validate a newly developed methodology of semi-automatic image analysis to analyze microglial morphology as marker for microglial activation in ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 (IBA-1) stained brain sections. Methods: The novel method was compared to currently used analysis methods, visual characterization of activation stage and optical density measurement, in brain sections of young and aged rats that had undergone surgery or remained naοve. Results: The cell body to cell size ratio of microglia was strongly correlated to the visual characterization activation...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Case Report

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome due to seronegative systemic lupus erythematosus

    Sawan Verma , Irfan Yousuf , Mushtaq Ahmad Wani , Ravouf Asimi , Sheikh Saleem , Mudasir Mushtaq , Irfan Shah , Skeikh Nawaz , Riyaz Ahmad Daga
    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurotoxic state coupled with a unique computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance. Recognized in the setting of a number of complex conditions (preeclampsia/eclampsia, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, organ transplantation, autoimmune disease and high-dose chemotherapy) in the imaging, clinical and laboratory features of this toxic state are becoming better elucidated. We are presenting a case of PRES due to seronegative systemic lupus erythematosus, with MRI findings of diffuse vasogenic edema.
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Case Report

    Toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Fan Zeng , Heng Yang , Hua-Dong Zhou , Yan-Jiang Wang
    Toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy is a frequently seen medical condition worldwide; however the lack of specific clinical manifestations and laboratory tests makes it difficult to diagnose. Neuroimaging and medical history are often crucial to diagnosis of this disorder. In this report, a case is presented of a patient suffering from toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy with deteriorating cognition impairment and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, typified by a "sunflower-like" change in T2-weighted imaging. In addition, the pharmacokinetic properties of toluene are...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Case Report

    Malignant middle-cerebral artery territory infarction in tuberculous vasculitis

    Salvadeeswaran Meenakshi-Sundaram , Sundararajan Srinivasan , Somalinga Nagendran Karthik , Suresh Pandi , Alagappan Periyakaruppan , Bharathi Sundar
    Intracranial large vessel involvement is an unusual complication of tuberculous meningitis. The authors report a 39-year-old female presenting with an episode of seizure, followed by rapid decline in sensorium without prominent systemic features. An initial cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed tuberculomata and patchy infarcts. Despite antituberculous therapy, she progressively worsened. A cranial computed tomography scan done following the worsening revealed a massive middle-cerebral artery (MCA) infarct. Unfortunately, the patient died in spite of decompressive craniotomy....
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Case Report

    Primary diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cranial vault

    Shantanu Ghosh , Debabrata Das , Praveen Kumar , Rahul Varshney
    Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cranial vault with extra and intracranial extension in a nonimmunocompromised patient is extremely uncommon. Until date, only limited number of such cases has been reported in the literature and none was the lesion located as a diffuse swelling in the forehead. Imaging of the present case showed in a homogenous contrast enhancement mass involving the scalp of bifrontal supraorbital compartment and intracranial extra axial extension through the frontal bone with extension to the right orbit and right ethmoidal sinus. The intracranial mass was excised along...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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