• Review

    Role of the neuromuscular ultrasound in the diagnostic of the multifocal motor neuropathy

    Antonios Kerasnoudis , Kalliopi Pitarokoili , Min-Suk Yoon
    Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is the one of the most common acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorders of the peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis is based on the distribution pattern of the neurological semiology and the pathological changes of nerve conduction studies (NCS) in classical cases. However, in cases with subtle clinical presentation, an extended diagnostic workup may be needed, such as cerebrospinal fluid examination, laboratory tests, and nerve biopsy. NCS remain nowadays fundamental not only for the diagnosis, but also for the follow-up and measurement of...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Review

    Positron emission tomography imaging in gliomas

    Assimakis Assimakopoulos , Konstantinos Polyzoidis , Chrissa Sioka
    Glioma, the most frequent primary brain tumor in adults, is a highly infiltrative tumor exhibiting resistance to most treatments and associated with short survival of patients. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using various tracers takes advantage of the increased metabolic rate of neoplastic cells, in order to detect tumors and validate the treatment response. The most frequently used PET tracer, the (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is useful during the initial and follow-up assessment of patients with gliomas because it can assist in the selection of the initial biopsy site and...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Review

    Clinicogenetics of Parkinson's disease: a drawing but not completed picture

    Chao-Dong Wang , Piu Chan
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder mainly affecting the population over the age of 60 years. The past decade has seen rapidly emerging data supporting a major importance of genetic factors in the development of PD. Increasing number of large-scale and replicating association studies has facilitated the confirmation of the possible predisposing factors to PD and the selection of genetic variants for risk prediction. While evidences are accumulating that variations within the SNCA, LRRK2, MAPT and GBA genes increase the individuals' vulnerability to PD,...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Review

    Current overview of myasthenia gravis and experience in China

    Jun Guo , Dan Dang , Hong-Zeng Li , Zhu-Yi Li
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an acquired autoimmune disease affecting synaptic transmission via the neuromuscular junction mainly due to the presence of auto-antibodies targeting acetylcholine receptors. Ocular or generalized MG is clinically diagnosed when the extra-ocular muscles or other muscle groups beyond the extra-ocular muscles are involved. MG occurs in both sexes at any ages from all races but shows a wide variability in incidence and prevalence. Differences in clinical phenotypes of MG patients between West and East countries have been observed. Herein, we review the current concept...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Original Article

    Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in glioblastoma

    George A Alexiou , Evrysthenis Vartholomatos , Panagiota Zagorianakou , Spyridon Voulgaris
    Aim: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has prognostic value in patients with a variety of cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of NLR in patients with glioblastoma. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on patients receiving surgery for glioblastoma. Preoperative NLR was recorded and correlated with other prognostic factors and survival. Results: Fifty‑one patients were included in the study. The mean NLR ratio was 6.7 ± 4.6. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, an NLR cut‑off value of 4.7 was determined to best predict...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Original Article

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 is upregulated in the endothelium and tumor cells in melanoma brain metastasis

    Patrick N Harter , Anna-Eva Blank , Benjamin Weide , Rudi Beschorner , Simon Bernatz , Peter Baumgarten , Anne K Braczynski , Elke Hattingen , Michael W Ronellenfitsch , Herbert Schwarz , Michel Mittelbronn
    Aim: The cytokine receptor tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9) is mainly considered to be a co-stimulatory activation marker in hematopoietic cells. Several preclinical models have shown a dramatic beneficial effect of treatment approaches targeting TNFRSF9 with agonistic antibodies. However, preliminary clinical phase I/II studies were stopped after the occurrence of several severe deleterious side effects. In a previous study, it was demonstrated that TNFRSF9 was strongly expressed by reactive astrocytes in primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, but was...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Original Article

    Assessment of cognitive function in patients with myasthenia gravis

    Sherifa A Hamed , Ahmad H Youssef , Mohamad A Abd ElHameed , Mohamed F Mohamed , Amal M Elattar
    Aim: During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in the evaluation of cognitive function in myasthenia gravis (MG), neuromuscular transmission disorder caused by acetylcholine receptor auto-antibodies. However, the results of previous studies on cognition and MG are inconsistent and controversial. This study aimed to evaluate cognition in patients with mild/moderate grades of MG. Methods: This study included 20 patients with MG with a mean age of 28.45 ± 8.89 years and duration of illness of 3.52 ± 1.15 years. Cognition was tested using a sensitive battery of psychometric...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Original Article

    Distinctive distribution of lymphocytes in unruptured and previously untreated brain arteriovenous malformation

    Yi Guo , Tarik Tihan , Helen Kim , Christopher Hess , Michael T Lawton , William L Young , Yuan-Li Zhao , Hua Su
    Aim: To test the hypothesis that lymphocyte infiltration in brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is not associated with iron deposition (indicator of micro-hemorrhage). Methods: Sections of unruptured, previously untreated bAVM specimens (n = 19) were stained immunohistochemically for T-lymphocytes (CD3+), B-lymphocytes (CD20+), plasma cells (CD138+) and macrophages (CD68+). Iron deposition was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin and Prussian blue stains. Superficial temporal arteries (STA) were used as control. Results: Both T‑lymphocytes and macrophages were present in unruptured,...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Original Article

    Increased circulating rather than spinal cytokines accompany chronic pain behaviors in experimental bone cancer and arthritis

    Line Pourtau , Amarins Nieske Heeringa , Carole Rovère , Agnès Aubert , Jean-Louis Nahon , Sylvain Miraux , Jan Pieter Konsman
    Aim: Peripheral cytokines contribute to arthritis and bone cancer pain through sensory nerve actions. However, increased spinal cytokine and glial filament expression, coined neuroinflammation, has also been proposed to play a part in chronic pain. Therefore, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia and circulating cytokines were compared in murine arthritis and bone cancer models in relationship to behavioral signs of pain. Methods: Exploratory behaviors were studied after intra‑articular complete Freund’s adjuvant or bone intramedullary sarcoma cell injection. Nervous tissue and blood cytokine...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Case Report

    Systemic non-albicans infections presented as meningitis in chronic hepatitis B patient: a case report

    Wen-Jing Lv , Hui Bu , Jun-Ying He , Ran-Ran Sun , Yue-Li Zou
    Non-albicans candida meningitis is a relatively rare disease, with nonspecific clinical manifestation, which makes the misdiagnosis occur sometimes, especially in the early stage of the disease. Abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids, central vein cannulas, senility, big operation, malignancy, and total parenteral alimentation were all the susceptible factors of non-albicans candida infection. We present a case of this type of non-albicans infection in a 42-year-old woman who was early misdiagnosed as tuberculous meningitis and was treated with antibiotics and antituberculosis...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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