Editor's Picks
  • Case Report|Open Access

    Thymoma-associated panencephalitis: a newly emerging paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome

    Lynda Adaobi Nwabuobi , Jacob Christian Pellinen , Thomas Mark Wisniewski
    Recently, a few case reports of thymoma-associated panencephalitis (TAPE) have brought to light a disease entity that has not been fully characterized. Literature review of TAPE reveals an array of associated neuronal antibodies, with varied responses to thymomectomy with or without immunotherapy. This report describes a case of TAPE and proposes that the GABAA receptor antibody is a potential target antigen driving the immune process in this disease entity. Treatment-wise, early thymomectomy consistently improves the overall course of...
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017
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  • Review|Open Access

    The association between human cytomegalovirus and glioblastomas: a review

    Christian B. Hochhalter , Christopher Carr , Brannan E. O’Neill , Marcus L. Ware , Michael J. Strong
    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was reported in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) over a decade ago and this finding has the potential to increase our understanding of the disease and it offers an alternative tumor-specific therapeutic target. Due of this promise, there is a fair amount of time, energy and money being directed towards understanding and utilizing this connection for eventual therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, the association between GBM and HCMV remains controversial. Several studies have reported conflicting results, further...
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Low antioxidant status of patients with central nervous system infections

    Jia Liu , Feng Tan , Min Li , Huan Yi , Li Xu , Xuan Wang , Xiu-Feng Zhong , Fu-Hua Peng
    Aim: The pathogenesis of central nervous system infections (CNSI) has not been fully understood; some studies indicated that reactive oxygen species may induce brain damage. The aim of our study was to investigate serum antioxidant status in patients with CNSI. Methods: The serum levels of uric acid (UA), bilirubin and albumin of 548 individuals were enrolled in our study, comprising of 114 healthy controls (HC) and 434 patients with five different kinds of CNSI, which including viral meningitis and/or meningoencephalitis, cysticercosis of...
    Published on: 15 Dec 2016
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neuro-oncogenesis and the adult human sub-ventricular zone in high grade glioma

    Sara G. M. Piccirillo
    The review focuses on the role of the sub-ventricular zone, the most well characterized germinal region of adult brain, in the commonest and most aggressive brain tumor in adults, i.e. high grade glioma (HGG). Recent findings from animal models and samples isolated from HGG patients are reviewed here with a focus on the cancer stem cell hypothesis and evolutionary trajectories of tumor growth in patients. The implications of these studies on the development of novel therapeutic approaches aimed at improving HGG patient survival and the need...
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016
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  • Guidelines|Open Access

    China guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of myasthenia gravis

    Zhu-Yi Li
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a typical autoimmune disease mediated by auto-antibodies, immune cells and complement systems at the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction. Over 80 % of MG patients have anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody. This guideline will describe the clinical manifestations and classification, laboratory examinations, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016
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  • Review|Open Access

    Chronic inflammation drives glioma growth: cellular and molecular factors responsible for an immunosuppressive microenvironment

    Edward T Ha , Joseph P Antonios , Horacio Soto , Robert M Prins , Isaac Yang , Noriyuki Kasahara , Linda M Liau , Carol A Kruse
    This review examines glioma disease initiation, promotion, and progression with a focus on the cell types present within the tumor mass and the molecules responsible for the immunosuppressive microenvironment that are present at each step of the disease. The cell types and molecules present also correlate with the grade of malignancy. An overall "type 2" chronic inflammatory microenvironment develops that facilitates glioma promotion and contributes to the neo-vascularization characteristic of gliomas. An immunosuppressive microenvironment...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    The M1/M2 immune polarization concept in microglia: a fair transfer?

    Michel Mittelbronn
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014
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