• Review|Open Access

    CAR-T cell therapy in neuro-oncology: applications and toxicity

    Akanksha Sharma, Gustavo De Leon, Alyx Porter, Marie F Grill, Allison Rosenthal, Christine E Brown, Kristin Swanson, Maciej M Mrugala
    A new era for cancer treatment has been ushered in with the field of cancer immunotherapy. After initial success with systemic malignancies, several of these promising treatments are being investigated for efficacy with primary and secondary brain tumors. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are being studied, both with systemic infusion and direct administration to the tumor and into the cerebrospinal fluid, with promising early results. Systemic CAR-T treatment can have serious systemic and neurological toxicities that are important for the practicing neurologist and neuro-oncologist... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:43. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.51
    Published on: 18 Oct 2018  | Viewed:5  | Downloaded:0
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  • Review|Open Access

    It takes two: potential therapies and insights involving microglia and macrophages in glioblastoma

    John Choi, Nicholas Mai, Christopher Jackson, Zineb Belcaid, Michael Lim
    Microglia and macrophages, two myeloid cell lineages with different origins, make up the majority of immune cells present in glioblastoma (GBM). However, much of the literature does not distinguish between microglia and macrophages, despite a growing body of evidence that demonstrates key structural and functional differences between the cell types. Furthermore, the current M1/M2 paradigm used to sub-classify microglia and macrophages has proven to be incomplete at best, with the growing amount of in vivo and genomic data incompatible with this dichotomy. Finally, a number of studies have... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:42. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.47
    Published on: 18 Oct 2018  | Viewed:34  | Downloaded:2
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Changes in microglia activity of rat brain induced by Macrovipera lebetina obtusa venom

    Anna A. Darbinyan, Marina V. Antonyan, Hasmik R. Koshatashyan, Susanna S. Gevorgyan, Hovhannes V. Arestakesyan, Zaruhi I. Karabekian, Naira M. Ayvazyan, Armen V. Voskanyan
    Aims: The microglia activity of rat brain following exposure of the Macrovipera lebetina obtusa venom was investigated. Methods: Histochemical analysis of brain microcirculatory bed staining by Ca2+ ATPase method for variable doses after intraperitoneal injections given for different time periods was used. The hemorrhagic activity of snake venom metalloproteinases was tested. Toxicological data were calculated using Behrens and Miller-Tainter methods. Surface, size of brain microglial cells (MGCs) and staining intensity were quantified using ImageJ software. Results: The vasodestructive... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:41. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.33
    Published on: 29 Sep 2018  | Viewed:279  | Downloaded:9
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  • Review|Open Access

    Presynaptic mechanisms at prefrontal synapses involved in persistent pain

    Hiroki Toyoda
    The cumulative evidence from animal and human studies revealed that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays essential roles in pain sensation and persistent pain. It has been evident in the ACC synapses of animals that changes in both the presynaptic and postsynaptic function are caused by peripheral nerve injury. Thus far, postsynaptic changes in the ACC following nerve injury have been primarily studied to understand the mechanisms of chronic pain. In recent years, studies focusing on the presynaptic mechanisms in chronic pain have been progressively increased. In this review, I will... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:40. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.48
    Published on: 29 Sep 2018  | Viewed:138  | Downloaded:5
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Azygos anterior cerebral artery aneurysm with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Dhiman Chowdhury, Nazmin Ahmed, Bipin Chaurasia, Kanak Kanti Barua
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:39. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.37
    Published on: 28 Sep 2018  | Viewed:238  | Downloaded:28
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Predictors of severity and outcome and roles of intravenous thrombolysis and biomarkers in first ischemic stroke

    Kartick Chandra Ghosh, Ramesh Bhattacharya, Saikat Ghosh, Manoj Mahata, Sarbajit Das, Suman Das, Gourango Prosad Mondal
    Aim: Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability. The proportion of patients receiving recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is low in our country. Biomarkers to identify patients at risk of severe disease, and guide treatment and prognosis would be valuable. This article aims to identify the factors that can independently prognosticate the acute phase of ischemic stroke. Methods: All patients with the first episode of ischemic stroke admitted to the Neurology Department between 1st December 2017 to 31st March 2018 were included in this pilot study. Stroke severity was... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:38. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.28
    Published on: 27 Sep 2018  | Viewed:214  | Downloaded:15
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  • Meeting Abstracts|Open Access

    2018 Mental Health and Neurology Conference

    Moh Hasan Machfoed
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:37. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.45
    Published on: 25 Sep 2018  | Viewed:184  | Downloaded:8
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  • Review|Open Access

    Glioma associated microglia/macrophages, a potential pharmacological target to promote antitumor inflammatory immune response in the treatment of glioblastoma

    Cinzia Dello Russo, Natalia Cappoli
    Glioma associated microglia/macrophages (GAMs) constitute the largest proportion of glioma infiltrating cells, particularly in high grade tumors (i.e., glioblastoma). Once inside the tumors, GAMs usually acquire a specific phenotype of activation that favors tumor growth, angiogenesis and promotes the invasion of normal brain parenchyma. Therefore, treatments that limit or prevent GAMs’ recruitment at the tumor site or modulate their immune activation promoting antitumor activities are expected to exert beneficial effects in glioblastoma. In the present paper, we aim at the revision of... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:36. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.42
    Published on: 20 Sep 2018  | Viewed:433  | Downloaded:45
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  • Erratum|Open Access

    Erratum: Characteristics and predictive biomarkers of drug resistant epilepsy -- study in Georgia

    Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation Editorial Office
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:35. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.54
    Published on: 6 Sep 2018  | Viewed:200  | Downloaded:12
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    The novel-molecule T11TS facilitated arousal of glioma-mediated dormancy of bone-marrow hematopoietic stem-cells

    Somnath Mondal, Ankur Datta, Iman Hazra, Sk Md Omar Faruk, Saibal Moitra, Suhnrita Chaudhuri, Lakshyajeet Nath, Prasanta Kumar Das, Anjan Kumar Basu, Santanu Kumar Tripathi, Swapna Chaudhuri
    Aim: T11TS, a potent anti-gliomagenic glycoprotein, stimulates both peripheral and intracranial immune response. The status of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BMHSCs), the cradle of regeneration of all blood cells, during gliomagenic global immune devastations has not yet been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to delineate the effects of T11TS on immature and mature compartments of hematopoietic machinery. Methods: Flowcytometric analysis of cultured BMHSCs was evaluated for assesing the expression pattern of early hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) markers such as CD34+, Sca-1+, c-kit+... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:34. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.13
    Published on: 30 Aug 2018  | Viewed:522  | Downloaded:18
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    In silico design of novel gold-phosphate containing compounds as selective inhibitors of cathepsin B in neuroinflammation

    Alexsey V. Raevsky, Mohsen Sharifi, Vasily Pinchuk, Andis Klegeris
    Aim: Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by pathological protein aggregates and microglia-driven chronic neuroinflammation. Cathepsin B has been proposed as the potential target for inhibiting adverse activation of microglia and slowing down this neurodegenerative disease. Currently available inhibitors of cathepsin B enzymatic activity are non-selective; therefore, the design and synthesis of novel specific inhibitors could facilitate the development of a new class of anti-Alzheimer medications targeting the neuroinflammatory component of this disease. Methods: We describe molecular... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:33. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.34
    Published on: 27 Aug 2018  | Viewed:286  | Downloaded:32
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  • Review|Open Access

    Systemic therapy in patients with NSCLC with brain metastasis: the emerging role of immunotherapy

    Jiaxin Niu, Junle Zhou, Sara Lindebak, Fade Mahmoud
    Brain metastasis (BM) is very common in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The development of BM remains a serious complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The traditional approach has been largely focusing on local therapy with surgery and/or radiation. New approaches to treat BM in NSCLC are urgently needed to offer safe and effective therapy as well as to preserve neurocognitive function. There has been significant progress in development of systemic therapies to treat advanced NSCLC in recent years. Targeted therapy has been gradually... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:32. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.39
    Published on: 23 Aug 2018  | Viewed:511  | Downloaded:76
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Cerebral fat embolism syndrome after long bone fracture due to traffic accident: a case report

    Xing-Yong Chen, Jian-Ming Fan, Ming-Feng Deng, Ting Jiang, Feng Luo
    Cerebral fat embolism syndrome (CFES) is an uncommon but serious complication of long bone fracture. We reported a 19-year-old male patient who sustained CFES due to multiple limbs long bone fractures after a traffic accident injury. He gradually developed into coma within 24 h after his injury. The arterial blood gas analyses were normal. There was a small amount of gas in the right pleural cavity on the thoracic computed tomography (CT). Although there were no remarkable intracranial abnormalities on the initial brain CT findings, the typical brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:31. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.23
    Published on: 1 Aug 2018  | Viewed:394  | Downloaded:25
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  • Review|Open Access

    Therapeutic approach targeting apolipoprotein E binding region and low-density lipoprotein receptor for Alzheimer’s disease

    Michael Leon, Darrell Sawmiller, Brian Giunta, Jun Tan
    Approximately 13% of the population over the age of 65 years is estimated to have AD. The total number of cases is expected to increase over the coming decades. The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype is the greatest genetic determinant for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) development. The ApoE4 allele increases the risk of AD by 4 to 14 fold while the ApoE2 allele has an opposing effect; decreasing risk. Indeed many studies have demonstrated that carriers of the ApoE2 allele are associated with greater likelihood of survival to advanced age, superior verbal learning ability in advanced age, and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:30. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.26
    Published on: 31 Jul 2018  | Viewed:545  | Downloaded:27
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  • Review|Open Access

    Immunotherapy for pediatric brain tumors

    Daniel B. Landi, Eric M. Thompson, David M. Ashley
    Immunotherapy, while effective against lymphoid cancers and some solid tumors, has shown less benefit against pediatric brain tumors. Tumor heterogeneity, a suppressive immune microenvironment, and the blood-brain barrier have the potential to diminish any immune-based approach and limit efficacy. More importantly, most pediatric brain tumors are immunologically quiescent, stemming from a low mutational burden. This review focuses on innate vs. adaptive immunotherapeutic approaches and describes how the immunologic context of pediatric brain tumors can help identify well-suited... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:29. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.35
    Published on: 23 Jul 2018  | Viewed:1680  | Downloaded:142
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Streptococcus gallolyticus meningocephalitis in adults: the first case report in China

    Yue-Man Dai, Min Zhao, Hong-Ji Lu, Li-Xin Wan
    We report on the first case of a Streptococcus gallolyticus meningocephalitis in China. The bacterium was first isolated from the patient’s cerebrospinal fluid and has so far not been associated with human infections of the central nervous system. We hope our case report can give some references for the diagnosis and treatment of the Streptococcus gallolyticus meningocephalitis in China. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:28. | doi:10.20517//2347-8659.2018.09
    Published on: 16 Jul 2018  | Viewed:912  | Downloaded:21
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  • Review|Open Access

    Photodynamic therapy mediated immune therapy of brain tumors

    Henry Hirschberg, Kristian Berg, Qian Peng
    Photodynamic therapy of tumors requires the topical, systemic or oral administration of a photosensitizing compound,illumination of the tumor area by light of a specific wavelength and the presence of oxygen. Light activation of the photosensitizer transfers energy to molecular oxygen creating singlet oxygen, a highly reactive and toxic species that rapidly reacts with cellular components causing oxidative damage, ultimately leading to cell death. Tumor destruction caused by photodynamic therapy is not only a result of direct tumor cell toxicity via the generation of reactive oxygen species... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:27. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.31
    Published on: 10 Jul 2018  | Viewed:1394  | Downloaded:79
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  • Technical Note|Open Access

    Classification of brain tumor using devernay sub-pixel edge detection and k-nearest neighbours methodology

    Ayush Arora, Ritesh Kumar, Shubham Tiwari, Mysore Shwetha, Selvam Venkatesan, Ramesh Babu
    Any disease can be treated only once it is imaged, detected and classified. This paper proposes a set of algorithms for classification of a brain tumor with better accuracy and efficiency. The proposal uses a JPEG format of the DICOM image fed into three stages namely pre-processing, segmentation using sub-pixel edge detection method and using the nearest neighbor methodology for the detection and differentiation of benign and malignant tumors. Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:26. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.11
    Published on: 19 Jun 2018  | Viewed:739  | Downloaded:31
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  • Review|Open Access

    A concise review of immunotherapy for glioblastoma

    Omer Sager, Ferrat Dincoglan, Selcuk Demiral, Bora Uysal, Hakan Gamsiz, Bahar Dirican, Murat Beyzadeoglu
    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumors in adults with a universally poor prognosis despite multimodal management including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Among the novel therapeutic strategies, immunotherapy deserves particular attention with its potential to evoke biologic response and harness the host immune system. Considerable success achieved for other tumors has elicited great enthusiasm and prompted research on immunotherapy for GB. While the central nervous system has traditionally been thought of as an immune-privileged site,... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:25. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.12
    Published on: 15 Jun 2018  | Viewed:864  | Downloaded:119
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Commentary on “Depression severity and its predictors among multiple sclerosis patients in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study”

    Thomas Müller
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:23. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.27
    Published on: 7 Jun 2018  | Viewed:440  | Downloaded:24
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Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation ISSN 2349-6142 (Online), ISSN 2347-8659 (Print)
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