• Review|Open Access

    Neurological manifestations in Fabry disease

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks, Yara Dadalti Fragoso
    Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, progressive, multisystem and highly debilitating disease. FD is an X-linked lysosome storage disorder that results in α-galactosidase A deficiency. The subsequent accumulation of glycosphingolipids is more evident in vascular endothelium and smooth-muscle cells. The resulting effect of the deposition is generalized inflammation and vasculopathy, which can also affect the central and peripheral nervous system. FD progresses with kidney dysfunction, angiokeratoma of the skin, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular events and neurological disorders. In the present... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:228-31. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.36
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:41081  | Downloaded:5059
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Detection of Epstein-Barr virus infection subtype in patients with multiple sclerosis by indirect immunofluorescence assay

    Shan-Chao Zhang, Lei Liu, Rui-Jin Wang, Hou-Zhen Tuo, Yan-Jun Guo, Li Yi, De-Xin Wang, Jia-Wei Wang
    Aim: The aim was to investigate the infectious conditions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 20 patients with MS and 20 with other neurological diseases (OND) were tested with indirect immunofluorescence for anti-EBV capsid antigen (EBV-CA) immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG affinity for anti-EBV-CA, anti-EBV-CA immunoglobulin M (IgM), anti-EBV early antigen (EBV-EA) IgG and anti-EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) IgG. According to the pattern of antibodies in CSF, infection rates of acute, chronic, primary, recurrent, and past... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:24-8. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135572
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:16067  | Downloaded:3567
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Isolated palatal palsy: a clinical rarity

    Harpreet Singh, Rekha Mathur, Parminder Kaur
    Acquired isolated palatal palsy is a rare disease. It is commonly seen in children. It usually presents with acute onset nasal regurgitation of fluids, rhinolalia, and palatal asymmetry. Many causes of this disease, such as infections, trauma, tumor, and brainstem lesions, etc., have been reported. However, the most plausible explanation is immunological/ischemic damage to the affected nerve. After ruling out major potential causes of this disease, the damage is often considered to be idiopathic in nature. This disease has a benign self‑limiting course with excellent recovery. In accordance... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:190-2. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153981
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:18081  | Downloaded:1556
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  • Review|Open Access

    Current overview of myasthenia gravis and experience in China

    Jun Guo, Dan Dang, Hong-Zeng Li, Zhu-Yi Li
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an acquired autoimmune disease affecting synaptic transmission via the neuromuscular junction mainly due to the presence of auto-antibodies targeting acetylcholine receptors. Ocular or generalized MG is clinically diagnosed when the extra-ocular muscles or other muscle groups beyond the extra-ocular muscles are involved. MG occurs in both sexes at any ages from all races but shows a wide variability in incidence and prevalence. Differences in clinical phenotypes of MG patients between West and East countries have been observed. Herein, we review the current concept... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:127-30. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143664
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:20891  | Downloaded:1194
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens|Open Access

    Diagnostic algorithms in autoimmune encephalitis

    Valentina Damato
    Over the past decade the discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with neuronal surface antibodies had changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously mischaracterized. Recognition of clinical syndromes, consistent methods of diagnosis, and early targeted immunotherapy can lead to a favorable outcome in diseases that may be associated with significant disability or death if left untreated. Here the conditions associated with neuronal surface antibodies are briefly reviewed, some general aspects of these syndromes are considered and guidelines that... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:93-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.43
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016  | Viewed:21179  | Downloaded:1051
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    On the need to unify neuroscience and physics

    Maurits van den Noort, Sabina Lim, Peggy Bosch
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:271-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.55
    Published on: 26 Dec 2016  | Viewed:8269  | Downloaded:1015
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Assessment of cognitive function in patients with myasthenia gravis

    Sherifa A. Hamed, Ahmad H. Youssef, Mohamad A. Abd ElHameed, Mohamed F. Mohamed, Amal M. Elattar
    Aim: During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in the evaluation of cognitive function in myasthenia gravis (MG), neuromuscular transmission disorder caused by acetylcholine receptor auto-antibodies. However, the results of previous studies on cognition and MG are inconsistent and controversial. This study aimed to evaluate cognition in patients with mild/moderate grades of MG. Methods: This study included 20 patients with MG with a mean age of 28.45 ± 8.89 years and duration of illness of 3.52 ± 1.15 years. Cognition was tested using a sensitive battery of psychometric... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:141-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143671
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:11404  | Downloaded:923
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    A novel method for evaluating microglial activation using ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 staining: cell body to cell size ratio

    Iris Bertha Hovens, Csaba Nyakas, Regien Geertruida Schoemaker
    Aim: The aim was to validate a newly developed methodology of semi-automatic image analysis to analyze microglial morphology as marker for microglial activation in ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 (IBA-1) stained brain sections. Methods: The novel method was compared to currently used analysis methods, visual characterization of activation stage and optical density measurement, in brain sections of young and aged rats that had undergone surgery or remained naοve. Results: The cell body to cell size ratio of microglia was strongly correlated to the visual characterization activation... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:82-8. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139719
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:22693  | Downloaded:855
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens|Open Access

    Neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies targeting the voltage-gated potassium channel complex: immunobiology and clinical characteristics

    Domenico Plantone, Rosaria Renna, Tatiana Koudriavtseva
    Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) represent a group of tetrameric signaling proteins with several functions, including modulation of neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. Moreover, VGKCs give a key contribution to the generation of the action potential. VGKCs are complexed with other neuronal proteins, and it is now widely known that serum autoantibodies directed against VGKCs are actually directed against the potassium channel subunits only in a minority of patients. By contrast, these autoantibodies more commonly target three proteins that are complexed with... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:69-78. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.169883
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016  | Viewed:44031  | Downloaded:784
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  • Review|Open Access

    Necroptosis: a new link between cell death and inflammation

    Yuan-Hang Pan, Xun-Yuan Liu, Jia-Qiang Liu, Qian Liu, Yang Yang, Jia-Lei Yang, Xiu-Fen Zhang, Yin Wu, Ya-Zhou Wang
    Necroptosis is a type of newly identified cell death induced by apoptotic stimuli under conditions where apoptotic execution is prevented. Studies over the past 10 years have revealed the molecular mechanism of necroptosis and challenged the old conception that necrosis is un-programmed. Recently, more and more data have emerged suggesting a close association between necroptosis and inflammation. In this review, the authors summarized the current knowledge of the mechanism of necroptosis, focusing on tumour necrosis factor α induced necroptosis and the roles of necroptosis in regulating... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:156-60. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.59
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016  | Viewed:25657  | Downloaded:751
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens|Open Access

    Autoimmune encephalopathies in children: diagnostic clues and therapeutic challenges

    Giorgia Olivieri, Ilaria Contaldo, Gloria Ferrantini, Elisa Musto, Roberta Scalise, Maria Chiara Stefanini, Domenica Battaglia, Eugenio Mercuri
    Neuronal surface antibody syndromes (NSAS) encompass a variety of disorders associated with “neuronal surface antibodies”. These share clinical and neuroradiological features that pose challenges related to their recognition and treatment. Recent epidemiological studies show a clear predominance for the glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in both adults and pediatric population. Despite this, the overall NSAS’s incidence remains underestimated, and diagnosis persists to be not always easy to achieve. Based on current literature data, in this paper the authors propose a... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:147-55. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.09
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016  | Viewed:16586  | Downloaded:712
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Fan Zeng, Heng Yang, Hua-Dong Zhou, Yan-Jiang Wang
    Toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy is a frequently seen medical condition worldwide; however the lack of specific clinical manifestations and laboratory tests makes it difficult to diagnose. Neuroimaging and medical history are often crucial to diagnosis of this disorder. In this report, a case is presented of a patient suffering from toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy with deteriorating cognition impairment and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, typified by a "sunflower-like" change in T2-weighted imaging. In addition, the pharmacokinetic properties of toluene are... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:92-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139721
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:6961  | Downloaded:696
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neuronal toll-like receptors and neuro-immunity in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and stroke

    Carmen D. Rietdijk, Richard J. A. van Wezel, Johan Garssen, Aletta D. Kraneveld
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are part of the innate immune system important for the initiation of proper immune responses towards microorganisms. Neuronal TLRs are considered to be part of the interactions between the immune system and the nervous system, the major sensing systems in mammals. The review entitled “Neuronal toll-like receptors and neuro-immunity in Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and stroke” by Rietdijk et al. offers an overview of the current knowledge about (neuronal) TLRs in neurodegenerative pathologies. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:27-37. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.28
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016  | Viewed:29099  | Downloaded:692
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  • Guidelines|Open Access

    Treatment guidelines of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in China

    Li-Ying Cui, Chuan-Qiang Pu, Xue-Qiang Hu
    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder at the peripheral nervous system, in which the progression is chronic and also remission relapse. In most cases, it is also associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein-cell separation. Electrophysiologically, the peripheral nerve conduction velocity decreases, blocks and characterized as discrete abnormal waveform. Pathologically, there is also multifocal demyelination of myelinated fibers, nerve endometrial edema,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:20-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.14
    Published on: 20 Feb 2017  | Viewed:4719  | Downloaded:690
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  • Review|Open Access

    Chronic inflammation drives glioma growth: cellular and molecular factors responsible for an immunosuppressive microenvironment

    Edward T. Ha, Joseph P. Antonios, Horacio Soto, Robert M. Prins, Isaac Yang, Noriyuki Kasahara, Linda M. Liau, Carol A. Kruse
    This review examines glioma disease initiation, promotion, and progression with a focus on the cell types present within the tumor mass and the molecules responsible for the immunosuppressive microenvironment that are present at each step of the disease. The cell types and molecules present also correlate with the grade of malignancy. An overall "type 2" chronic inflammatory microenvironment develops that facilitates glioma promotion and contributes to the neo-vascularization characteristic of gliomas. An immunosuppressive microenvironment shields the tumor mass from clearance by the... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:66-76. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139717
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:14011  | Downloaded:672
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Progressive muscle cramps with pain as atypical initial presentations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case report

    Cheng-Hui Liu, Chi Zhu, Fan Zeng, Heng Yang, Yan-Jiang Wang
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease and is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative disease that affects both lower and upper motor neurons. Muscle cramps, which are characterized by a sudden, painful, involuntary contraction of muscles, are not rare in ALS patients. However, muscle cramps do not normally present early in ALS and therefore not used for the initial diagnosis of ALS. In this paper the authors present a case of ALS with initial manifestation of progressive painful muscle cramps in the absence of muscle weakness. This case... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:170-2. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.49
    Published on: 20 Jul 2016  | Viewed:21100  | Downloaded:571
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  • Review|Open Access

    Microglia and astroglia: the role of neuroinflammation in lead toxicity and neuronal injury in the brain

    Jin-Tao Liu, Mo-Han Dong, Jie-Qiong Zhang, Ya Bai, Fang Kuang, Liang-Wei Chen
    Lead (Pb2+), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, may widely affect the function of many organs or systems of human beings, especially the brain. Although lead is believed to transport into the brain through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cause direct neuronal injury, growing data have shown that lead exposure could induce brain dysfunction by triggering microglial and astroglial activation, pro‑inflammatory cytokine production and inflammatory response, generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, and finally result in BBB dysfunction and neuronal damage. This review... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:131-7. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.156980
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:16164  | Downloaded:561
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  • Review|Open Access

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation research on reading and dyslexia: a new clinical intervention technique for treating dyslexia?

    Maurits van den Noort, Esli Struys, Peggy Bosch
    Nowadays, several noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), exist. The working mechanism behind TMS is a rapidly changing magnetic field that generates an electric current via electromagnetic induction. When the coil is placed on the scalp, the magnetic field generates a physiological reaction in the underlying neural tissue. The TMS‑induced change in the participant’s behavior is used by researchers to investigate the causal relations between specific brain areas and cognitive functions such as language. A variant of TMS has been developed,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:145-52. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.157967
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:10577  | Downloaded:498
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  • Review|Open Access

    Pyroptosis and neurological diseases

    Zhen Xie, Gang Zhao
    Pyroptosis is a new process of programmed cell death, which has been discovered and confirmed in recent years. Its cardinal features include activation of caspase-1 and a massive release of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18), etc. The morphological characteristics, occurrence and regulatory mechanisms of the pyroptosis greatly, differ from other cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necrosis. It has already been proven that pyroptosis participates and plays an important role in a wide range of neuronal diseases. Here, we review the current understanding of the... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:60-5. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139716
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:7916  | Downloaded:487
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Good recovery of a patient with neurocysticercosis using two antihelminthic drugs combined with steroid

    Xin-Di Li, Hua-Bing Wang, Heng Zhou, An-Na Zhou, Lin Zhao, Yong-Hong Liu, Xiao-Qing Gong, Xing-Hu Zhang
    Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. We present a case report of a neurocysticercosis patient with multiple cysts, who presented with new onset generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A 4-cycle treatment of 2 different antihelminthic drugs with dexamethasone and sodium valproate led to clinical improvement without any adverse reactions. The manifestations of neurocysticercosis are protean and the diagnosis should be considered whenever multiple cysts are seen on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The antihelminthic treatment of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:120-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.51
    Published on: 20 May 2016  | Viewed:7052  | Downloaded:478
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    A review with comments on herpes simplex encephalitis in adults

    Xu-Zheng Zuo, Wei-Ju Tang, Xiu-Ying Chen, Wen Huang
    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can cause permanent injury to the brain parenchyma. As such, it is usually treated as a medical emergency for which correct immediate diagnosis and introduction of specific therapies are critical for survival and prognosis. Here, the authors review the current status of diagnosis and treatments and discuss unsolved issues surrounding therapeutic interventions. The authors also highlight the current expectations for future management of HSE. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:24-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.34
    Published on: 20 Feb 2017  | Viewed:3661  | Downloaded:462
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Current diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Xiao-Su Guo, Hui Bu, Jun-Ying He, Yue-Li Zou, Yue Zhao, Yuan-Yuan Li, Jun-Zhao Cui, Ming-Ming Zheng, Wei-Xin Han, Ze-Yan Zhao
    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a central nervous system infectious disease caused by Cryptococcus. It is the most common fungal infection in the central nervous system, accounting for about 48% of fungal infection. The disease occurs mainly in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and concentrates in the immunocompromised people without AIDS. There are nearly one million new cases of CM each year, and about 70% of them died. In China, CM occurs mainly in people without AIDS and there is an increasing trend in recent years. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to reducing... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:249-56. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.10
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016  | Viewed:37819  | Downloaded:457
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    The M1/M2 immune polarization concept in microglia: a fair transfer?

    Michel Mittelbronn
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:6-7. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135567
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:10351  | Downloaded:439
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    Role of neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke

    Rui Liu, Meng-Xian Pan, Jun-Chun Tang, Ya Zhang, Hua-Bao Liao, Yang Zhuang, Dan Zhao, Qi Wan
    Ischemic stroke causes the depletion of energy and induce excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation in the brain that results from thrombotic blockage. Neuroinflammation occurs initially depending on activated resident microglia that has the same function as the macrophage. Activated microglia participates in the neuroinflammatory process by phagocytosing the injured brain cells and producing the pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. In this review, the authors present an overview of the role of microglia in mediating neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:158-66. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.09
    Published on: 28 Aug 2017  | Viewed:9722  | Downloaded:421
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorders

    Georgios D. Kotzalidis, Elisa Ambrosi, Alessio Simonetti, Ilaria Cuomo, Antonio Del Casale, Matteo Caloro, Valeria Savoja, Chiara Rapinesi
    Recent literature based on peripheral immunity findings speculated that neuroinflammation, with its connection to microglial activation, is linked to bipolar disorder. The endorsement of the neuroinflammatory hypotheses of bipolar disorder requires the demonstration of causality, which requires longitudinal studies. We aimed to review the evidence for neuroinflammation as a pathogenic mechanism of the bipolar disorder. We carried out a hyper inclusive PubMed search using all appropriate neuroinflammation‑related terms and crossed them with bipolar disorder‑related terms. The search produced... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:252-62. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167309
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:5499  | Downloaded:408
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neuroinflammatory modulators of oligodendrogenesis

    Ana Armada-Moreira, Filipa F. Ribeiro, Ana M. Sebastião, Sara Xapelli
    Oligodendrocytes are key neural cells that are responsible for producing myelin sheaths that wrap around neuronal axons in the central nervous system. Myelin is essential to insulate neurons and maintain a fast and saltatory propagation of action potentials along the axon. However, oligodendrocytes are very susceptible to damage, and thus demyelination may arise from a brain lesion or a neurodegenerative disorder. Consequently, demyelination produces a loss of axonal insulation leading to sensory or motor neuron failure. During adulthood, there are two main sources of oligodendrocytes:... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:263-73. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167311
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:21678  | Downloaded:401
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    The role of glutamate excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation in depression and suicidal behavior: focus on microglia cells

    Gianluca Serafini, Zoltan Rihmer, Mario Amore
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:127-30. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.157955
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:4713  | Downloaded:394
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  • Guidelines|Open Access

    China guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of myasthenia gravis

    Zhu-Yi Li
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a typical autoimmune disease mediated by auto-antibodies, immune cells and complement systems at the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction. Over 80 % of MG patients have anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody. This guideline will describe the clinical manifestations and classification, laboratory examinations, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:1-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.60
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016  | Viewed:25450  | Downloaded:377
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    POEMS syndrome associated with Castleman disease: a case report and literature review

    Juan Kang, Fang Yang, Hong-Ya Zhang, Meng-Meng Hu, Feng Xia, Jin-Cun Wang, Yan-Chun Deng, Gang Zhao
    Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M proteins, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a multisystemic disorder that clinically manifests as paraneoplastic and monoclonal plasma cell dyscrasia. Its acronym is derived from its principal characteristics: polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M proteins, and skin changes. Here, the authors reported a case of POEMS syndrome that was also associated with Castleman disease. A 53-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with limb weakness, numbness, edema, abdominal distention, and fever. Physical examination revealed... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:40-3. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135577
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:9709  | Downloaded:367
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Single low-dose lipopolysaccharide preconditioning: neuroprotective against axonal injury and modulates glial cells

    Ryan C. Turner, Zachary J. Naser, Brandon P. Lucke-Wold, Aric F. Logsdon, Reyna L. Vangilder, Rae R. Matsumoto, Jason D. Huber, Charles L. Rosen
    Aim: Over 7 million traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are reported each year in the United States. However, treatments and neuroprotection following TBI are limited because secondary injury cascades are poorly understood. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration before controlled cortical impact can contribute to neuroprotection. However, the underlying mechanisms and whether LPS preconditioning confers neuroprotection against closed-head injuries remains unclear. Methods: The authors hypothesized that preconditioning with a low dose of LPS (0.2 mg/kg) would regulate glial reactivity and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:6-15. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.40
    Published on: 20 Jan 2017  | Viewed:5103  | Downloaded:365
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  • Review|Open Access

    Immune-to-brain signaling and substrates of altered behavior during inflammation

    Jan Pieter Konsman
    During the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection, and when in a safe environment, endothermic mammals typically display reduced activity and food intake, increased sleep, and the adoption of a curled-up position. These changes in behavior, in concert with fever, are adaptive in that they contribute to host survival. The present review addresses the immune-to-brain signaling pathways as well as possible neural substrates mediating reduced exploration and food intake during acute systemic inflammation. These involve rapid activation of peripheral nerves and glutamatergic brainstem... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:207-14. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.19
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:6594  | Downloaded:363
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  • Review|Open Access

    Targeting glioma stem cells via the Hedgehog signaling pathway

    Yang Liu, Xing Liu, Ling-Chao Chen, Wen-Zhong Du, Yu-Qiong Cui, Xing-Yin Piao, Yong-Li Li, Chuan-Lu Jiang
    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Gliomas are among the most devastating tumor types, and current clinical therapies are unsatisfactory. Recent reports revealed the importance of glioma-propagating cells in the malignancy of gliomas. These cells, also referred to as glioma stem cells (GSCs), share similarities with neural stem cells (NSCs). The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway controls tissue polarity, patterning maintenance, and maintenance of NSCs during embryonic development. Aberrant activation of the Hh pathway resulting from mutation and deregulation has recently... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:51-9. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139715
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:26612  | Downloaded:352
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    Psychotic and nonpsychotic mood disorders in autoimmune encephalitis: diagnostic issues and research implications

    Giuseppe Quaranta, Nunzio Bucci, Cristina Toni, Giulio Perugi
    Recent research on autoimmune disorders suggests additional links between systemic and central nervous system (CNS) pathophysiology, among which the identification of antibody-induced limbic encephalitis provided the strongest evidence for the potential involvement of autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of severe mood and psychotic symptoms. In these illnesses, psychiatric symptoms predominate in the initial phase of the disorder in up to 70% of the cases, and they often lead patients to early psychiatric evaluation. For this reason, it is very important to increase the limited knowledge among... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:228-36. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.160986
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:9336  | Downloaded:346
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens|Open Access

    Encephalitis associated with autoantibodies binding to γ-aminobutyric acid-A, γ-aminobutyric acid-B and glycine receptors: immunopathogenic mechanisms and clinical characteristics

    Amy May Lin Quek, Orna O'Toole
    Recent, discoveries of neural antibodies have facilitated the diagnosis of immune-mediated, immunotherapy-responsive neurologic disorders. Antibodies that target inhibitory central nervous system receptors, such as γ-aminobutyric acid-B, γ-aminobutyric acid-A, and glycine receptors, disrupt inhibitory regulatory synaptic functions, and lead to neuronal hyperexcitability. The myriad of neurologic, manifestations associated with these antibodies includes seizures, encephalopathy, muscle rigidity and stiffness. This article provides a review of the immunopathogenic mechanisms and the clinical... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:86-92. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.170633
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016  | Viewed:8020  | Downloaded:343
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  • Review|Open Access

    The conflict on posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome: a clinical mini review

    Manos Bogdos, Sotirios Giannopoulos, Maria Kosmidou
    Is Borrelia burgdorferi responsible for the persistence of symptoms after the standard successful course of antibiotics in Lyme disease patients? This highly controversial issue, concerning the underlying mechanism of posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), still seems to be a matter of intense conflict of opinion. PTLDS is the manifestation of nonspecific symptoms including fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, dysesthesias, and neurocognitive deterioration after the standard antimicrobial therapy administered to patients suffering from Lyme disease. In this article, we review the... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:10-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.36
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016  | Viewed:2381  | Downloaded:343
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence among patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression

    Peggy Bosch, Janina Waberg, Maurits van den Noort, Heike Staudte, Sabina Lim, Jos Egger
    Aim: Treatment non-adherence is a common problem in patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression. This study investigated the possible relationships between symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence. Methods: Thirty outpatients with schizophrenia and 58 outpatients with depression were enrolled in this study. The beck depression Inventory-II, the positive and negative syndrome scale, and the pittsburgh sleep quality index were used to assess symptom severity and quality of sleep, and sleep log data were used to measure treatment adherence. Results: The preliminary... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:109-16. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.54
    Published on: 20 May 2016  | Viewed:7481  | Downloaded:316
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Differentiation of radiation necrosis from glioblastoma recurrence after radiotherapy

    Chrissa Sioka, Anastasia Zikou, Anna Goussia, Spyridon Tsiouris, Loucas G. Astrakas, Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    The standard treatment of glioblastoma, the most common type of primary-brain-tumor, involves radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy. A patient with glioblastoma, post radiotherapy developed magnatic resonance imaging (MRI) changes consistent with either radiation-induced tumor necrosis or tumor recurrence. Perfusion MRI was suggestive of radiation necrosis, but magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 99mTc-Tetrofosmin single photon emission computed tomography was indicative of tumor recurrence. Positron emission tomography scan was not available. Tumor recurrence was... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:161-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.08
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016  | Viewed:11158  | Downloaded:315
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Screening of genetic loci predisposing to herpes simplex virus infection on mouse chromosome 17

    Xiu-Ying Chen, Wei-Ju Tang, Xu-Zheng Zuo, Gong Wang, Hao-Xiang Wang, Peng Xie, Wen Huang
    Aim: The herpes simplex virus (HSV), one of the most common viruses infecting humans, is featured by a high infection rate and usually causes complex disorders difficult to diagnose and treat. Disease progression is always combined with the specific interaction between organism and environment, but genetic factors play a decisive role in most pathogenic processes. Like most human disorders, individual difference has also been involved in the pathogenesis of HSV infection. The present study aimed to screen the potential gene loci that regulates human predisposition to HSV infection. Methods:... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:274-82. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.21
    Published on: 26 Dec 2016  | Viewed:4863  | Downloaded:309
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens|Open Access

    Encephalitis associated with autoantibody binding to the anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor: immunopathogenesis, mechanisms, and clinical characteristics

    Adhasit Nawa-apisak, Saharat Aungsumart, Metha Apiwattanakul
    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has been increasingly recognized in recent years. This condition may be the most common cause of antibody-mediated encephalitis worldwide. The majority of patients are young at the time of onset, female, and present with an acute-to-subacute onset of behavioral changes followed by seizure, abnormal movement, autonomic dysfunction, and finally hypoventilation with coma if left untreated. The immunopathogenesis of this disease may be due to antibody-mediated internalization of NMDARs from synapses, which results in the dysfunction of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:79-85. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.169913
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016  | Viewed:8905  | Downloaded:307
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  • Review|Open Access

    Progress in mechanisms of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

    Shao-Min Li, Ming-Shu Mo, Ping-Yi Xu
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Currently, only two classes of drugs, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and memantine are approved. AChEIs ameliorate cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in AD patients through activation of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors by increased synaptic ACh levels and also have protective effects against glutamate neurotoxicity and inflammation, whereas memantine appears to mainly protect against excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration. Herein, we review the pharmacologic properties of the available AChEIs and memantine,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:274-80. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167305
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:5347  | Downloaded:302
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Role of the complement cascade in cerebral aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture

    Blake E. S. Taylor, Geoff Appelboom, Robert Zilinyi, Ariana Goodman, David Chapel, Melissa LoPresti, Edward Sander Connolly Jr.
    Rupture of intracranial aneurysms is the most common cause of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, but the intricate neuroinflammatory processes which contribute to aneurysm pathophysiology are not well-understood. Mounting evidence has implicated the complement cascade in the progression of aneurysms from their formation to rupture. In this article, we identify and review studies that have sought to determine the role of the complement system in the aneurysm pathogenesis. The studies were generally conducted by immunhistological analyses on aneurysm tissue collected intraoperatively, and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:93-101. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.154888
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:30733  | Downloaded:294
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Neonatal immune activation during early and late postnatal brain development differently influences depression-related behaviors in adolescent and adult C57BL/6 mice

    Jafar Majidi-Zolbanin, Mohammad-Hossein Doosti, Behzad Baradaran, Mohammad Amani, Maryam Azarfarin, Ali-Akbar Salari
    Aim: Immune challenge during early and late neonatal periods can induce robust alterations in physiological and behavioral functions, resulting in greater risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, later in life. In addition, previous studies concluded that increasing age correlates with increased depression behaviors in humans and rodents. This study aimed to investigate for the first time whether immune challenge with a viral mimic, synthetic double-stranded ribonucleic acid (Poly I: C) during different neonatal periods can differently affect... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:35-9. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135575
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:11972  | Downloaded:289
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Artery of Percheron occlusion: role of diffusion-weighted imaging in the early diagnosis

    Murali Krishna Menon, Suma Mariam Jacob, Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
    Bilateral thalamic infarcts have a low frequency among different subtypes of strokes. Since it does not involve a particular vascular territory, it therefore usually involves the occlusion of the artery of Percheron (AOP). Here we report a 79-year-old right-handed Parkinsonian female patient, who was found unresponsive in bed. On examination, the patient was drowsy with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 10/15 (E2M5V3). She had absent doll’s eye response with anisocoric pupils and intermittent vertical gaze palsy. Although the patient had no apparent motor deficits, she was in a state of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:14-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.30
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016  | Viewed:12207  | Downloaded:288
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  • Review|Open Access

    Interactions between neurotropic pathogens, neuroinflammatory pathways, and autophagic neural cell death

    Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu, Eunice Ter
    In recent times, there has been a significant increase in studies focusing on immunological functions of autophagy, however, knowledge of its roles and regulations in the central nervous system remains unclear. Present reviews highlight the molecular cross talk between host cell autophagy with inflammatory pathways in the context of neuro-infections. Intracellular pathogens might have an ability to manipulate the autophagy regulation process. An augmented autophagy and inflammation at the site of infection is traditionally considered host protective. Moreover, host cell autophagy might also... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:2. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.43
    Published on: 17 Jan 2018  | Viewed:6237  | Downloaded:278
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Schizophrenia and comorbid sleep disorders

    Maurits van den Noort, Heike Staudte, Benoît Perriard, Sujung Yeo, Sabina Lim, Peggy Bosch
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:225-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.42
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:2441  | Downloaded:276
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis with ADEM-like clinical/MR findings

    Jia Liu, Huan Yi, Li Xu, Min Li, Xuan Wang, Fu-Hua Peng
    In recent years, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis overlapping with demyelinating disorders has attracted more and more attention. The case is about a 52-year-old woman with anti-NMDAR encephalitis presenting acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like clinical/magnetic resonance (MR) findings. Here, the authors report this case and briefly review her MR evolution and the conditions of her prognosis. The recognition that patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis may have demyelinating disorders, simultaneously or sequentially, is important. Otherwise, a high dose of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:257-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.28
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016  | Viewed:3068  | Downloaded:270
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    D-cycloserin, a NMDA-agonist may be a treatment option for anti-NMDAR encephalitis

    Hong-Zhi Guan, Tie-Kuan Du, Jin Xu, Xia Lv, Hua-Dong Zhu, Yi-Cheng Zhu, Bin Peng, Li-Ying Cui
    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is caused by reversible neuron dysfunction associated an autoantibody-mediated decrease of NMDAR in the entire brain. A N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) -agonist treatment for anti-NMDAR encephalitis might have a role considering its specific mechanism. The authors used D-cycloserine, a partial NMDA-agonist in a refractory case with prolonged intensive care unit duration. A 13-year-old female presented with headache, cognitive deterioration, generalized seizures, coma and hypoventilation with required mechanical ventilation. Anti-NMDAR... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:189-91. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.29
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:2074  | Downloaded:268
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    When friend turns foe: central and peripheral neuroinflammation in central nervous system injury

    Paul Marcet, Nicole Santos, Cesar V. Borlongan
    Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is common, and though it has been well studied, many aspects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke are poorly understood. TBI and stroke are two pathologic events that can cause severe, immediate impact to the neurostructure and function of the CNS, which has been recognized recently to be exacerbated by the body’s own immune response. Although the brain damage induced by the initial trauma is most likely unsalvageable, the secondary immunologic deterioration of neural tissue gives ample opportunity for therapeutic strategists seeking to... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:82-92. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.07
    Published on: 17 May 2017  | Viewed:5576  | Downloaded:265
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Hot topics of autoimmune encephalitis

    Ying Peng, Jia-Wei Wang
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:132-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.50
    Published on: 11 Jul 2017  | Viewed:1653  | Downloaded:261
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    The role of inflammation in cerebral aneurysms

    Ali H. Turkmani, Nancy J. Edwards, Peng R. Chen
    The natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is poorly understood. At present, risk factors for aneurysm rupture are limited to demographics and rudimentary anatomic features of the aneurysm. The first sign of aneurysm destabilization and rupture may be subarachnoid hemorrhage, a potentially devastating brain injury with high morbidity and mortality. An emerging body of literature suggests a complex inflammatory cascade likely promotes aneurysm wall remodeling and progressive ballooning of the arterial wall, ultimately terminating in aneurysm rupture. These events likely... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:102-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153982
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:6448  | Downloaded:259
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension complicated with cerebral venous thrombosis and subdural effusion: a case report

    Murali Krishna Menon, Thara Prathap, Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension treatment can be complicated by concomitant cerebral venous thrombosis and subdural hematoma. A 48 years old male, presenting orthostatic headache and neck pain for 1 month displayed sagittal sinus thrombosis and bilateral subdural effusions, as well as extradural fluid collection at T3-T8 level, upon magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure was 50 mmH2O, and a leak was confirmed at C2-C3 level by computed tomography (CT) myelogram. The presence of subdural hematoma precluded anticoagulation treatments. An autologous epidural... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:104-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.35
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016  | Viewed:6741  | Downloaded:258
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Astrocyte, reactive astrocytes and self-regulative apoptosis in the neuroinflammation

    Liang-Wei Chen
    Astrocyte, one of the most abundant glial cell types, actively functions in stabilizing neural circuits and synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes not only provide metabolic and trophic supports to various CNS neurons and but also actively work in assisting synaptic transmission and plasticity. A line of growing evidences have documented that astrocytes present as an essential coordinatorin neural circuit function.[1] Firstly, calcium signaling or calcium wave calcium (Ca2+) between neighboring astrocytes contribute to establishment of a huge astrocytic glial... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:167-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.31
    Published on: 20 Jul 2016  | Viewed:1842  | Downloaded:257
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Meningeal inflammation and multiple sclerosis

    Li-Ping Liu
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Inflammation in MS is characterized by infiltration of peripheral immune cells into the CNS, especially in the meninges. The infiltration into meninges, which has been referred to as tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs), is a likely first step preceding infiltration into the CNS parenchyma. These invading autoreactive immune cells destroy myelin, the insulation surrounding neuronal axons, and cause demyelination in subpial and cortical areas, promoting disease pathogenesis. Experimental... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:145-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.22
    Published on: 20 Jun 2016  | Viewed:2464  | Downloaded:257
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Effect of conduction block in classification and prognosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Yu-Chen Wang, Guo-Dong Feng, Jing Wang, Xue-Dong Liu, Gang Zhao
    Aim: The aim was to investigate the electro-physiological characteristics in disease progression of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and observe the effect of conduction block (CB) in classification and severity of the disease. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-four patients with GBS were divided into acute inflammatory demyelinating poly-neuropathy (AIDP) group, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) group and equivocal group according to their electro-physiological results and then reclassificated after electro-physiological review. All of the patients were followed for 6 months since their... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:77-81. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139718
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:10869  | Downloaded:256
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Parasellar extra-axial cavernoma mimicking meningioma: a case report

    Arun Oommen, Thara Pratap, Sushil Chandi, Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
    Parasellar extra-axial cavernomas are rare lesions. The authors report a case of extra-axial cavernoma in a 50-year-old male patient, who presented with occipital headache and double vision. The magnetic resonance imaging showed an enhancing extra-axial dural-based mass in the left parasellar region invading cavernous sinus, hyper-intense on T2-weighted images, iso-intense on T1-weighted images and high relative cerebral blood velocity on magnetic resonance perfusion. The patient underwent a left pterional craniotomy and parasellar space occupying lesion was excised. Histopathology was... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:16-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.49
    Published on: 20 Jan 2017  | Viewed:4452  | Downloaded:248
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  • Review|Open Access

    Clinicogenetics of Parkinson's disease: a drawing but not completed picture

    Chao-Dong Wang, Piu Chan
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder mainly affecting the population over the age of 60 years. The past decade has seen rapidly emerging data supporting a major importance of genetic factors in the development of PD. Increasing number of large-scale and replicating association studies has facilitated the confirmation of the possible predisposing factors to PD and the selection of genetic variants for risk prediction. While evidences are accumulating that variations within the SNCA, LRRK2, MAPT and GBA genes increase the individuals' vulnerability to PD,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:115-26. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143662
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:13542  | Downloaded:248
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Neurocysticercosis in Nepal: a retrospective clinical analysis

    Rajeev Ojha, Dinesh Bikram Shah, Amina Shrestha, Sunil Koirala, Apurba Dahal, Khem Adhikari, Anjal Bisht, Pratik Wagle
    Aim: The prevalence of epilepsy is higher in Nepal. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC) among seizure patients admitted to our center. Methods: We retrospectively studied all the NCC patients admitted to Neurology Department, Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from April 2012 to February 2014. Computer tomography/ magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) head, clinical profile, lab investigations and exclusion of other causes were the basis of the NCC diagnosis. Chi‑square and Student’s t‑test were used for comparison of variables. Results: Out... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:167-70. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.160856
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:6875  | Downloaded:247
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in glioblastoma

    George A. Alexiou, Evrysthenis Vartholomatos, Panagiota Zagorianakou, Spyridon Voulgaris
    Aim: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has prognostic value in patients with a variety of cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of NLR in patients with glioblastoma. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on patients receiving surgery for glioblastoma. Preoperative NLR was recorded and correlated with other prognostic factors and survival. Results: Fifty‑one patients were included in the study. The mean NLR ratio was 6.7 ± 4.6. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, an NLR cut‑off value of 4.7 was determined to best predict... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:131-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143666
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:7358  | Downloaded:247
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Intrathecal dexamethasone and methotrexate treatment of neoplastic meningitis from solid tumors

    Wen-Jing Lv, Jun-Ying He, Yue-Li Zou, Ya-Juan Liu, Qin-Qin Zhang, Xin Liu, Hui Bu
    Aim: Neoplastic meningitis (NM) from solid tumors is an advanced malignancy with poor prognosis. Intrathecal chemotherapy is a reliable treatment, and we have obtained some experiences in the treatment of NM with intrathecal dexamethasone and methotrexate (IT DXM and MTX). Methods: Retrospective study of 23 patients with NM from lung cancer (n = 11), breast cancer (n = 3), gastric cancer (n = 1), malignant melanoma (n = 1), unknown cancer (n = 7) was conducted. Among these patients, eight received IT DXM and MTX treatment, and 15 patients were placed into a palliative care group. Overall... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:162-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.160855
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:8180  | Downloaded:240
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  • Review|Open Access

    Human leukocyte antigens-immunogenetics of neuromyelitis optica or Devic's disease and the impact on the immunopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment: a critical review

    Maria Panos Gontika, Maria Constantinos Anagnostouli
    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder, predominantly characterized by severe optic neuritis, transverse myelitis and the high level of antibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4) or NMO-immunoglobulin G (IgG). Researches trying to correlate NMO with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles took place in a limited extend in the last few years. Nevertheless, it has become clear that HLAs play a crucial role in the genetic risk of NMO, in the understanding of its pathogenesis and the differential diagnosis mainly from multiple sclerosis (MS), and also from other... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:44-50. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139713
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:10570  | Downloaded:240
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Infective endocarditis with brain lesions misdiagnosed as viral encephalitis

    Jing-Jing Zhang, Guo-Dong Feng
    Infective endocarditis (IE) is caused by infection of the endocardial surface of heart. It typically affects one or more heart valves, the mural endocardium, or a septal defect. In recent years, many IE patients suffered from atypical initial symptoms. Here, in this case report, a 12-year-old patient was initially diagnosed as encephalitis. However, it was later noticed that this was a misdiagnosis for the following reasons: the echocardiography showed a vegetation attached to his mitral valves; the cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed lesions that were consistent with a cardioembolic... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:48-50. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.29
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016  | Viewed:2528  | Downloaded:238
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case report of acute pediatric bacterial meningitis due to the rare isolate, Pseudomonas putida

    Grishma V. Kulkarni
    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is the medical emergency which warrants an early diagnosis and an aggressive therapy. Despite the availability of the potent newer antibiotics, the mortality caused by ABM and its complications remain high in India, ranging from 16% to 32%. The aim of this case report is to present the rare isolation of Pseudomonas putida from cerebrospinal fluid sample. Besides this, the author also emphasizes the importance of correctly identifying the organism and thus the selection of the most accurate antibiotic from the susceptibility profile to allow for early... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:215-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.55
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:4099  | Downloaded:237
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  • Review|Open Access

    The association between human cytomegalovirus and glioblastomas: a review

    Christian B. Hochhalter, Christopher Carr, Brannan E. O’Neill, Marcus L. Ware, Michael J. Strong
    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was reported in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) over a decade ago and this finding has the potential to increase our understanding of the disease and it offers an alternative tumor-specific therapeutic target. Due of this promise, there is a fair amount of time, energy and money being directed towards understanding and utilizing this connection for eventual therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, the association between GBM and HCMV remains controversial. Several studies have reported conflicting results, further undermining the potential clinical value of this... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:96-108. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.10
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017  | Viewed:4785  | Downloaded:236
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neuroimaging of corpus callosum in central nervous system demyelinating disorders

    Masoud Etemadifar, Amir Neshatfar, Amir Arsalan Zamani, Mehri Salari
    Corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter structure in the brain, consisting of 200-250 million contralateral axonal projections. It is the major commissural pathway connecting the hemispheres of human brain. The pathology of CC includes wide variety of entities that arise from different causes such as congenital, inflammatory, tumoral, degenerative, infectious, etc. This study reviews the most reliable neuroimaging data of human CC in central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases to facilitate the understanding of different pathological entities of the CC and their role in... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:69-77. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.02
    Published on: 27 Apr 2017  | Viewed:6976  | Downloaded:232
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    The expanding spectrum of pediatric anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody mediated CNS disease - a chance association?

    Deepak Menon, Ramshekhar N. Menon, Hardeep Kumar, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Sudheeran Kannoth, Muralidharan Nair Nair, Sanjeev Thomas
    Central nervous system autoimmunity in the pediatric age group represents an evolving constellation of various syndromes distinct from the adult age group. One of the rarely described pathogenic auto-antibodies (ab) is the one directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). While its pathogenic role is controversial, literature concerning adult patients abounds with heterogeneous presentations with epilepsy often as part of limbic encephalitis or chronic temporal lobe epilepsy and cerebellar ataxia accompanying endocrinopathies or paraneoplastic disorders. Diagnosis is often delayed... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:219-24. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.02
    Published on: 28 Sep 2016  | Viewed:2999  | Downloaded:231
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  • Review|Open Access

    Immunotherapeutic strategies for glioma treatment

    George A. Alexiou, Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor. Despite intensive clinical investigation and several novel therapeutic approaches, the median survival continues to remain poor and it is usually in the range of fifteen months. Immunotherapy is a beacon of hope for cancer treatment and offers a different approach against glioma. Various approaches have been used, such as dendritic cell based vaccines, peptide vaccines, T-cell-based therapies and immune checkpoint blockade with promising results. This paper provided an overview of the results of the most exciting immune... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:51-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.45
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016  | Viewed:2603  | Downloaded:230
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    Bipolar disorder preceding the onset of multiple sclerosis

    Ciro Marangoni, Maria Giulia Nanni, Luigi Grassi, Gianni M. Faedda
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory demyelinating brain disease. The occurrence of psychiatric disorders, especially for major depression, in the course of MS is high. Reports concerning bipolar disorder (BD) remain rather scarce although early descriptions were found in the old neurological literature. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the epidemiology, comorbidity, and treatment findings regarding BD preceding the onset of MS. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:195-9. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167302
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:8177  | Downloaded:229
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    The role of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies in mood disorders

    Marco Liguori, Mirko Manchia, Leonardo Tondo
    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) possibly plays a causative role in mood disorders. This hypothesis originated with studies on the beneficial effect of valproate in mania and as a mood stabilizer. Since valproate is known for its action in increasing the level of GABA, it was indirectly suggested that decreasing levels of GABA were responsible for mood alterations. To identify factors causing the decreased levels of GABA, studies have concentrated on the activity of the enzyme L-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), which catalyzes the transformation of glutamate to GABA, as a decreasing... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:237-43. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167300
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:6115  | Downloaded:228
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  • Review|Open Access

    Current and emerging therapies for neuromyelitis optica

    Cong Zhao, Hong-Zeng Li, Ya-Nan Bai, Zhu-Yi Li, Jun Guo
    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease that mainly affects the optic nerve and spinal cord, potentially resulting in blindness and paralysis. Once thought to be a clinical variant of multiple sclerosis, NMO is currently considered as a different disease with its own features due to the identification of a specific autoantibody against aquaporin 4. Given the high risk of disability, treatment should be launched once the diagnosis is established. Evidence from clinical practice showed that traditional immunosuppressive agents affecting the function of T and B cells... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:127-32. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.11
    Published on: 20 Jun 2016  | Viewed:2726  | Downloaded:225
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Morphological and behavioural variation in CNS innate defence cell microglia is development and age sensitive

    Payel Ghosh, Anirban Ghosh
    Aim: Microglia, the innate defence cells in central nervous system (CNS), alters their shapes and function with age. We observed and identified these morphological changes and functional association throughout the developmental gradient until adulthood in rat brain. Methods: Early and late embryonic stages, neonates and adult brains of albino rats were sectioned for routine Haematoxylin Eosin (HE) staining and specialized silver-gold staining to show distribution and morphological variation in situ. Isolated microglia from different age groups was subjected to scanning electron microscopy... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:38-47. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.32
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016  | Viewed:8734  | Downloaded:225
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Brain abscess: surgical experiences of 162 cases

    Forhad Hossain Chowdhury, Md Raziul Haque, Mainul Haque Sarkar, S. M. Noman Khaled Chowdhury, Zahed Hossain, Shisir Ranjan
    Aim: Brain abscess still poses a public health challenge in spite of the advent of modern neurosurgical techniques and antibiotics. Here, we present our surgical experiences and ultimate outcome in the management of brain abscess. Methods: Totally, 162 patients with proved brain abscess who underwent surgical treatment were included in this study. The prospectively recorded data of surgical management of brain abscess and the ultimate outcome (by Glasgow outcome scale) were studied retrospectively. Results: Total number of cases was 162, of which 113 were acute pyogenic abscess while 49... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:153-61. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.160851
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:21719  | Downloaded:224
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  • Review|Open Access

    Role of the neuromuscular ultrasound in the diagnostic of the multifocal motor neuropathy

    Antonios Kerasnoudis, Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Min-Suk Yoon
    Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is the one of the most common acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorders of the peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis is based on the distribution pattern of the neurological semiology and the pathological changes of nerve conduction studies (NCS) in classical cases. However, in cases with subtle clinical presentation, an extended diagnostic workup may be needed, such as cerebrospinal fluid examination, laboratory tests, and nerve biopsy. NCS remain nowadays fundamental not only for the diagnosis, but also for the follow-up and measurement of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:103-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143657
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:7825  | Downloaded:222
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  • Review|Open Access

    The role of ubiquitinated TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Yi Dong, Yan Chen
    Deposition of intracellular ubiquitin inclusion in motor neurons is one of the leading pathogenic mechanisms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The transactive response DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is the main component of intracellular ubiquitin inclusion bodies in pathological deposits. TDP-43 is mainly distributed in the nucleus of neurons, and participates in nuclear RNA transcription, alternative splicing and mRNA stability regulation. The tardbp, as a coding gene, provides instructions for making TDP-43. After post-translational modification, the pathological TDP-43 induces... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.47
    Published on: 26 Feb 2018  | Viewed:3938  | Downloaded:213
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 is upregulated in the endothelium and tumor cells in melanoma brain metastasis

    Patrick N. Harter, Anna-Eva Blank, Benjamin Weide, Rudi Beschorner, Simon Bernatz, Peter Baumgarten, Anne K. Braczynski, Elke Hattingen, Michael W. Ronellenfitsch, Herbert Schwarz, Michel Mittelbronn
    Aim: The cytokine receptor tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9) is mainly considered to be a co-stimulatory activation marker in hematopoietic cells. Several preclinical models have shown a dramatic beneficial effect of treatment approaches targeting TNFRSF9 with agonistic antibodies. However, preliminary clinical phase I/II studies were stopped after the occurrence of several severe deleterious side effects. In a previous study, it was demonstrated that TNFRSF9 was strongly expressed by reactive astrocytes in primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, but was... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:135-40. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143670
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:7828  | Downloaded:212
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  • Review|Open Access

    Positron emission tomography imaging in gliomas

    Assimakis Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos Polyzoidis, Chrissa Sioka
    Glioma, the most frequent primary brain tumor in adults, is a highly infiltrative tumor exhibiting resistance to most treatments and associated with short survival of patients. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using various tracers takes advantage of the increased metabolic rate of neoplastic cells, in order to detect tumors and validate the treatment response. The most frequently used PET tracer, the (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is useful during the initial and follow-up assessment of patients with gliomas because it can assist in the selection of the initial biopsy site and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:107-14. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143659
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:8441  | Downloaded:212
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Inflammation and intracranial aneurysms: mechanisms of initiation, growth, and rupture

    Peter S. Amenta, Edison Valle, Aaron S. Dumont, Ricky Medel
    Outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remain poor in many patients, despite advances in microsurgical and endovascular management. Consequently, considerable effort has been placed in determining the mechanisms of aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture. Various environmental and genetic factors are implicated as key components in the aneurysm pathogenesis. Currently, sufficient evidence exists to incriminate the inflammatory response as the common pathway leading to aneurysm generation and rupture. Central to this model is the interaction between the vessel wall and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:68-76. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153975
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:4980  | Downloaded:210
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    Neuroinflammation and excitatory symptoms in bipolar disorder

    Isabella Panaccione, Gianfranco Spalletta, Gabriele Sani
    Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a strong biological factor underlying the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. A role for dysregulation of the immune system was initially suggested in depressive disorders and subsequently extended to other illnesses, including bipolar disorder (BD). Indeed, there is growing evidence confirming the presence of a generalized pro‑inflammatory state in BD patients, involving alterations in cytokine, acute‑phase proteins, and complement factor secretion, white blood cell differentiation, microglial activation, arachidonic acid signaling pathways, and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:215-27. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167304
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:5586  | Downloaded:208
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neuro-oncogenesis and the adult human sub-ventricular zone in high grade glioma

    Sara G. M. Piccirillo
    The review focuses on the role of the sub-ventricular zone, the most well characterized germinal region of adult brain, in the commonest and most aggressive brain tumor in adults, i.e. high grade glioma (HGG). Recent findings from animal models and samples isolated from HGG patients are reviewed here with a focus on the cancer stem cell hypothesis and evolutionary trajectories of tumor growth in patients. The implications of these studies on the development of novel therapeutic approaches aimed at improving HGG patient survival and the need for personalized treatments are also discussed. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:20-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.37
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016  | Viewed:3880  | Downloaded:206
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Hemodynamics, inflammation, vascular remodeling, and the development and rupture of intracranial aneurysms: a review

    Francesco Signorelli, Benjamin Gory, Roberto Riva, Paul-Emile Labeyrie, Isabelle Pelissou-Guyotat, Francis Turjman
    The central nervous system is an immunologically active environment where several components of the immune and inflammatory response interact among them and with the constituents of nervous tissue and vasculature in a critically orchestrated manner, influencing physiologic and pathologic processes. In particular, inflammation takes a central role in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). The common pathway for aneurysm formation involves endothelial dysfunction and injury, a mounting inflammatory response, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) phenotypic modulation, extracellular... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:59-67. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.154885
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:5930  | Downloaded:206
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Isolated unilateral chorea: a diagnostic challenge

    Marta Lopes, Eva Brandão
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:260-1. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.45
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016  | Viewed:1350  | Downloaded:204
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Endocannabinoid metabolism in neurodegenerative diseases

    Chu Chen
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:268-70. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.46
    Published on: 15 Dec 2016  | Viewed:4907  | Downloaded:200
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Characteristics and predictive biomarkers of drug resistant epilepsy -- study in Georgia

    Maia Alkhidze, Giorgi Lomidze, Sofia Kasradze, Aleksander Tsiskaridze
    Aim: The authors conducted a case-control study to estimate predictive factors for timely identification of patients at higher risk for developing drug resistant epilepsy. Methods: The retrospective case-control study was conducted among people diagnosed as having drug resistant epilepsy (cases) and their controls, identified as having drug-responsive seizures. All participants were admitted to the tertiary Epilepsy Center at the Institute of Neurology and Neuropsychology (Tbilisi, Georgia) during 2011. The data on demographic features and disease characteristics were analyzed. Multiple... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:191-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.14
    Published on: 27 Sep 2017  | Viewed:3149  | Downloaded:198
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Developing an international consensus guidance for myasthenia gravis using RAND/UCLA appropriateness method

    Wei-Bin Liu, Hao Ran, Chuang-Yi Ou, Li Qiu, Zhi-Dong Huang, Zhong-Qiang Lin, Yin-Kai Li, Xiao-Xi Liu, Hao Huang, Wei Fang
    Aim: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare and heterogeneous disease for which there is no generally accepted standard of care. Thus, it is critical that MG experts develop consensus guidelines based on their practice and disease management to assist clinicians and provide advice for insurance companies, health organizations and institutional review boards. Methods: An international treatment guidance was developed based on national guidelines established in the US, Denmark, Norway, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and Europe. The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method (RAM) was applied to... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:54-60. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.47
    Published on: 30 Mar 2017  | Viewed:3655  | Downloaded:197
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Diagnosis and therapy of rare central nervous system infections

    Xiao-Kun Qi
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:8-12. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135568
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:10366  | Downloaded:197
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  • Review|Open Access

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in China

    Li Li, Cheng-Bin Wang, Gang Zhao
    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are mainly distributed in the central nervous system, and play important roles in the mechanisms of learning and memory. A newly discovered disease caused by autoantibody to NMDAR has been described, and is called anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Patients with this disease often suffer from mental disorders, seizures and other encephalitis-like symptoms. Accumulated data suggests that the severity of the disease makes early diagnosis very important. Accurately detecting the autoantibody to NMDAR is considered to be the gist of diagnosis. Good prognosis is... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:17-23. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135571
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:10513  | Downloaded:192
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Decompressive craniectomy in herpes simplex encephalitis

    Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal, Shirley Joan Fernandez, Prithvi Varghese, Murali Krishna Menon
    Intracranial hypertension is a common cause of morbidity in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). HSE is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis. Hereby we report a case of HSE in which decompressive craniectomy was performed to treat refractory intracranial hypertension. A 32-year-old male presented with headache, vomiting, fever, and focal seizures involving the right upper limb. Cerebrospinal fluid‑meningoencephalitic profile was positive for herpes simplex. Magnetic resonance image of the brain showed swollen and edematous right temporal lobe with increased signal in gray matter... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:182-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.158460
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:8561  | Downloaded:191
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neuroinflammation and neurological alterations in chronic liver diseases

    Carmina Montoliu, Marta Llansola, Vicente Felipo
    Several million people with chronic liver diseases (cirrhosis, hepatitis) show neurological alterations, named hepatic encephalopathy (HE) with cognitive and motor alterations that impair quality of life and reduces life span. Inflammation acts synergistically with hyperammonemia to induce cognitive and motor alterations in patients with chronic liver disease and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Previous studies in animal models have suggested that neuroinflammation is a major player in HE. This would also be the case in patients with liver cirrhosis or hepatitis C with HE. Rats with... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:138-44. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.160845
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:8223  | Downloaded:191
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Advances in the imaging of cerebral aneurysm inflammation

    Michael R. Levitt, M. Yashar S. Kalani, Karam Moon, Cameron G. McDougall, Felipe C. Albuquerque
    Cerebral aneurysm formation, growth and rupture are thought to be the result of a complex interaction between cerebrovascular hemodynamics and pathobiology. Recently, new evidence has emerged regarding the role of inflammation in the walls of cerebral aneurysms. Noninvasive methods to characterize the degree of inflammation in aneurysms could enable clinicians to estimate the risk of future aneurysm growth and rupture, influencing treatment. This review examines emerging techniques of imaging inflammatory biomarkers in cerebral aneurysms. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:51-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153970
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:4911  | Downloaded:191
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Huge supratentorial cortical ependymoma in a young child: case report and literature review

    Mehdi Darmoul, Mohamed Kilani, Atef Ben Nsir, Mohamed Nejib Hattab
    Supratentorial cortical ependymomas are uncommon in the pediatric population and extremely rare in very young children. Histologically, tumors of the anaplastic type are also less common in children. The authors report one case of anaplastic cortical ependymoma in a 16-month-old girl who presented with a 7-day history of left side weakness and rapid neurological deterioration. Brain imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scanning showed a huge right fronto-parietal cystic and solid lesion compressing the brain parenchyma. The young child was operated via a... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:141-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.53
    Published on: 20 Jun 2016  | Viewed:5222  | Downloaded:187
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Acute demyelinating lesions with restricted diffusion in multiple sclerosis: a new variant?

    Sofia Markoula, Anastassia Zikou, Persephoni Margariti, Maria Argyropoulou, Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:188-90. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.33
    Published on: 21 Sep 2017  | Viewed:1728  | Downloaded:185
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Meningeal carcinomatosis: a retrospective analysis of seventy-seven cases

    Feng-Na Chu, Yue Lang, Xiao-Min Sun, Li Cui
    Aim: Meningeal carcinomatosis is a special type of malignant tumor characterized by short survival and poor prognosis. In the present study, the authors aim to analyze the clinical, laboratory data and prognosis of meningeal carcinomatosis patients. Methods: The authors enrolled 77 cases of meningeal carcinomatosis from 2003 to 2013 in the First Hospital of Jilin University. The clinical data including age, gender, symptoms at onset, clinical manifestations, primary tumors and the laboratory data including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), tumor markers as well as the imaging data were analyzed.... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:1-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.23
    Published on: 20 Jan 2017  | Viewed:6171  | Downloaded:185
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  • Topic: Neuroimmunology and Cancer|Open Access

    The influence of postoperative infection in survival of patients with high-grade gliomas

    George A Alexiou, Amalia Kallinteri, Euaggelos Michos, Panagiota Zagorianakou, Efthalia Priavali, Dimitrios Pachatouridis, Stamatina Levidiotou, Spyridon Voulgaris
    High-grade gliomas are the most common type of brain tumors. Of these, glioblastoma account for 60-70% and despite treatment carries a dismal prognosis. Postoperative surgical site infection has been associated with prolonged survival. Herewith, we present a case of glioblastoma and a case of anaplastic oligoastrocytoma that developed postoperative infection of the surgical site and had prolonged survival. A thorough literature review is also presented. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:18-20. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149418
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:4832  | Downloaded:184
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Imaging and cytological analysis of 92 patients with Japanese encephalitis

    Qi Meng, Yue-Li Zou, Hui Bu, Jun-Ying He
    Aim: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus and demonstrates high mortality and serious sequelae. Imaging and cytological examinations are important for the diagnosis of JE. We performed this study to analyze the imaging and cytological characteristics of JE. Methods: This study enrolled 92 JE patients with 108 cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) samples. Diagnosis was based on clinical features and positive immunoglobulin M antibodies against JE virus, which were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All patients received detailed neurological examinations,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:29-34. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135574
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:10327  | Downloaded:184
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  • Review|Open Access

    Population of inflammatory cells in intracranial aneurysm with the special insight to the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches

    Hirokazu Koseki, Tomohiro Aoki
    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) can cause a lethal subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture. The prevalence of IA is high in the general public; however, the annual risk for the rupture of an incidentally found lesion is relatively low. Therefore, it is crucial to selectively diagnose rupture-prone IAs among many diagnosed IAs, and properly treat such IAs before rupture. Recent studies using human IA specimens or experimentally-induced IAs in animals have revealed some important findings regarding the role of inflammatory cells infiltrating IA lesions. Currently, IA is considered an inflammatory... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:173-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.05
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:2148  | Downloaded:183
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Inflammation in human cerebral aneurysms: pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, genetics, and therapeutics

    Sarah A. Dooley, Joseph S. Hudson, David M. Hasan
    Intracranial aneurysms are a life-threatening cerebrovascular pathology with a probability of spontaneous rupture. Current intervention techniques carry inherent risk. Recent investigation has reinforced inflammation’s role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral aneurysms. These data suggest alternative diagnostic and noninvasive therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, novel characteristics of the underlying disease have been elucidated through distinct bioinformatic and gene expression profile analyses. This article will emphasize the most recent investigation, highlighting findings of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:77-85. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.154433
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:7014  | Downloaded:183
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Interleukin-1beta: a common thread between inflammation, pain and opioid tolerance

    Shekher Mohan
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:201-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.37
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:2655  | Downloaded:182
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Sex differences in Alzheimer’s disease

    Yi Xing
    Recently, Koran et al.[1] published an article, named “Sex differences in the association between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers and cognitive decline” in Brain Imaging and Behavior. The result proved that there were sex-specific associations between biomarkers of AD. This article added evidence to the theory of sex differences in AD. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:165-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.27
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016  | Viewed:2648  | Downloaded:182
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case of Hashimoto's encephalopathy presenting with seizures and cognitive impairment

    Xing-Yong Chen, Yin-Zhou Wang, Hui-Xin Lei, Xu Zhang
    Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare disease with unknown pathogenesis. An epileptic seizure is reported in association with HE. Here, the author reported an 18-year-old girl with a history of hyperthyroidism for one year. She was admitted to the hospital due to status epilepticus. Serum thyroid function test showed that the concentration of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroglobulin antibody were significantly elevated. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed that multiple abnormalities varied from bilateral frontal, parietal, occipital-temporal lobe to cerebellum... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:117-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.57
    Published on: 20 May 2016  | Viewed:3249  | Downloaded:181
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Possible role of microparticles in neuroimmune signaling of microglial cells

    Stephanie M. Schindler, Ekta Bajwa, Jonathan P. Little, Andis Klegeris
    Aim: Submicron fragments termed microparticles (MPs), derived from all major central nervous system cell types including neurons and glia (microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes), have emerged as novel intercellular signaling agents. This study tested the hypothesis that MPs derived from activated microglia, which represent the mononuclear phagocyte system in the brain, could induce pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic responses of microglia in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Methods: Human THP-1 monocytic cells were used to model human microglia. MPs derived from these cells were reapplied to... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:232-42. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.25
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:3861  | Downloaded:180
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    Microstructural brain abnormalities, affective temperaments, and suicidal behavior in patients with major depression

    Gianluca Serafini, Mario Amore, Zoltan Rihmer
    According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, brain white matter (WM) abnormalities have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and related suicidal behavior. However, MRI findings may be limited by low spatial resolution; therefore, an important contribution to the understanding of the role and significance of WM alterations derived by the development of the most recent magnetic resonance techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Several DTI studies reported an association between altered WM integrity and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:200-14. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167301
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:4566  | Downloaded:180
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Assessment of health-related quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis living in the Fars province of Iran

    Nahid Ashjazadeh, Habib Hadianfard, Soodabe Feridoni, Elham Farjam
    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) living in the Fars province of Iran. Methods: A total of 100 patients with clinically definite MS who were referred to a clinic affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were eligible to participate in this study. The HRQoL was evaluated using a Persian version of the Medical Outcomes software. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, MANOVA, ANOVA and an independent t-test. Results: Patient variables in this sample included the following: 80%... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:57-62. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.40
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016  | Viewed:2567  | Downloaded:179
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Malignant middle-cerebral artery territory infarction in tuberculous vasculitis

    Salvadeeswaran Meenakshi-Sundaram, Sundararajan Srinivasan, Somalinga Nagendran Karthik, Suresh Pandi, Alagappan Periyakaruppan, Bharathi Sundar
    Intracranial large vessel involvement is an unusual complication of tuberculous meningitis. The authors report a 39-year-old female presenting with an episode of seizure, followed by rapid decline in sensorium without prominent systemic features. An initial cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed tuberculomata and patchy infarcts. Despite antituberculous therapy, she progressively worsened. A cranial computed tomography scan done following the worsening revealed a massive middle-cerebral artery (MCA) infarct. Unfortunately, the patient died in spite of decompressive craniotomy.... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:95-7. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139722
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:8142  | Downloaded:179
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  • Research Highlights|Open Access

    The expanding phenotype of stroke-induced immune alterations

    Johanna Ruhnau, Antje Vogelgesang, Alexander Dressel
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:15-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135570
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:6673  | Downloaded:179
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  • Review|Open Access

    Statins in acute neurologic disease: which one, which dose, when to start, and when not to stop

    Bong-Su Kang, Gene Sung, May Kim-Tenser, Nerses Sanossian
    Statins could have physiologic properties that may benefit patients that have been diagnosed with various acute neurological diseases. This review aims tosummarize the literature pertaining to stain use in acute neurological disease such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), cerebral ischemia (CI), traumatic brain injury, status epilepticus and meningitis. The authors reviewed published abstracts and manuscripts pertaining to experimental and clinical trials relevant to statins in acute neurological disease. Although acute statin therapy in the setting of subarachnoid... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:133-40. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.27
    Published on: 20 Jun 2016  | Viewed:5019  | Downloaded:174
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Gamma-aminobutyric-acid-B receptor antibodies in limbic encephalitis with small cell lung cancer

    Ke-Qin Liu, Sheng-Qiang Yan, Min Lou
    Encephalitis associated with antibodies to gamma-aminobutyric-acid B (GABA-B) is a subgroup of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis with typical features of limbic encephalitis and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We report a case of anti-GABA-B receptor encephalitis in a 57-year-old man who presented with seizures, memory loss, and abnormal behavior. He developed partially neurological responses to immunotherapy, but refused comprehensive tumor screening. The symptoms were aggravated again 4 months later. Workup showed antibodies to GABA-B receptors and tumor screening revealed SCLC. It... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:187-9. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.159077
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:3973  | Downloaded:174
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Inflammation mediates the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm and becomes therapeutic target

    Tomohiro Aoki
    The treatment of cerebral aneurysms (CAs) is of social importance, because poor outcomes result in subarachnoid hemorrhages after rupture. However, there is currently no medical treatment available to prevent the progression and rupture of CAs, which results in a large number of patients without receiving treatment. Recent studies using human samples have revealed the presence of inflammatory responses in lesions and also the possible correlation of inflammation with CA progression or rupture. Furthermore, experimental studies using animal models of CAs have supported the notion from human... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:86-92. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.154381
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:7372  | Downloaded:174
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory mechanisms associated with mood disorders

    Gianfranco Spalletta, Gabriele Sani
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:193-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167306
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:4224  | Downloaded:173
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Advancements in diagnosis and treatment of meningeal carcinomatosis in solid cancer

    Jun-Zhao Cui, Jun-Ying He, Qing Li, Xiao-Qing Li, Rui-Ping Gao, Hui Bu, Yue-Li Zou, Xiao-Su Guo, Wei-Xin Han, Ze-Yan Zhao, Yuan-Yuan Li, Ming-Ming Zheng, Ya-Juan Liu, Li-Tian Yan
    Meningeal carcinomatosis (MC) is a disease that malignant tumor cells cultivate in the cerebrospinal fluid or meninges. With the development of therapy methods and new techniques, survival time of patients with tumor is prolonged, and the incidence of MC is increasing. Diagnosis is based on the evaluation of clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging findings. Furthermore, in recent years, the diagnostic value of the tumor-derived cell-free DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is promising and may improve the diagnostic yield of CSF analysis. Traditional treatments of MC... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:167-78. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.26
    Published on: 18 Sep 2017  | Viewed:2395  | Downloaded:171
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Primary supratentorial intracerebral malignant paraganglioma

    Ahmed A. Al Jishi, Boleslaw Lach, Ali Elgheriani, Edward Kachur, Aleksa Cenic
    Paragangliomas are extra-adrenal neuroendocrine tumors that derive from neural crest. In general, they are benign tumors but few cases had shown a tendency to metastasize. Malignant forms have been reported previously with intracranial metastasis from duodenal origin, but primary intracranial origin represents a rare and unusual location for such tumors. Here, we report a rare case of a 48-year-old lady who presented with symptomatic right-sided insular mass with negative metastatic work up. A complete surgical resection had been done with an unexpected diagnosis of primary gangliocytic... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:121-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.154431
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:6036  | Downloaded:171
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome due to seronegative systemic lupus erythematosus

    Sawan Verma, Irfan Yousuf, Mushtaq Ahmad Wani, Ravouf Asimi, Sheikh Saleem, Mudasir Mushtaq, Irfan Shah, Skeikh Nawaz, Riyaz Ahmad Daga
    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurotoxic state coupled with a unique computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance. Recognized in the setting of a number of complex conditions (preeclampsia/eclampsia, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, organ transplantation, autoimmune disease and high-dose chemotherapy) in the imaging, clinical and laboratory features of this toxic state are becoming better elucidated. We are presenting a case of PRES due to seronegative systemic lupus erythematosus, with MRI findings of diffuse vasogenic edema. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:89-91. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139720
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:7281  | Downloaded:171
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Takayasu’s arteritis - aphasia as an initial presentation

    Davinder Singh Rana, Anuradha Batra, Ish Anand, Samir Patel, Pooja Gupta
    Takayasu arteritis (TA) is an uncommon disease of young women, characterized by granulomatous vasculitis of medium and large arteries. Neurological involvement is reported in only a minority of patients and occurrence of neurological syndromes as the first manifestation of disease has been rarely reported. We present clinical, laboratory and imaging findings of a 40 years old lady with TA, who initially presented with clinical manifestations of stroke in form of aphasia. The rarity of the disease and especially such a presentation can cause considerable delay in the diagnosis and treatment. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:192-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.52
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:2460  | Downloaded:169
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Serum immuno-biomarkers in gliomas

    Robin A. Buerki, Rimas V. Lukas
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:198-200. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.41
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:1417  | Downloaded:169
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Inflammation of the cerebral arteries: lifting the veil on the pathobiology of intracranial aneurysms

    Dale Ding
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:49-50. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153968
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:3590  | Downloaded:168
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Analysis of clinical data of viral encephalitis patients complicated with epilepsy during the acute phase

    Shi-Ying Chen, Wei Ma, Yan-Yan Chen, Xue-Wen Fan
    Aim: To compare the difference between viral encephalitis patients complicated with epilepsy group and those without epilepsy. Methods: The authors retrospectively study 116 cases of viral encephalitis patients admitted to the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and the Cardia-Cerebrovascular Disease Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from January 2011 to December 2016. There were 39 cases with epilepsy and 77 cases without epilepsy. By surveying the Hospital Information System, the authors collected their clinical data including general situations, medical history, physical... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:124-31. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.17
    Published on: 11 Jul 2017  | Viewed:3495  | Downloaded:165
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  • Short Communication|Open Access

    Trends in neurology fellowship training

    Jordan S.A. Williams, Trent S. Hodgson, Fernando D. Goldenberg, Rimas V. Lukas
    Aim: A need for Neurologists exists in the US. The majority of Neurology residency graduates go on to additional subspecialty training. Methods: Data from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education from 2001-2014 and the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties from was analyzed for trends in the number of Neurology subspecialty training programs and their composition. Results: There has been an overall trend of growth in the number of accredited Neurology subspecialty training programs and fellows. These trends vary between specific subspecialties. Conclusion: The authors... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:65-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.11
    Published on: 18 Apr 2017  | Viewed:14831  | Downloaded:163
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Systemic non-albicans infections presented as meningitis in chronic hepatitis B patient: a case report

    Wen-Jing Lv, Hui Bu, Jun-Ying He, Ran-Ran Sun, Yue-Li Zou
    Non-albicans candida meningitis is a relatively rare disease, with nonspecific clinical manifestation, which makes the misdiagnosis occur sometimes, especially in the early stage of the disease. Abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids, central vein cannulas, senility, big operation, malignancy, and total parenteral alimentation were all the susceptible factors of non-albicans candida infection. We present a case of this type of non-albicans infection in a 42-year-old woman who was early misdiagnosed as tuberculous meningitis and was treated with antibiotics and antituberculosis... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:161-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143681
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:6953  | Downloaded:163
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  • Minireview|Open Access

    How are necroptosis, immune dysfunction, and motoneuron death connected in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    Jian-Feng Liu, Ou-Xiang Zheng, Jun-Guo Xin, Hannah H. Chen, John J. Xin
    Abnormal immune response/inflammation is present in patients of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Autoimmune-related inflammation has been thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of ALS. However, how the abnormal immune responses are initiated, what specific immune cells and how these immune cells are involved in this disease have not been well understood. This is partly owing to two facts of ALS: late diagnosis and chronic nature. The late diagnosis makes it difficult to conclude whether the abnormal immune responses/inflammation is the cause or result of the disease. The chronic... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:109-16. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.12
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017  | Viewed:2818  | Downloaded:162
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Inhibition and reversal of growth cone collapse in adult sensory neurons by enteric glia-induced neurotrophic factors

    Simon Feng, Kiran Reddy, Cai-Xin Su, Shu-Cui Jiang
    Aim: Previous studies show enteric glia (EG)-conditioned medium promotes neurite outgrowth in adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) derived sensory neurons. This EG-conditioned medium contains various neurotrophic factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). This study attempts to determine the importance of these neurotrophic factors in enabling DRG-derived sensory neuron axons to overcome the inhibitory guidance cues released from the glial scar. Methods: A Semaphorin 3A... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:180-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.03
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:3948  | Downloaded:162
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    Cerebral ischemia at early postoperative period of direct revascularization for moyamoya disease: a case report and literature review

    Xiao-Lin Chen, Li Ma, Yu Chen, Jun-Lin Lu, Xun Ye, Rong Wang, Yuan-Li Zhao
    Hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion could be causes of early postoperative complications that lead to neurological deterioration in patients with moyamoya diseases (MMD) after superficial temporal artery (STA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis. Here, the authors described a case of child-onset bilateral MMD that manifested transient cerebral ischemia in the contralateral hemisphere after left STA-MCA bypass in young adulthood. A new onset of cerebral ischemia in the contralateral hemisphere and transient neurological deterioration suggested the fragile hemodynamics of MMD during... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:46-53. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.04
    Published on: 24 Mar 2017  | Viewed:2661  | Downloaded:161
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  • Topic: Neuroimmunology and Cancer|Open Access

    Integrins and focal adhesion kinase in the malignant behavior of gliomas

    Efstathia Giannopoulou, Andreas Tzakos, Andreas A. Argyriou
    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of glioma and is associated with a very poor prognosis. The standard treatment includes radiotherapy concurrent with temozolomide, however recently the Food and Drug Administration approved bevacizumab for use in patients with progressive glioblastoma following prior therapy. The limited number of treatment options points to the need for novel effective therapeutic approaches. A promising approach is the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in GBM treatment. However, the results from the majority of clinical trials using TKIs are not... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:4-7. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149395
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:3586  | Downloaded:159
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Pitfalls in clinical diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis in China

    Jia-Tang Zhang
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:3-5. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135566
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:7393  | Downloaded:158
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  • Review|Open Access

    The endonuclease VIII-like proteins: new targets in the treatment of ischemic stroke?

    Long-Xiu Yang, Wei Wang, Xiao Zhang, Qi Zhu, Qing Zhao, Gang Zhao
    Oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage is one of the major causes of neuronal injury in ischemia. The endonuclease VIII-like (NEIL) DNA glycosylases have a specific role in recognition and removal of oxidative DNA damage. The NEIL family includes NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3, that differ in substrate specificity, catalytic efficiency, and subcellular/tissue distribution. This opens for a situation-dependent phenotype in their absence. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge on the involvement of the NEILs in ischemic stroke and discuss the potential of these enzymes to serve... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:281-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167308
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:5966  | Downloaded:157
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Increased circulating rather than spinal cytokines accompany chronic pain behaviors in experimental bone cancer and arthritis

    Line Pourtau, Amarins Nieske Heeringa, Carole Rovère, Agnès Aubert, Jean-Louis Nahon, Sylvain Miraux, Jan Pieter Konsman
    Aim: Peripheral cytokines contribute to arthritis and bone cancer pain through sensory nerve actions. However, increased spinal cytokine and glial filament expression, coined neuroinflammation, has also been proposed to play a part in chronic pain. Therefore, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia and circulating cytokines were compared in murine arthritis and bone cancer models in relationship to behavioral signs of pain. Methods: Exploratory behaviors were studied after intra‑articular complete Freund’s adjuvant or bone intramedullary sarcoma cell injection. Nervous tissue and blood cytokine... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:153-60. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143680
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:8680  | Downloaded:157
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  • Research Highlights|Open Access

    Differences in stroke damage in aged mice may not be due to differential cerebral blood flow dynamics

    Venugopal Reddy Venna, Louise D. McCullough
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:13-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135569
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:6594  | Downloaded:157
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation for schizophrenia: potential and risks

    Peggy Bosch, Sujung Yeo, Heike Staudte, Pia Barisch, Sabina Lim, Maurits van den Noort
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:258-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.48
    Published on: 6 Dec 2017  | Viewed:2900  | Downloaded:156
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Primary diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cranial vault

    Shantanu Ghosh, Debabrata Das, Praveen Kumar, Rahul Varshney
    Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cranial vault with extra and intracranial extension in a nonimmunocompromised patient is extremely uncommon. Until date, only limited number of such cases has been reported in the literature and none was the lesion located as a diffuse swelling in the forehead. Imaging of the present case showed in a homogenous contrast enhancement mass involving the scalp of bifrontal supraorbital compartment and intracranial extra axial extension through the frontal bone with extension to the right orbit and right ethmoidal sinus. The intracranial mass was excised along... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:98-101. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139723
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:8007  | Downloaded:155
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Herpes zoster internuclear ophthalmoplegia

    Vijayashankar Paramanandam, Sowmini Perumal, Malcolm Jeyaraj, Sakthi Velayutham, Gobinathan Shankar
    Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) is caused by a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Patients with INO are usually asymptomatic but may have diplopia and oscillopsia. The most common causes of INO are ischemia and demyelination. Occurrence of INO due to infectious etiologies like tuberculosis, AIDS, brucellosis, cysticercosis and syphilis is well known. However, clinical presentation of INO associated with herpes zoster is very rare. The possible pathogenic mechanism for varicella zoster virus (VZV) induced INO could be demyelination or microinfarction in the brainstem. In the... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:102-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.41
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016  | Viewed:1975  | Downloaded:154
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Cardiac autonomic function in patients with myasthenia gravis: analysis of the heart-rate variability in the time-domain

    Sherifa Ahmed Hamed, Khaled Osama Mohamad, Mohamad Adam
    Aim: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular transmission disorder caused by acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies. Cardiac autonomic dysfunctions were rarely reported in patients with MG. Functional cardiac abnormalities were variable and reported in patients at severe stages of the disease and with thymoma. We investigated cardiac functions in patients with MG using Ambulatory 24-h electrocardiographic Holter-Monitoring. Methods: This study included 20 patients with MG with a mean age of 28.45 ± 8.89 years and duration of illness of 3.52 ± 1.15 years. The standard Holter reports include... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:21-5. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149419
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:9414  | Downloaded:152
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Emerging roles of microglia cells in the regulation of adult neural stem cells

    Eduardo Lira-Diaz, Oscar Gonzalez-Perez
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:204-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.32
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:2235  | Downloaded:150
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Thrombolysis lead to better long-term outcome in Chinese stroke patients

    Nian-Tong Lin, Ying-Chun Cao, Zheng-Zheng Cheng, Yuan Wang, Ping-Yi Xu
    Aim: The rate of thrombolysis in Chinese acute ischemic stroke (AIS) was low and little was known about the long-term outcome. We aimed to compare the prognosis between thrombolysis and ordinary anti-platelet strategies in AIS. Methods: Patients, who were consecutively registered in our hospital from January 2005 to June 2012, were retrospectively studied. Inclusion criteria: (1) primary diagnoses of cerebral infarction coded with implantable cardioverter defibrillator-10 I63 to I69; (2) symptoms onset to treatment time (OTT) within 6 h; (3) thrombolysis with alteplase (TROM) or ordinary... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:98-101. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.46
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016  | Viewed:2266  | Downloaded:150
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Isolated neurosarcoidosis presenting with recurrent hydrocephalus

    Frederick L. Hitti, Benjamin C. Kennedy, Yazmin Odia, Claire S. Riley, Sameer A. Sheth
    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory process that is characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. This protean disease may afflict nearly any organ system, including the central nervous system. Here, we present a case of isolated neurosarcoidosis that initially presented with hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. The patient’s hydrocephalus recurred multiple times and required two additional shunt placements over the 3‑year course of her illness. Due to the lack of systemic involvement, sarcoidosis was only diagnosed after a tissue biopsy of a Cauda equine... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:287-90. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167307
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:4123  | Downloaded:150
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A clinically isolated syndrome: butterfly glioma mimic

    Ramshekhar Menon, Bejoy Thomas, Hariharan Venkat Easwer, Samvedam Sandhyamani, Amita Nair, Muralidharan Nair
    The report explores a unique and treatable “butterfly”-glioma mimic and the neuroimaging characteristics that help to diagnose this entity. A 35-year-old patient presented with subacute-onset, progressive frontal lobe dysfunction followed by features of raised intracranial pressure. Neuroimaging features were consistent with a “butterfly” lesion that favored the possibility of a gliomatosis cerebri with significant edema and marked corpus callosum and fornix thickening. Contrast‑enhanced and perfusion images revealed a confluent tumefactive lesion with a characteristic “broken-ring” pattern... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:174-8. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.154435
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:6538  | Downloaded:149
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    The role of leukocytes in the formation and rupture of intracranial aneurysms

    Michael J. Strong, Peter S. Amenta, Aaron S. Dumont, Ricky Medel
    Ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) affect a small proportion of the population; however, the morbidity and mortality is disproportionally high. Although little is known about IA formation, progression, and rupture, mounting evidence suggests that inflammation may play an important role in IA pathogenesis. There is emerging evidence to suggest that leukocytes play a key role in generating and maintaining a pathologic inflammatory response that leads to aneurysm formation and rupture. We present the current literature pertaining to the role of leukocytes in aneurysm formation, progression,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:107-14. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153972
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:4426  | Downloaded:149
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  • Topic: Neuroimmunology and Cancer|Open Access

    Serum IgE levels in patients with intracranial tumors

    George A Alexiou, Amalia Kallinteri, Eleni Nita, Panagiota Zagorianakou, Stamatina Levidiotou, Spyridon Voulgaris
    Aim: Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between allergy and brain cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare the serum IgE levels between patients with gliomas and nonglial tumors and their possible prognostic role. Methods: A total of 84 patients with intracranial tumors were included in this study. At clinical presentation, estimation of serum IgE levels was assessed by nephelometry. Detailed information regarding the history of allergies was collected by interview. Results: Of the 84 cases, 42 were gliomas, 23 were meningiomas, 16 were metastases and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:15-7. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149398
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:5930  | Downloaded:148
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome after cerebral hemorrhage or head trauma

    Huan Jia, Ye Tian, Yan-Min Wu, Bin Li
    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an uncommon disease involving widespread peripheral nerve inflammatory demyelination which results in ascending symmetrical limb paralysis and areflexia. Approximately 2/3 of cases occurred following a simple, trivial antecedent infection. In northern China, diarrhea caused by Campylobacter jejuni is the most common etiology of GBS. This article presents 2 cases - post cerebral hemorrhage and post head traumatic GBS. Both patients suffered from acute motor axonal neuropathy, a main subtype of GBS, 14 days after cerebral hemorrhage or head trauma without any... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:61-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.51
    Published on: 12 Apr 2017  | Viewed:1752  | Downloaded:147
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Cerebral venous thrombosis in patient of relapse of ulcerative colitis: report of a case

    Rajat Agarwal, Anuradha Batra, Ish Anand, Davinder Singh Rana, Samir Patel
    Amongst the various systemic complications of ulcerative colitis, cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon and serious neurological complication mainly associated during episodes of relapse of ulcerative colitis. CVT is suspected to be a consequence of hypercoagulable state occurring during the disease in genetic predisposed persons. Most patients present with rapid neurological deterioration. This devastating intracranial complication requires immediate medical intervention to avoid potentially life threatening consequences. The outcome is good, provided the disease is diagnosed on... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:243-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.15
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:2502  | Downloaded:147
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  • Review|Open Access

    Immunotherapy for pediatric brain tumors

    Daniel B. Landi, Eric M. Thompson, David M. Ashley
    Immunotherapy, while effective against lymphoid cancers and some solid tumors, has shown less benefit against pediatric brain tumors. Tumor heterogeneity, a suppressive immune microenvironment, and the blood-brain barrier have the potential to diminish any immune-based approach and limit efficacy. More importantly, most pediatric brain tumors are immunologically quiescent, stemming from a low mutational burden. This review focuses on innate vs. adaptive immunotherapeutic approaches and describes how the immunologic context of pediatric brain tumors can help identify well-suited... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:29. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.35
    Published on: 23 Jul 2018  | Viewed:1798  | Downloaded:145
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Bilateral facial weakness following dengue fever

    Samir Patel, Rajeev Ranjan, Ritu Verma, C. S. Agrawal, Pooja Gupta
    Dengue is highly endemic in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Neurological complications of dengue infection are widespread and may involve almost all parts of nervous system through various pathogenic mechanisms. It may be related to neurotropism, systemic complications or post-infectious. We report a case of a 30-year-old male who developed bilateral facial weakness after dengue fever. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:63-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.48
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016  | Viewed:1826  | Downloaded:145
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Cerebral aneurysms and inflammation

    Toshihiro Yokoi, Makoto Saito, Yayoi Yoshimura, Keiichi Tsuji, Kazuhiko Nozaki
    Multiple inflammatory factors, playing a crucial role in cerebral aneurysm formation, have been identified. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been revealed to have a close connection with several risk factors that affect aneurysm formation. Remarkable expression in aneurysm walls of mRNA for TNF-α has been observed in humans. Possible therapeutic interventions to reduce the formation of cerebral aneurysms may include the inhibition of mediators of inflammation. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:55-8. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153977
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:5188  | Downloaded:145
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Steroids and plasma exchange in Isaacs' syndrome with anti-Caspr2 antibodies

    Daniele Orsucci, Gianfranco Cafforio, Gianluca Moscato, Alessandro Napolitano, Marco Margelli, Monica Mazzoni
    Isaacs’ syndrome is a disease characterized by nerve hyperexcitability. The patients are commonly treated with symptomatic therapies and immunomodulatory approaches, but no clinical trials are available to date. Here, we report the case of an anti-Caspr2-positive patient, presenting with continuous muscle twitches and diffuse muscle pain. He experienced a nearly complete clinical response to intravenous high-dose steroids combined with plasma exchange, sustained for at least 1 year. Our experience suggests that methylprednisolone 1000 mg/day × 5 days and consecutive tapering followed by... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.67
    Published on: 8 Mar 2018  | Viewed:5227  | Downloaded:144
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    LPS-induced TLR4 neuroinflammatory signaling in CHME-5 microglial cells

    Leandra K. Figueroa-Hall, Michael B. Anderson, Subhas Das, Craig W. Stevens, Randall L. Davis
    Aim: In the field of neuroinflammation, identifying specific effects of pharmacological agents and other factors is problematic given the relative difficulty and expense in obtaining and culturing primary microglia. Immortalized microglial cell lines are very useful, but only a limited number have been characterized for inflammatory signaling. Therefore, characterization of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in CHME-5, a microglial cell line, is expected to be of value as an experimental model of inflammatory signaling in the central nervous system (CNS).... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:219-31. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.38
    Published on: 19 Oct 2017  | Viewed:4583  | Downloaded:142
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome: single photon emission computerized tomography observations

    Salvadeeswaran Meenakshi-Sundaram, Sathyam Senthilnathan, Kaliappan Gurusamy Srinivasan, Somalinga Nagendran Karthik, Pandi Suresh, Somasundaram Palanirajan
    The authors report clinical correlations of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) findings in reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy (RPL). These are observations that have not received wide attention in literature. A 31-year-old hypertensive gentleman, on discontinuing antihypertensive medications, presented with vomiting, headache, focal motor to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures, altered sensorium, right gaze palsy and right hemiparesis. Accelerated hypertension was noted and he improved well with antihypertensive and anticonvulsant therapy. While cranial magnetic... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:28-32. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.12
    Published on: 20 Feb 2017  | Viewed:2987  | Downloaded:142
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Astrocytes: everything but the glue

    Oscar Gonzalez-Perez, Veronica Lopez-Virgen, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:115-7. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153979
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:3980  | Downloaded:142
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Peripheral NK and B regulatory cell frequencies are altered with symptomatic exacerbation in generalized myasthenia gravis patients

    Xiao-Yin Lai, Meng-Cui Gui, Jing Lin, Yue Li, Xuan Luo, Long-Xuan Li, Bi-Tao Bu
    Aim: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease, in which immunotherapy can improve symptoms for a period, but the majority of patients still experience symptomatic fluctuation or develop myasthenic crisis. This study aimed to explore the relationship between frequency of peripheral lymphocyte subsets and myasthenia gravis disease stage. Methods: The percentages of B regulatory (Breg) cells and natural killer (NK) cells in the peripheral blood samples obtained from 54 MG patients and 10 healthy controls were surveyed using flow cytometry. MG patients were subdivided into the ocular MG,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:179-87. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.29
    Published on: 18 Sep 2017  | Viewed:5483  | Downloaded:141
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Multiple autoimmune antibody limbic encephalitis: a case in a pregnant woman

    Meha Goyal, Kasey L. Gildersleeve, Stuart L. Tomko, Joseph S. Kass
    Autoimmune limbic encephalitis is most commonly associated with antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), among other neuronal cell surface receptors. Here, a case of a pregnant female with limbic encephalitis in the presence of multiple additional autoimmune antibodies is described. The patient was a 36-year-old female who presented with 4 days of confusion, hallucinations, hypersexuality, disinhibition, and pressured speech. The patient's work-up detected the presence of anti-NMDAR antibodies, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, and a yet uncharacterized... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:46-8. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149423
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:4337  | Downloaded:141
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Welcome to Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation: a new open access journal for neuroscience

    Gang Zhao, Thomas Müller
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:1-2. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135565
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:7023  | Downloaded:140
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Low antioxidant status of patients with central nervous system infections

    Jia Liu, Feng Tan, Min Li, Huan Yi, Li Xu, Xuan Wang, Xiu-Feng Zhong, Fu-Hua Peng
    Aim: The pathogenesis of central nervous system infections (CNSI) has not been fully understood; some studies indicated that reactive oxygen species may induce brain damage. The aim of our study was to investigate serum antioxidant status in patients with CNSI. Methods: The serum levels of uric acid (UA), bilirubin and albumin of 548 individuals were enrolled in our study, comprising of 114 healthy controls (HC) and 434 patients with five different kinds of CNSI, which including viral meningitis and/or meningoencephalitis, cysticercosis of brain, tuberculous meningitis and/or... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:262-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.20
    Published on: 15 Dec 2016  | Viewed:1738  | Downloaded:138
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  • Review|Open Access

    Altered filamin A enables amyloid beta-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease

    Lindsay H. Burns, Hoau-Yan Wang
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with proteopathy characterized by abnormalities in amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau proteins. Defective amyloid and tau propagate and aggregate, leading to eventual amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. New data show that a third proteopathy, an altered conformation of the scaffolding protein filamin A (FLNA), is critically linked to the amyloid and tau pathologies in AD. Altered FLNA is pervasive in AD brain and without apparent aggregation. In a striking interdependence, altered FLNA is both induced by Aβ and required for two... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:263-71. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.50
    Published on: 8 Dec 2017  | Viewed:3859  | Downloaded:136
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Auto-reactive B cells in MuSK myasthenia gravis

    Yoon-Ho Hong, Jung-Joon Sung
    Acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) is a protoypical autoimmune disease caused by a dysfunction of neuromuscular transmission at the postsynaptic part. Patients experience fluctuating muscle weakness that increases with exertion. It is typically classified into clinical subtypes depending on distribution of involved muscles, onset age, thymic pathology, and auto-antibodies. While the most common auto-antibodies are targeted towards the skeletal muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR), the list of target molecules of pathogenic auto-antibodies has been expanding to include the muscle specific... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:196-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.33
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:1370  | Downloaded:136
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Concurrent occurrence of both intracranial and intramedullary tuberculomas

    Sreeramulu Diguvinti, Srinivasulu Damam, Kiran Kumar Ubara, Chennakesavulu Dara
    Tuberculosis involving spinal cord in the form of intramedullary tuberculoma is uncommon, and the concurrent occurrence of cranial and intramedullary tuberculomas is extremely rare. We report a case of disseminated tuberculoma involving brain and spinal cord with miliary tuberculosis in a 32-year-old male presenting with fever, cerebellar signs and motor weakness of both upper and lower extremities. Based on magnetic resonance imaging and polymerase chain reaction, we diagnosed as tuberculoma. He completely recovered with conventional antituberculous treatment and steroids. The follow-up of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:118-20. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153980
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:10018  | Downloaded:135
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Miller-Fisher syndrome after etanercept

    Elena Grebenciucova, John H. Pula
    The authors describe a case of Miller-Fischer syndrome, a rare demyelinating syndrome, preceded by a viral prodrome and three doses of etanercept, an anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα) agent. Anti-TNFα agents are associated with an induction of episodes of demyelination and may unmask multiple sclerosis in those who are immunogenetically predisposed. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:93-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.48
    Published on: 23 May 2017  | Viewed:2043  | Downloaded:130
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Central nervous system blastomycosis presenting as a year-long chronic headache

    Elena Grebenciucova, Maciej S. Lesniak, Peter Pytel, Rimas V. Lukas
    This case describes a posterior fossa mass due to blastomycotic infection in a non-immunocompromised 41-year-old male presenting with a chronic headache for over one year. Given the risk of herniation, no lumbar puncture could be performed. A full work-up found no evidence of systemic infection. Surgical resection helped identify the mass as a blastomycotic abscess. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the mass were helpful in the identification of the mass as a fungal abscess Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:17-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.26
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016  | Viewed:3914  | Downloaded:130
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Cardiac arrhythmia with premature ventricular contractures induced by interferon beta in a patient with multiple sclerosis

    Igor Sobol, Marina Sobol, Konstantin E. Balashov
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Interferon (IFN) beta is an active ingredient of five out of twelve disease modifying treatments approved for MS. We report a case of IFN-beta-induced cardiac arrhythmia with premature ventricular contractures in a patient recently diagnosed with MS. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:43-5. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149422
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:4940  | Downloaded:130
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Prenatal zinc supplementation to lipopolysaccharide infected female rats prevents neurochemical, behavioral and biochemical deficits produced in infants

    Neha Sharma, Palvi Arora, Bimla Nehru
    Aim: Recent research revealed an association between maternal infection i.e. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure during pregnancy and increased risk for central nervous system disorders being passed onto the off-spring. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of LPS infection during d14-17 of pregnancy (equivalent to third trimester in humans) on neurochemical, neurobehavioral abnormalities, biochemical as well as histopathological parameters in male/female pups. Also, the effect of zinc supplementation throughout pregnancy to female rats in ameliorating LPS... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:33-45. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.38
    Published on: 21 Mar 2017  | Viewed:3044  | Downloaded:129
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Depression severity and its predictors among multiple sclerosis patients in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

    Adel Ali Alhazzani, Mohammed Saeed Alqahtani, Hassan Ogran, Osamah Hussain Abuhawi, Abdulrahman Yahya Asiri, Ali Mohammed Al-Hanash, Reem Ali AlQahtany, Adel Ali Alfaifi, Abdullmgeed Abdullah Asiri, Muhannad Ali Asiri
    Aim: To assess depression severity among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods: Our survey was carried out among a sample of 598 MS patients (35.8% were males and 64.2% were females) from all different regions of KSA. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The Chi-square test was applied to examine the association between demographic factors, depression severity and level of disability. Results: The mean age of patients at the time of diagnosis was 26.1 ± 7.9 years (range 15 to 60 years). The mean duration of the disease was 6.6 ± 4.8 years. More than quarter of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.55
    Published on: 23 Mar 2018  | Viewed:2555  | Downloaded:128
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    The role of neuroinflammation in juvenile bipolar disorder

    Giulia Serra, Lavinia De Chiara, Ciro Marangoni, Gianni L. Faedda
    A pathophysiological relationship has been reported between inflammatory processes, decreased levels of neurotrophins, increased oxidative stress and psychiatric disorders in both juvenile and adult ages. Moreover, this relationship remains unclear in juvenile bipolar disorder (BD). We performed a systematic literature review of studies reporting measurements of inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or neurotrophins in juvenile and young adult subjects with BD. Concordant findings showed that inflammatory markers are increased since the earlier stages of BD. A positive correlation... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:244-51. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167303
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:6887  | Downloaded:128
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Complete recovery from paraplegia following total spondylectomy for a primary diffuse B-cell lymphoma of the lumbar spine

    Atef Ben Nsir, Mohamed Boughamoura, Rym Hadhri, Mouroug Mahfoudh, Nejib Hattab
    Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the spine is very rare and occurs mostly in adults with strong male predominance. Here, we present the case of a 24-year-old girl harboring a primary diffuse B-cell lymphoma of L2 vertebral body, who was admitted in an emergency with cauda equina syndrome and completely recovered after total spondylectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Such findings have never been previously reported. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:179-81. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.157962
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:5457  | Downloaded:128
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  • Topic: Neuroimmunology and Cancer|Open Access

    Targeting glioblastoma with oncolytic adenovirus delta 24

    Konstantinos I. Tsamis, George A. Alexiou, Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:1-3. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149392
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:4061  | Downloaded:128
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Angioplasty and stenting for a young stroke patient diagnosed as cerebrovascular fibromuscular dysplasia

    Jia-Ping Xu, Yong-Jun Cao, Guo-Dong Xiao, Chun-Yuan Zhang, Ji-Jun Shi
    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a noninflammatory, nonatherosclerotic, and multifocal vascular disease, commonly involving the cerebral and renal arteries. Cerebrovascular stenosis and spontaneous dissection resulting from cerebrovascular FMD (cFMD) is one of the important causes of young stroke. Here, we reported the case of cFMD in a 28-year-old male patient with stroke. Digital subtraction angiogram demonstrated a dissecting aneurysm in the carotid artery and multiple stenoses in both vertebral arteries. Endovascular angioplasty with balloon predilation and stenting was successfully... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:291-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167310
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:4892  | Downloaded:127
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  • Review|Open Access

    A concise review of immunotherapy for glioblastoma

    Omer Sager, Ferrat Dincoglan, Selcuk Demiral, Bora Uysal, Hakan Gamsiz, Bahar Dirican, Murat Beyzadeoglu
    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumors in adults with a universally poor prognosis despite multimodal management including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Among the novel therapeutic strategies, immunotherapy deserves particular attention with its potential to evoke biologic response and harness the host immune system. Considerable success achieved for other tumors has elicited great enthusiasm and prompted research on immunotherapy for GB. While the central nervous system has traditionally been thought of as an immune-privileged site,... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:25. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.12
    Published on: 15 Jun 2018  | Viewed:920  | Downloaded:126
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Distinctive distribution of lymphocytes in unruptured and previously untreated brain arteriovenous malformation

    Yi Guo, Tarik Tihan, Helen Kim, Christopher Hess, Michael T. Lawton, William L. Young, Yuan-Li Zhao, Hua Su
    Aim: To test the hypothesis that lymphocyte infiltration in brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is not associated with iron deposition (indicator of micro-hemorrhage). Methods: Sections of unruptured, previously untreated bAVM specimens (n = 19) were stained immunohistochemically for T-lymphocytes (CD3+), B-lymphocytes (CD20+), plasma cells (CD138+) and macrophages (CD68+). Iron deposition was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin and Prussian blue stains. Superficial temporal arteries (STA) were used as control. Results: Both T‑lymphocytes and macrophages were present in unruptured,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:147-52. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143674
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:8138  | Downloaded:126
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Central somatosensory conduction slowing in adults with isolated elevated plasma level of homocysteine

    Jin Jun Luo, Favio Bumanlag, Ramin Ansari, Ya-Mei Tang, Nae J. Dun
    Aim: Elevated plasma level of homocysteine (eHcy) is a recognized risk factor for dementia. However, whether the central conduction is affected in patients with an isolated eHcy is unknown. In this study, we addressed whether central conduction is altered in adults with eHcy. Methods: Evoked potential studies including somatosensory (SSEP), visual (VEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), were performed to evaluate central conduction in patients with isolated eHcy. Results: Nine SSEP, 7 VEP, and 6 BAEP were studied in 9 patients with eHcy (age: 63.3 ± 7.5 years old, mean ±... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:26-30. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149420
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:6296  | Downloaded:125
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    Relationship of cerebral microbleeds to inflammatory marker levels

    Qiao-Li Lu, Chen Li, Ying Song, Liang Wang, Zhi-Rong Jia
    Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence, distribution and risk factors of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and the relation between CMBs and inflammation in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Methods: Two hundred and one patients without acute infarction or transient ischemic attack were enrolled. The presence and number of CMB were assessed on susceptibility-weighted imaging. The traditional risk factors of CMB were recorded. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were tested. Logistic regression... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:145-51. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.05
    Published on: 8 Aug 2017  | Viewed:2245  | Downloaded:124
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Status epilepticus in scleromyxedema

    Sofia Markoula, Sofia Zouroudi, Sotirios Giannopoulos, Kimon Tsoukanelis, Ananstasia Zikou, Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    Scleromyxedema is a rare dermatologic disorder, characterized by erythematous or yellowish lichenoid waxy papules. Neurological manifestations are rare but well-recognized. A 51-year-old woman, diagnosed with scleromyxedema, was admitted to the hospital with status epilepticus, caused by brain lesions, as disclosed in a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The patient was treated with anticonvulsants and corticosteroids and gradually recovered fully. A complete remission of the lesions was shown in a follow-up brain MRI. In cases with scleromyxedema and the presence of neurological... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:124-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.39
    Published on: 20 May 2016  | Viewed:2885  | Downloaded:124
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Developments in auxiliary examination of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Wei Zhao, Jiao-Jiao Jiang, Jia-Tang Zhang
    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), which is caused by prion scrapie protein, is a rare, chronic, transmissible and fatal disease. Clinical manifestations of CJD include rapidly progressive dementia, cerebellar ataxia, visual disturbance, as well as pyramidal and extrapyramidal tract signs. Four subtypes of CJD have been reported, including sporadic, familial or genetic, iatrogenic and variant. Given the infectiousness and high mortality of the disease, it is imperative that earlier and more accurate diagnostic methods are developed. In the past years, 14-3-3 protein testing and periodic sharp... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:136-44. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.01
    Published on: 21 Jul 2017  | Viewed:1757  | Downloaded:123
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Disc herniation or ependymoma recurrence?

    Aristeidis H. Katsanos, Ioannis Sarmas, Sotirios Giannopoulos, Sigliti-Henrietta Pelidou, Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    We present a 41-year-old female with previous history of ependymoma who underwent gross-total resection of the tumor and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt placement, followed by radiotherapy. Three years later a small enhancing area was noted in the left anterolateral spinal cord at the level of the C1-C2 vertebrae and a left posterior-lateral herniated disk in the C5-C6 level which was not present in the earlier MRI. This is a unique case, in which herniated disk pressuring effects needed to be differentiated from both radiation-induced treatment effect and tumor recurrence. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:65-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.42
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016  | Viewed:22473  | Downloaded:122
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case report of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor autoimmune encephalitis with sensory attack. Is limbic encephalitis only “limbic”?

    Sheng Chen, Xiao-Jie Zhang, Meng-Sha Yao, Xing-Hua Luan, Fei Yuan, Jun Liu, Shu-Feng Chen, Chen-Fei Jia, Sheng-Di Chen
    To emphasize the early diagnosis and treatment of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) autoimmune encephalitis, a rare clinical condition, teratoma-related, anti-NMDAR encephalitis should be suspected if young patients present with psychiatric, movement, and sensory symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment can decrease the mortality and disability rate. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:78-81. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.39
    Published on: 10 May 2017  | Viewed:2364  | Downloaded:120
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case report on subarachnoid and intraventricular neurocysticercosis

    Chen Shang, Hong-Zhi Guan, Li-Ying Cui, Bo Hou, Feng Feng, Ding-Rong Zhong
    Neurocysticercosis is the most common central nervous system helminthic infection in humans. We hereby present a case combining two rare manifestations of neurocysticercosis: the subarachnoid and intraventricular forms. The patient presented with hydrocephalus and neurologic deficits and although endoscopic removal of the cysts and two cycles of postoperative cysticidal drugs resulted in resolution of symptoms, they later recurred. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and a further cycle of albendazole plus dexamethasone led to substantial clinical improvement. Extraparenchymal... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:171-3. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.160858
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:3773  | Downloaded:120
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A rare case of quadrigeminal plate lipoma presenting with the sixth cranial nerve palsy

    Bipin Kumar Chaurasia, Narendra Shalike, Silak Ram Chaudhary, Shamsul Alam, Dhiman Chowdhory, Kanak Kanti Barua, Ranjit Kumar Chaurasiya, Raushan Kumar Chaurasia, Ramesh Kumar Chaurasia, Tolga Dundar
    Intracranial lipomas are rare benign tumour that is slow growing, generally asymptomatic, most frequently located in the midline areas and are usually an incidental finding on imaging and therefore cases are not frequently reported. This study reports a case of a patient with quadrigeminal plate lipoma presenting with obstructive hydrocephalous and the 6th cranial nerve palsy that was successfully treated with ventriculo-peritoneal shunting without addressing the lesion. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:232-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.40
    Published on: 9 Nov 2017  | Viewed:5305  | Downloaded:113
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  • Topic: Neuroimmunology and Cancer|Open Access

    A potential role of karyopherin a2 in the impaired maturation of dendritic cells observed in glioblastoma patients

    Konstantinos Gousias, Alexander von Ruecker, Gerrit H. Gielen, Pitt Niehusmann, Andreas Waha, Hartmut Vatter, Matthias Simon
    Aim: Patients with glioblastomas demonstrate well-documented immunological impairments including decreased numbers of mature dendritic cells (DCs). Recent data identified karyopherin a2 (KPNA2), a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling receptor, as diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for gliomas. The aim of this ongoing study is to correlate parameters of immunity and nucleocytoplasmic transport in glioblastoma patients. Methods: We preoperatively collected serum from 17 patients with glioblastomas and determined DC subsets (HLA DR+ Lin-, CD34-, CD45+, CD123+, CD11+ were analyzed) using a 6-color flow... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:8-14. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149396
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:7077  | Downloaded:113
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Neurocysticercosis and hippocampal damage: a causal link favored by epileptogenesis or neuroinflammation?

    Oscar H. Del Brutto, Victor J. Del Brutto
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:152-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.23
    Published on: 8 Aug 2017  | Viewed:1279  | Downloaded:109
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Thymoma-associated panencephalitis: a newly emerging paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome

    Lynda Adaobi Nwabuobi, Jacob Christian Pellinen, Thomas Mark Wisniewski
    Recently, a few case reports of thymoma-associated panencephalitis (TAPE) have brought to light a disease entity that has not been fully characterized. Literature review of TAPE reveals an array of associated neuronal antibodies, with varied responses to thymomectomy with or without immunotherapy. This report describes a case of TAPE and proposes that the GABAA receptor antibody is a potential target antigen driving the immune process in this disease entity. Treatment-wise, early thymomectomy consistently improves the overall course of disease. Further study of such cases will be critical... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:117-23. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.53
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017  | Viewed:1950  | Downloaded:108
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Neuron specific enolase is a potential target for regulating neuronal cell survival and death: implications in neurodegeneration and regeneration

    Rachel Polcyn, Mollie Capone, Azim Hossain, Denise Matzelle, Naren L. Banik, Azizul Haque
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:254-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.59
    Published on: 6 Dec 2017  | Viewed:1296  | Downloaded:107
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Hypodysfibrinogenemia in a young patient with recurrent strokes

    Daniele Orsucci, Stefania Salvetti, Marco Margelli, Michele Puglioli, Marco Vista, Monica Mazzoni
    Stroke is a complex disease, but in some instances is the direct result of a monogenic disease. Here we report the case of a 44-year-old Italian man who experienced recurrent transitory ischemic attacks and strokes. He also had right fetal-type posterior cerebral artery. He was diagnosed with congenital hypodysfibrinogenemia due to a mutation leading to a truncated fibrinogen gamma chain. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the links between fibrinogen dysfunction and stroke. Hypodysfibrinogenemia should be included among the monogenic diseases associated with ischemic stroke.... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.66
    Published on: 7 Mar 2018  | Viewed:3682  | Downloaded:106
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  • Review|Open Access

    Clinical application of cerebrospinal fluid cytology in China

    Hong-Zhi Guan, Gang Zhao
    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology is a fundamental test for the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) disease in neurological practice in China. CSF cytology provides diagnostic evidence in cases suspected of CNS infectious diseases, autoimmune encephalitis and CNS neoplastic disorders. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry make the cytological diagnosis more sensitive and specific. However, the diagnostic significance of CSF cytology should be interpreted and evaluated in the context of specific clinical backgrounds. Although molecular diagnostic techniques, including polymerase... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.52
    Published on: 11 Feb 2018  | Viewed:3641  | Downloaded:105
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Deep learning based computer-aided diagnosis for neuroimaging data: focused review and future potential

    V. B. Surya Prasath
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:1. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.68
    Published on: 12 Jan 2018  | Viewed:1382  | Downloaded:105
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case of atypical progressive multifocal encephalopathy mimicking acute ischemic stroke: case report and review of literature

    Maria Teresa Infante, Giovanni Novi, Riccarda Gentile, Laura Malfatto, Lucio Castellan, Carlo Serrati, Laura Barletta
    Progressive multifocal encephalopathy (PML) is a rare but often fatal infectious brain disease caused by the reactivation of John Cunningham polyomavirus. Reactivation occurs in immunocompromised individuals with AIDS and leukemia, on chemotherapy or being treated with immunosuppressant drugs (e.g. monoclonal antibodies). Cases of PML have been described in patients treated with natalizumab, efalizumab and rituximab used, respectively, for the treatment of (1) multiple sclerosis, (2) psoriasis and (3) haematological malignancies or systemic autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:211-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.52
    Published on: 19 Oct 2017  | Viewed:2853  | Downloaded:104
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    The roles of endoglin gene in cerebrovascular diseases

    Wan Zhu, Li Ma, Rui Zhang, Hua Su
    Endoglin (ENG, also known as CD105) is a transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) associated receptor and is required for both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is important in the development of cerebral vasculature and in the pathogenesis of cerebral vascular diseases. ENG is an essential component of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation complex. Animal studies showed that ENG deficiency impairs stroke recovery. ENG deficiency also impairs the regulation of vascular tone, which contributes to the pathogenesis of brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) and vasospasm. In... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:199-210. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.18
    Published on: 17 Oct 2017  | Viewed:2421  | Downloaded:103
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Cytology abnormal of cerebrospinal fluid in superficial siderosis of the central nervous system

    Cui Wang, Jian-Xia Diao, Shu-Min Li
    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SSCNS) is usually caused by chronic subarachnoid hemorrhage which leads to the accumulation of hemosiderin in the subpial layers of the brain and the spinal cord. The exact clinical manifestations and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the patient presented here is diagnosed SSCNS mainly due to the cytology of cerebrospinal fluid (CCSF) and the superficial siderosis of T2-weighted MRI. CCSF can be a good complementary to the diagnosis of SSCNS. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:155-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.03
    Published on: 9 Aug 2017  | Viewed:2087  | Downloaded:100
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Comments on “Loss of intranetwork and internetwork resting state functional connections with Alzheimer’s disease progression”

    Jiu Chen
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:247-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.30
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:1526  | Downloaded:98
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  • Review|Open Access

    MicroRNA-126 is a prospective target for vascular disease

    Mei-Jie Qu, Jia-Ji Pan, Xiao-Jing Shi, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Yao-Hui Tang, Guo-Yuan Yang
    MicroRNA-126 was involved in angiogenesis during physiological and pathological process. It was mainly expressed in endothelial cells, and defined as a pivotal biological molecule associated with vascular disease. Increased microRNA-126 in endothelial cells promotes angiogenesis in ischemic stroke, repairs impaired endothelial cells in atherosclerosis, and attenuates vascular dysfunction in diabetics. By contrast, microRNA-126 transferred from endothelial cell to smooth muscle cells could lead to proliferation that induced intimal hyperplasia. Additionally, microRNA-126 could be a tumor... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:10. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.01
    Published on: 9 Apr 2018  | Viewed:3400  | Downloaded:97
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Influence of chlorpyrifos oxon on the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice

    Jin Yu, Hong Zhu, Aruna Bhat, Hanaa El-Sayed, Tatyana Gudz, Sebastiano Gattoni-Celli, Mark S. Kindy
    Aim: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurological disorder and the most common form of dementia. Until date, the cause of AD eludes us, but a number of hypotheses have been put forward to try and understand the mechanisms involved. A series of studies have indicated that environmental factors, such as pesticides, heavy metals, and others can contribute to the development and progression of AD. Based on these data, we determined the impact of pesticides (chlorpyrifos oxon [CPO]) on AD-like pathogenesis in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. Methods: APP mice were... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:31-42. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149421
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:5663  | Downloaded:97
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Dramatic recovery from stroke following intravenous thrombolysis in a patient on prasugrel for recent percutaneous coronary angioplasty

    Salvadeeswaran Meenakshi-Sundaram, Palanikumar Subburamakrishnan, Jude Vinoth, Simon Victor Rajah Sanjeevi Madhan-Rajah, Somalinga Nagendran Karthik, Pandi Suresh
    The authors report the first case of thrombolysis in a patient already receiving both aspirin and prasugrel following a recent ischemic coronary event. A 55-year-old gentleman was treated for inferior wall myocardial infarction with aspirin, prasugrel and percutaneous angioplasty of right coronary artery. Three days following the procedure he developed acute ischemic stroke due to a left middle cerebral artery infarction with a National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) of 24 and was treated with alteplase. Therapy was interrupted after completion of 29 mg (for a body weight of 65... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:216-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.57
    Published on: 19 Oct 2017  | Viewed:2197  | Downloaded:93
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    Inflammation and genetic factors in stroke pathogenesis

    Hua Su
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:260-2. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.22
    Published on: 8 Dec 2017  | Viewed:1155  | Downloaded:92
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalitis in a patient with sarcoidosis on hydroxychloroquine with negative cerebrospinal fluid testing for the John Cunningham virus

    Ovais Inamullah, Casey Farin, Linh Tran, Roger McLendon, Mark Skeen, Joel Morgenlander
    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by the John Cunningham (JC) virus typically seen in immuno-compromised patients. Several drugs that suppress that immune system have already been known to cause PML such as natalizumab and rituximab. We present a patient with sarcoidosis who develops PML in the rare setting of minimal immunosuppression with only hydroxychloroquine. There was significant delay in the diagnosis due to negative cerebrospinal fluid testing for JC virus and concern for neuro-sarcoidosis, but... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.61
    Published on: 31 Jan 2018  | Viewed:3322  | Downloaded:91
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Applying clustering coefficient to the pattern of international author collaboration in neuroimmunology and neuroinflammation

    Chen-Fang Hsu, Tsair-Wei Chien, Julie Chi Chow, Willy Chou
    Aim: To apply cluster coefficient (CC) to the pattern of international author collaborations in neuroimmunology and neuroinflammation using data from Medline and to visualize results using Google maps and social network analysis (SNA). Methods: Selecting 2799 abstracts, author names, countries, and keywords on January 22, 2018 from Medline based on keyword neuroimmunology (or neuroinflammation) within the article title since 1982, we reported following features: (1) nation distribution for the 1st author’s nationality; (2) eminent journals and authors in the field of neuroimmunology and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.03
    Published on: 30 Mar 2018  | Viewed:3036  | Downloaded:87
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Surgical management of clinoidal meningiomas: 10 cases analysis

    Shamsul Alam, Bipin Kumar Chaurasia, Narendra Shalike, Abu Naim Wakil Uddin, Dhiman Chowdhury, Akhlaque Hossain Khan, Ayub Ansari, Kanak Kanti Barua, Mashiur Rahman Majumder
    Aim: The purpose of this article is to advocate standard skull base technique for removing the clinoidal meningioma and to delineate the technique’s advantages that aid in achieving an improved extent of tumor resection and enhancing the patients’ overall outcome, specially their visual outcome. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 10 consecutive patients with clinoidal meningiomas who underwent surgical resection at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and other private clinics between May 2013 and July 2016. A standard pterional craniotomy technique consisting of... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Tumor
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:21. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.64
    Published on: 24 May 2018  | Viewed:1441  | Downloaded:85
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  • Review|Open Access

    Photodynamic therapy mediated immune therapy of brain tumors

    Henry Hirschberg, Kristian Berg, Qian Peng
    Photodynamic therapy of tumors requires the topical, systemic or oral administration of a photosensitizing compound,illumination of the tumor area by light of a specific wavelength and the presence of oxygen. Light activation of the photosensitizer transfers energy to molecular oxygen creating singlet oxygen, a highly reactive and toxic species that rapidly reacts with cellular components causing oxidative damage, ultimately leading to cell death. Tumor destruction caused by photodynamic therapy is not only a result of direct tumor cell toxicity via the generation of reactive oxygen species... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:27. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.31
    Published on: 10 Jul 2018  | Viewed:1546  | Downloaded:83
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Sparganosis of the brain: a case report and brief review

    Hai-Xia Li, Shi-Hai Luan, Wei Guo, Ling-Yang Hua, Hong-Da Zhu, Jiao-Jiao Deng, Hai-Liang Tang, Xian-Cheng Chen, Qing Xie, Ye Gong
    Human sparganosis is a rare disease often affecting muscle, subcutaneous tissue and other locations, but sparganosis invading the brain is rather rare. Cerebral sparganosis has no specific symptoms which makes the diagnosis quite difficult and is usually neglected in the clinic. Here the authors reported a case of a 29-year-old female who was diagnosed with cerebral sparganosis and underwent surgery in their department and a brief review of the literature was conducted as well. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:238-42. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.16
    Published on: 20 Nov 2017  | Viewed:2034  | Downloaded:82
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  • Review|Open Access

    Systemic therapy in patients with NSCLC with brain metastasis: the emerging role of immunotherapy

    Jiaxin Niu, Junle Zhou, Sara Lindebak, Fade Mahmoud
    Brain metastasis (BM) is very common in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The development of BM remains a serious complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The traditional approach has been largely focusing on local therapy with surgery and/or radiation. New approaches to treat BM in NSCLC are urgently needed to offer safe and effective therapy as well as to preserve neurocognitive function. There has been significant progress in development of systemic therapies to treat advanced NSCLC in recent years. Targeted therapy has been gradually... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:32. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.39
    Published on: 23 Aug 2018  | Viewed:559  | Downloaded:81
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Acetaminophen metabolites p-aminophenol and AM404 inhibit microglial activation

    Wyatt T. Slattery, Andis Klegeris
    Aim: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, deposits of amyloid beta and neurofibrillary tangles. Inflammation facilitated by microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. Epidemiological data indicate that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, reduce the risk of developing AD when administered over the course of two or more years. The mechanisms underlying this protective effect are unknown. Acetaminophen (paracetamol), which is not effective... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:11. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.05
    Published on: 12 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1502  | Downloaded:80
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  • Review|Open Access

    Glioma associated microglia/macrophages, a potential pharmacological target to promote antitumor inflammatory immune response in the treatment of glioblastoma

    Cinzia Dello Russo, Natalia Cappoli
    Glioma associated microglia/macrophages (GAMs) constitute the largest proportion of glioma infiltrating cells, particularly in high grade tumors (i.e., glioblastoma). Once inside the tumors, GAMs usually acquire a specific phenotype of activation that favors tumor growth, angiogenesis and promotes the invasion of normal brain parenchyma. Therefore, treatments that limit or prevent GAMs’ recruitment at the tumor site or modulate their immune activation promoting antitumor activities are expected to exert beneficial effects in glioblastoma. In the present paper, we aim at the revision of... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:36. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.42
    Published on: 20 Sep 2018  | Viewed:682  | Downloaded:54
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Peripheral plasmablasts in anti-MuSK myasthenia gravis

    Guillermo Delgado-García, Teresa Corona-Vázquez
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:236-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.39
    Published on: 9 Nov 2017  | Viewed:749  | Downloaded:53
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    The emerging TDP-43 proteinopathy

    George P. Paraskevas, Mara Bourbouli, Ioannis Zaganas, Elisabeth Kapaki
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:17. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.18
    Published on: 10 May 2018  | Viewed:780  | Downloaded:49
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Customized autophagy: a long way to go

    Jayantee Kalita, Usha Kant Misra, Alok Kumar
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:16. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.22
    Published on: 7 May 2018  | Viewed:535  | Downloaded:47
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    In silico design of novel gold-phosphate containing compounds as selective inhibitors of cathepsin B in neuroinflammation

    Alexsey V. Raevsky, Mohsen Sharifi, Vasily Pinchuk, Andis Klegeris
    Aim: Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by pathological protein aggregates and microglia-driven chronic neuroinflammation. Cathepsin B has been proposed as the potential target for inhibiting adverse activation of microglia and slowing down this neurodegenerative disease. Currently available inhibitors of cathepsin B enzymatic activity are non-selective; therefore, the design and synthesis of novel specific inhibitors could facilitate the development of a new class of anti-Alzheimer medications targeting the neuroinflammatory component of this disease. Methods: We describe molecular... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:33. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.34
    Published on: 27 Aug 2018  | Viewed:374  | Downloaded:45
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Neuroprotection by minocycline in murine traumatic spinal cord injury: analyses of matrix metalloproteinases

    Tiffany Rice, Jennifer E.A. Larsen, Hui Li, Robert K. Nuttall, Peter H. Larsen, Steven Casha, John Hurlbert, Dylan R. Edwards, V. Wee Yong
    Aim: Minocycline has neuroprotective activities in several models of neurological disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI) where it prevents axonal loss and improves functional recovery. There are still gaps of knowledge on minocycline in SCI including whether it ameliorates neuronal loss at the focal site of trauma, and whether minocycline reduces the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of enzymes implicated in the pathophysiology of SCI. This study addressed these gaps. Methods: Mice were treated with either minocycline or vehicle control after a spinal cord... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:243-53. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.51
    Published on: 28 Nov 2017  | Viewed:5229  | Downloaded:44
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Multiple sclerosis: depression and disability are globally shared issues of concern

    Victor M. Rivera
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:12. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.16
    Published on: 18 Apr 2018  | Viewed:908  | Downloaded:43
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Sleep disturbance and treatment adherence: commentary on the study by Bosch et al. (2016)

    Kanako Ishizuka, Toshiya Inada
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:15. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.14
    Published on: 26 Apr 2018  | Viewed:336  | Downloaded:39
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Demyelinating central nervous system lesions, following the use of tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist

    Emmanuel Bogdos, Sofia Markoula, Anastasia Zikou, Paraskevi Voulgari, Aleksandros Drosos, Spyridon Konitsiotis
    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antagonists have been a valuable tool in treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but reports and case series of neurological adverse events due to TNFα antagonists have been reported. Furthermore, central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma always remains a remote, yet a worrisome complication in RA patients, especially in those under treatment with methotrexate (MTX). We present a female patient with RA with tumor-like active demyelinating lesions attributed to TNFα antagonist, confirmed by an FNA biopsy, otherwise clinically and radiologically... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:19. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.07
    Published on: 22 May 2018  | Viewed:460  | Downloaded:38
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Precentral gyrus abnormal connectivity in male and female patients with schizophrenia

    Mahdi Zarei
    Aim: Dysfunction of the precentral gyrus plays a role in the impairments of voluntary movement associated with schizophrenia and it has significantly reduced functional activity in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the precentral gyrus alteration and its abnormal connectivity in schizophrenia. Methods: The region of interest-based analysis method was used to investigate the precentral gyrus connectivity alteration in schizophrenia. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of healthy control subjects and patients with schizophrenia... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:13. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.02
    Published on: 23 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1229  | Downloaded:37
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Shifting paradigm in brain abscess management at tertiary care centre in Nepal

    Prakash Kafle, Mohan Raj Sharma, Sushil Krishna Shilpakar, Gopal Sedain, Amit Pradhanang, Ram Kumar Shrestha, Binod Raj Bhandari, Christine Groves
    Aim: Brain abscess is a challenging clinical entity with substantial high case fatality rates despite significant advances in imaging techniques, laboratory modalities, surgical interventions, and antimicrobial treatment.Otogenic and cardiogenic sources are among the most common. Classic clinical presentation is seen in very few cases only. Burr hole with aspiration works well with good clinical outcomes. Control of primary source in cases of ear infection in the single setting results in good outcomes, reduces for additional surgery, and decreases the duration of hospital stay. Methods:... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on neuro-immunological and neuro-inflammatory lesions
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:24. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.10
    Published on: 7 Jun 2018  | Viewed:750  | Downloaded:35
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Very rare upperdorsal intramedullary epidermoid with paraplegia: a case report

    Md. Atikur Rahman, Bipin Kumar Chaurasia, Md. Arif Hossain, Saequa Habib, Kanak Kanti Barua
    Intramedullary upperdorsal epidermoid tumor is very rare. As far as we know, a small number of epidermoid tumors in the spinal cord have been reported in the journal for a long time. Most of the time, the spinal cord epidermoids are intradural extramedullary. We are reporting a case of a 21-year-old young man with paraplegia and upper dorsal pain for 6 months with normal physical findings. Magnetic resonance imaging scan shows that spinal intramedullary space occupying lesions in the dorsal 2/3 (D2/3) level. Total clearance was accomplished by performing laminectomy. Day to day paraplegia... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:14. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.57
    Published on: 23 Apr 2018  | Viewed:731  | Downloaded:34
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Azygos anterior cerebral artery aneurysm with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Dhiman Chowdhury, Nazmin Ahmed, Bipin Chaurasia, Kanak Kanti Barua
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:39. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.37
    Published on: 28 Sep 2018  | Viewed:468  | Downloaded:32
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  • Technical Note|Open Access

    Classification of brain tumor using devernay sub-pixel edge detection and k-nearest neighbours methodology

    Ayush Arora, Ritesh Kumar, Shubham Tiwari, Mysore Shwetha, Selvam Venkatesan, Ramesh Babu
    Any disease can be treated only once it is imaged, detected and classified. This paper proposes a set of algorithms for classification of a brain tumor with better accuracy and efficiency. The proposal uses a JPEG format of the DICOM image fed into three stages namely pre-processing, segmentation using sub-pixel edge detection method and using the nearest neighbor methodology for the detection and differentiation of benign and malignant tumors. Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:26. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.11
    Published on: 19 Jun 2018  | Viewed:778  | Downloaded:32
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  • Review|Open Access

    Therapeutic approach targeting apolipoprotein E binding region and low-density lipoprotein receptor for Alzheimer’s disease

    Michael Leon, Darrell Sawmiller, Brian Giunta, Jun Tan
    Approximately 13% of the population over the age of 65 years is estimated to have AD. The total number of cases is expected to increase over the coming decades. The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype is the greatest genetic determinant for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) development. The ApoE4 allele increases the risk of AD by 4 to 14 fold while the ApoE2 allele has an opposing effect; decreasing risk. Indeed many studies have demonstrated that carriers of the ApoE2 allele are associated with greater likelihood of survival to advanced age, superior verbal learning ability in advanced age, and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:30. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.26
    Published on: 31 Jul 2018  | Viewed:658  | Downloaded:31
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  • Review|Open Access

    It takes two: potential therapies and insights involving microglia and macrophages in glioblastoma

    John Choi, Nicholas Mai, Christopher Jackson, Zineb Belcaid, Michael Lim
    Microglia and macrophages, two myeloid cell lineages with different origins, make up the majority of immune cells present in glioblastoma (GBM). However, much of the literature does not distinguish between microglia and macrophages, despite a growing body of evidence that demonstrates key structural and functional differences between the cell types. Further