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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Current diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Xiao-Su Guo , Hui Bu , Jun-Ying He , Yue-Li Zou , Yue Zhao , Yuan-Yuan Li , Jun-Zhao Cui , Ming-Ming Zheng , Wei-Xin Han , Ze-Yan Zhao
    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a central nervous system infectious disease caused by Cryptococcus. It is the most common fungal infection in the central nervous system, accounting for about 48% of fungal infection. The disease occurs mainly in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and concentrates in the immunocompromised people without AIDS. There are nearly one million new cases of CM each year, and about 70% of them died. In China, CM occurs mainly in people without AIDS and there is an increasing trend in recent years. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to reducing...
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neurological manifestations in Fabry disease

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks , Yara Dadalti Fragoso
    Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, progressive, multisystem and highly debilitating disease. FD is an X-linked lysosome storage disorder that results in α-galactosidase A deficiency. The subsequent accumulation of glycosphingolipids is more evident in vascular endothelium and smooth-muscle cells. The resulting effect of the deposition is generalized inflammation and vasculopathy, which can also affect the central and peripheral nervous system. FD progresses with kidney dysfunction, angiokeratoma of the skin, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular events and neurological disorders. In the present...
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    On the need to unify neuroscience and physics

    Maurits van den Noort , Sabina Lim , Peggy Bosch
    Published on: 26 Dec 2016
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  • Review|Open Access

    The association between human cytomegalovirus and glioblastomas: a review

    Christian B. Hochhalter , Christopher Carr , Brannan E. O’Neill , Marcus L. Ware , Michael J. Strong
    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was reported in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) over a decade ago and this finding has the potential to increase our understanding of the disease and it offers an alternative tumor-specific therapeutic target. Due of this promise, there is a fair amount of time, energy and money being directed towards understanding and utilizing this connection for eventual therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, the association between GBM and HCMV remains controversial. Several studies have reported conflicting results, further undermining the potential clinical value of this...
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    A review with comments on herpes simplex encephalitis in adults

    Xu-Zheng Zuo , Wei-Ju Tang , Xiu-Ying Chen , Wen Huang
    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can cause permanent injury to the brain parenchyma. As such, it is usually treated as a medical emergency for which correct immediate diagnosis and introduction of specific therapies are critical for survival and prognosis. Here, the authors review the current status of diagnosis and treatments and discuss unsolved issues surrounding therapeutic interventions. The authors also highlight the current expectations for future management of HSE.
    Published on: 20 Feb 2017
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Inhibition and reversal of growth cone collapse in adult sensory neurons by enteric glia-induced neurotrophic factors

    Simon Feng , Kiran Reddy , Cai-Xin Su , Shu-Cui Jiang
    Aim: Previous studies show enteric glia (EG)-conditioned medium promotes neurite outgrowth in adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) derived sensory neurons. This EG-conditioned medium contains various neurotrophic factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). This study attempts to determine the importance of these neurotrophic factors in enabling DRG-derived sensory neuron axons to overcome the inhibitory guidance cues released from the glial scar. Methods: A Semaphorin 3A...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
    [HTML]   [PDF]   Viewed:1997 Downloaded:96
  • Review|Open Access

    Immune-to-brain signaling and substrates of altered behavior during inflammation

    Jan Pieter Konsman
    During the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection, and when in a safe environment, endothermic mammals typically display reduced activity and food intake, increased sleep, and the adoption of a curled-up position. These changes in behavior, in concert with fever, are adaptive in that they contribute to host survival. The present review addresses the immune-to-brain signaling pathways as well as possible neural substrates mediating reduced exploration and food intake during acute systemic inflammation. These involve rapid activation of peripheral nerves and glutamatergic brainstem...
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016
    [HTML]   [PDF]   Viewed:1962 Downloaded:132
  • Original Article|Open Access

    Single low-dose lipopolysaccharide preconditioning: neuroprotective against axonal injury and modulates glial cells

    Ryan C. Turner , Zachary J. Naser , Brandon P. Lucke-Wold , Aric F. Logsdon , Reyna L. Vangilder , Rae R. Matsumoto , Jason D. Huber , Charles L. Rosen
    Aim: Over 7 million traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are reported each year in the United States. However, treatments and neuroprotection following TBI are limited because secondary injury cascades are poorly understood. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration before controlled cortical impact can contribute to neuroprotection. However, the underlying mechanisms and whether LPS preconditioning confers neuroprotection against closed-head injuries remains unclear. Methods: The authors hypothesized that preconditioning with a low dose of LPS (0.2 mg/kg) would regulate glial reactivity and...
    Published on: 20 Jan 2017
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case report of acute pediatric bacterial meningitis due to the rare isolate, Pseudomonas putida

    Grishma V. Kulkarni
    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is the medical emergency which warrants an early diagnosis and an aggressive therapy. Despite the availability of the potent newer antibiotics, the mortality caused by ABM and its complications remain high in India, ranging from 16% to 32%. The aim of this case report is to present the rare isolation of Pseudomonas putida from cerebrospinal fluid sample. Besides this, the author also emphasizes the importance of correctly identifying the organism and thus the selection of the most accurate antibiotic from the susceptibility profile to allow for early...
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    When friend turns foe: central and peripheral neuroinflammation in central nervous system injury

    Paul Marcet , Nicole Santos , Cesar V. Borlongan
    Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is common, and though it has been well studied, many aspects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke are poorly understood. TBI and stroke are two pathologic events that can cause severe, immediate impact to the neurostructure and function of the CNS, which has been recognized recently to be exacerbated by the body’s own immune response. Although the brain damage induced by the initial trauma is most likely unsalvageable, the secondary immunologic deterioration of neural tissue gives ample opportunity for therapeutic strategists seeking to...
    Published on: 17 May 2017
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Possible role of microparticles in neuroimmune signaling of microglial cells

    Stephanie M. Schindler , Ekta Bajwa , Jonathan P. Little , Andis Klegeris
    Aim: Submicron fragments termed microparticles (MPs), derived from all major central nervous system cell types including neurons and glia (microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes), have emerged as novel intercellular signaling agents. This study tested the hypothesis that MPs derived from activated microglia, which represent the mononuclear phagocyte system in the brain, could induce pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic responses of microglia in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Methods: Human THP-1 monocytic cells were used to model human microglia. MPs derived from these cells were reapplied to...
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Analysis of clinical data of viral encephalitis patients complicated with epilepsy during the acute phase

    Shi-Ying Chen , Wei Ma , Yan-Yan Chen , Xue-Wen Fan
    Aim: To compare the difference between viral encephalitis patients complicated with epilepsy group and those without epilepsy. Methods: The authors retrospectively study 116 cases of viral encephalitis patients admitted to the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and the Cardia-Cerebrovascular Disease Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from January 2011 to December 2016. There were 39 cases with epilepsy and 77 cases without epilepsy. By surveying the Hospital Information System, the authors collected their clinical data including general situations, medical history, physical...
    Published on: 11 Jul 2017
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Interleukin-1beta: a common thread between inflammation, pain and opioid tolerance

    Shekher Mohan
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Takayasu’s arteritis - aphasia as an initial presentation

    Davinder Singh Rana , Anuradha Batra , Ish Anand , Samir Patel , Pooja Gupta
    Takayasu arteritis (TA) is an uncommon disease of young women, characterized by granulomatous vasculitis of medium and large arteries. Neurological involvement is reported in only a minority of patients and occurrence of neurological syndromes as the first manifestation of disease has been rarely reported. We present clinical, laboratory and imaging findings of a 40 years old lady with TA, who initially presented with clinical manifestations of stroke in form of aphasia. The rarity of the disease and especially such a presentation can cause considerable delay in the diagnosis and treatment.
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Meningeal carcinomatosis: a retrospective analysis of seventy-seven cases

    Feng-Na Chu , Yue Lang , Xiao-Min Sun , Li Cui
    Aim: Meningeal carcinomatosis is a special type of malignant tumor characterized by short survival and poor prognosis. In the present study, the authors aim to analyze the clinical, laboratory data and prognosis of meningeal carcinomatosis patients. Methods: The authors enrolled 77 cases of meningeal carcinomatosis from 2003 to 2013 in the First Hospital of Jilin University. The clinical data including age, gender, symptoms at onset, clinical manifestations, primary tumors and the laboratory data including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), tumor markers as well as the imaging data were analyzed....
    Published on: 20 Jan 2017
    [HTML]   [PDF]   Viewed:1388 Downloaded:67
  • Editorial|Open Access

    Schizophrenia and comorbid sleep disorders

    Maurits van den Noort , Heike Staudte , Benoît Perriard , Sujung Yeo , Sabina Lim , Peggy Bosch
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016
    [HTML]   [PDF]   Viewed:1383 Downloaded:178
  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case report of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor autoimmune encephalitis with sensory attack. Is limbic encephalitis only “limbic”?

    Sheng Chen , Xiao-Jie Zhang , Meng-Sha Yao , Xing-Hua Luan , Fei Yuan , Jun Liu , Shu-Feng Chen , Chen-Fei Jia , Sheng-Di Chen
    To emphasize the early diagnosis and treatment of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) autoimmune encephalitis, a rare clinical condition, teratoma-related, anti-NMDAR encephalitis should be suspected if young patients present with psychiatric, movement, and sensory symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment can decrease the mortality and disability rate.
    Published on: 10 May 2017
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  • Minireview|Open Access

    How are necroptosis, immune dysfunction, and motoneuron death connected in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    Jian-Feng Liu , Ou-Xiang Zheng , Jun-Guo Xin , Hannah H. Chen , John J. Xin
    Abnormal immune response/inflammation is present in patients of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Autoimmune-related inflammation has been thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of ALS. However, how the abnormal immune responses are initiated, what specific immune cells and how these immune cells are involved in this disease have not been well understood. This is partly owing to two facts of ALS: late diagnosis and chronic nature. The late diagnosis makes it difficult to conclude whether the abnormal immune responses/inflammation is the cause or result of the disease. The chronic...
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017
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  • Review|Open Access

    Population of inflammatory cells in intracranial aneurysm with the special insight to the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches

    Hirokazu Koseki , Tomohiro Aoki
    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) can cause a lethal subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture. The prevalence of IA is high in the general public; however, the annual risk for the rupture of an incidentally found lesion is relatively low. Therefore, it is crucial to selectively diagnose rupture-prone IAs among many diagnosed IAs, and properly treat such IAs before rupture. Recent studies using human IA specimens or experimentally-induced IAs in animals have revealed some important findings regarding the role of inflammatory cells infiltrating IA lesions. Currently, IA is considered an inflammatory...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
    [HTML]   [PDF]   Viewed:1260 Downloaded:112
  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    Cerebral ischemia at early postoperative period of direct revascularization for moyamoya disease: a case report and literature review

    Xiao-Lin Chen , Li Ma , Yu Chen , Jun-Lin Lu , Xun Ye , Rong Wang , Yuan-Li Zhao
    Hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion could be causes of early postoperative complications that lead to neurological deterioration in patients with moyamoya diseases (MMD) after superficial temporal artery (STA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis. Here, the authors described a case of child-onset bilateral MMD that manifested transient cerebral ischemia in the contralateral hemisphere after left STA-MCA bypass in young adulthood. A new onset of cerebral ischemia in the contralateral hemisphere and transient neurological deterioration suggested the fragile hemodynamics of MMD during...
    Published on: 24 Mar 2017
    [HTML]   [PDF]   Viewed:1233 Downloaded:92
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