Most Viewed: Last ONE YEAR
  • Review|Open Access

    Interactions between neurotropic pathogens, neuroinflammatory pathways, and autophagic neural cell death

    Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu, Eunice Ter
    In recent times, there has been a significant increase in studies focusing on immunological functions of autophagy, however, knowledge of its roles and regulations in the central nervous system remains unclear. Present reviews highlight the molecular cross talk between host cell autophagy with inflammatory pathways in the context of neuro-infections. Intracellular pathogens might have an ability to manipulate the autophagy regulation process. An augmented autophagy and inflammation at the site of infection is traditionally considered host protective. Moreover, host cell autophagy might also... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:2. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.43
    Published on: 17 Jan 2018  | Viewed:5971  | Downloaded:273
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Steroids and plasma exchange in Isaacs' syndrome with anti-Caspr2 antibodies

    Daniele Orsucci, Gianfranco Cafforio, Gianluca Moscato, Alessandro Napolitano, Marco Margelli, Monica Mazzoni
    Isaacs’ syndrome is a disease characterized by nerve hyperexcitability. The patients are commonly treated with symptomatic therapies and immunomodulatory approaches, but no clinical trials are available to date. Here, we report the case of an anti-Caspr2-positive patient, presenting with continuous muscle twitches and diffuse muscle pain. He experienced a nearly complete clinical response to intravenous high-dose steroids combined with plasma exchange, sustained for at least 1 year. Our experience suggests that methylprednisolone 1000 mg/day × 5 days and consecutive tapering followed by... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.67
    Published on: 8 Mar 2018  | Viewed:5013  | Downloaded:136
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Neuroprotection by minocycline in murine traumatic spinal cord injury: analyses of matrix metalloproteinases

    Tiffany Rice, Jennifer E.A. Larsen, Hui Li, Robert K. Nuttall, Peter H. Larsen, Steven Casha, John Hurlbert, Dylan R. Edwards, V. Wee Yong
    Aim: Minocycline has neuroprotective activities in several models of neurological disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI) where it prevents axonal loss and improves functional recovery. There are still gaps of knowledge on minocycline in SCI including whether it ameliorates neuronal loss at the focal site of trauma, and whether minocycline reduces the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of enzymes implicated in the pathophysiology of SCI. This study addressed these gaps. Methods: Mice were treated with either minocycline or vehicle control after a spinal cord... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:243-53. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.51
    Published on: 28 Nov 2017  | Viewed:5011  | Downloaded:43
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A rare case of quadrigeminal plate lipoma presenting with the sixth cranial nerve palsy

    Bipin Kumar Chaurasia, Narendra Shalike, Silak Ram Chaudhary, Shamsul Alam, Dhiman Chowdhory, Kanak Kanti Barua, Ranjit Kumar Chaurasiya, Raushan Kumar Chaurasia, Ramesh Kumar Chaurasia, Tolga Dundar
    Intracranial lipomas are rare benign tumour that is slow growing, generally asymptomatic, most frequently located in the midline areas and are usually an incidental finding on imaging and therefore cases are not frequently reported. This study reports a case of a patient with quadrigeminal plate lipoma presenting with obstructive hydrocephalous and the 6th cranial nerve palsy that was successfully treated with ventriculo-peritoneal shunting without addressing the lesion. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:232-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.40
    Published on: 9 Nov 2017  | Viewed:4993  | Downloaded:109
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  • Review|Open Access

    The role of ubiquitinated TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Yi Dong, Yan Chen
    Deposition of intracellular ubiquitin inclusion in motor neurons is one of the leading pathogenic mechanisms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The transactive response DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is the main component of intracellular ubiquitin inclusion bodies in pathological deposits. TDP-43 is mainly distributed in the nucleus of neurons, and participates in nuclear RNA transcription, alternative splicing and mRNA stability regulation. The tardbp, as a coding gene, provides instructions for making TDP-43. After post-translational modification, the pathological TDP-43 induces... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.47
    Published on: 26 Feb 2018  | Viewed:3727  | Downloaded:205
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  • Review|Open Access

    Altered filamin A enables amyloid beta-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease

    Lindsay H. Burns, Hoau-Yan Wang
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with proteopathy characterized by abnormalities in amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau proteins. Defective amyloid and tau propagate and aggregate, leading to eventual amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. New data show that a third proteopathy, an altered conformation of the scaffolding protein filamin A (FLNA), is critically linked to the amyloid and tau pathologies in AD. Altered FLNA is pervasive in AD brain and without apparent aggregation. In a striking interdependence, altered FLNA is both induced by Aβ and required for two... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:263-71. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.50
    Published on: 8 Dec 2017  | Viewed:3619  | Downloaded:132
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Hypodysfibrinogenemia in a young patient with recurrent strokes

    Daniele Orsucci, Stefania Salvetti, Marco Margelli, Michele Puglioli, Marco Vista, Monica Mazzoni
    Stroke is a complex disease, but in some instances is the direct result of a monogenic disease. Here we report the case of a 44-year-old Italian man who experienced recurrent transitory ischemic attacks and strokes. He also had right fetal-type posterior cerebral artery. He was diagnosed with congenital hypodysfibrinogenemia due to a mutation leading to a truncated fibrinogen gamma chain. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the links between fibrinogen dysfunction and stroke. Hypodysfibrinogenemia should be included among the monogenic diseases associated with ischemic stroke.... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.66
    Published on: 7 Mar 2018  | Viewed:3455  | Downloaded:102
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  • Review|Open Access

    Clinical application of cerebrospinal fluid cytology in China

    Hong-Zhi Guan, Gang Zhao
    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology is a fundamental test for the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) disease in neurological practice in China. CSF cytology provides diagnostic evidence in cases suspected of CNS infectious diseases, autoimmune encephalitis and CNS neoplastic disorders. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry make the cytological diagnosis more sensitive and specific. However, the diagnostic significance of CSF cytology should be interpreted and evaluated in the context of specific clinical backgrounds. Although molecular diagnostic techniques, including polymerase... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.52
    Published on: 11 Feb 2018  | Viewed:3342  | Downloaded:98
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalitis in a patient with sarcoidosis on hydroxychloroquine with negative cerebrospinal fluid testing for the John Cunningham virus

    Ovais Inamullah, Casey Farin, Linh Tran, Roger McLendon, Mark Skeen, Joel Morgenlander
    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by the John Cunningham (JC) virus typically seen in immuno-compromised patients. Several drugs that suppress that immune system have already been known to cause PML such as natalizumab and rituximab. We present a patient with sarcoidosis who develops PML in the rare setting of minimal immunosuppression with only hydroxychloroquine. There was significant delay in the diagnosis due to negative cerebrospinal fluid testing for JC virus and concern for neuro-sarcoidosis, but... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.61
    Published on: 31 Jan 2018  | Viewed:3094  | Downloaded:86
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  • Review|Open Access

    MicroRNA-126 is a prospective target for vascular disease

    Mei-Jie Qu, Jia-Ji Pan, Xiao-Jing Shi, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Yao-Hui Tang, Guo-Yuan Yang
    MicroRNA-126 was involved in angiogenesis during physiological and pathological process. It was mainly expressed in endothelial cells, and defined as a pivotal biological molecule associated with vascular disease. Increased microRNA-126 in endothelial cells promotes angiogenesis in ischemic stroke, repairs impaired endothelial cells in atherosclerosis, and attenuates vascular dysfunction in diabetics. By contrast, microRNA-126 transferred from endothelial cell to smooth muscle cells could lead to proliferation that induced intimal hyperplasia. Additionally, microRNA-126 could be a tumor... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:10. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.01
    Published on: 9 Apr 2018  | Viewed:3052  | Downloaded:86
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Applying clustering coefficient to the pattern of international author collaboration in neuroimmunology and neuroinflammation

    Chen-Fang Hsu, Tsair-Wei Chien, Julie Chi Chow, Willy Chou
    Aim: To apply cluster coefficient (CC) to the pattern of international author collaborations in neuroimmunology and neuroinflammation using data from Medline and to visualize results using Google maps and social network analysis (SNA). Methods: Selecting 2799 abstracts, author names, countries, and keywords on January 22, 2018 from Medline based on keyword neuroimmunology (or neuroinflammation) within the article title since 1982, we reported following features: (1) nation distribution for the 1st author’s nationality; (2) eminent journals and authors in the field of neuroimmunology and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.03
    Published on: 30 Mar 2018  | Viewed:2971  | Downloaded:84
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation for schizophrenia: potential and risks

    Peggy Bosch, Sujung Yeo, Heike Staudte, Pia Barisch, Sabina Lim, Maurits van den Noort
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:258-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.48
    Published on: 6 Dec 2017  | Viewed:2867  | Downloaded:154
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Depression severity and its predictors among multiple sclerosis patients in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

    Adel Ali Alhazzani, Mohammed Saeed Alqahtani, Hassan Ogran, Osamah Hussain Abuhawi, Abdulrahman Yahya Asiri, Ali Mohammed Al-Hanash, Reem Ali AlQahtany, Adel Ali Alfaifi, Abdullmgeed Abdullah Asiri, Muhannad Ali Asiri
    Aim: To assess depression severity among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods: Our survey was carried out among a sample of 598 MS patients (35.8% were males and 64.2% were females) from all different regions of KSA. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The Chi-square test was applied to examine the association between demographic factors, depression severity and level of disability. Results: The mean age of patients at the time of diagnosis was 26.1 ± 7.9 years (range 15 to 60 years). The mean duration of the disease was 6.6 ± 4.8 years. More than quarter of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.55
    Published on: 23 Mar 2018  | Viewed:2495  | Downloaded:119
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Sparganosis of the brain: a case report and brief review

    Hai-Xia Li, Shi-Hai Luan, Wei Guo, Ling-Yang Hua, Hong-Da Zhu, Jiao-Jiao Deng, Hai-Liang Tang, Xian-Cheng Chen, Qing Xie, Ye Gong
    Human sparganosis is a rare disease often affecting muscle, subcutaneous tissue and other locations, but sparganosis invading the brain is rather rare. Cerebral sparganosis has no specific symptoms which makes the diagnosis quite difficult and is usually neglected in the clinic. Here the authors reported a case of a 29-year-old female who was diagnosed with cerebral sparganosis and underwent surgery in their department and a brief review of the literature was conducted as well. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:238-42. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.16
    Published on: 20 Nov 2017  | Viewed:1976  | Downloaded:81
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  • Review|Open Access

    Immunotherapy for pediatric brain tumors

    Daniel B. Landi, Eric M. Thompson, David M. Ashley
    Immunotherapy, while effective against lymphoid cancers and some solid tumors, has shown less benefit against pediatric brain tumors. Tumor heterogeneity, a suppressive immune microenvironment, and the blood-brain barrier have the potential to diminish any immune-based approach and limit efficacy. More importantly, most pediatric brain tumors are immunologically quiescent, stemming from a low mutational burden. This review focuses on innate vs. adaptive immunotherapeutic approaches and describes how the immunologic context of pediatric brain tumors can help identify well-suited... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:29. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.35
    Published on: 23 Jul 2018  | Viewed:1680  | Downloaded:142
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Acetaminophen metabolites p-aminophenol and AM404 inhibit microglial activation

    Wyatt T. Slattery, Andis Klegeris
    Aim: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, deposits of amyloid beta and neurofibrillary tangles. Inflammation facilitated by microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. Epidemiological data indicate that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, reduce the risk of developing AD when administered over the course of two or more years. The mechanisms underlying this protective effect are unknown. Acetaminophen (paracetamol), which is not effective... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:11. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.05
    Published on: 12 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1423  | Downloaded:77
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  • Review|Open Access

    Photodynamic therapy mediated immune therapy of brain tumors

    Henry Hirschberg, Kristian Berg, Qian Peng
    Photodynamic therapy of tumors requires the topical, systemic or oral administration of a photosensitizing compound,illumination of the tumor area by light of a specific wavelength and the presence of oxygen. Light activation of the photosensitizer transfers energy to molecular oxygen creating singlet oxygen, a highly reactive and toxic species that rapidly reacts with cellular components causing oxidative damage, ultimately leading to cell death. Tumor destruction caused by photodynamic therapy is not only a result of direct tumor cell toxicity via the generation of reactive oxygen species... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:27. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.31
    Published on: 10 Jul 2018  | Viewed:1394  | Downloaded:79
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Deep learning based computer-aided diagnosis for neuroimaging data: focused review and future potential

    V. B. Surya Prasath
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:1. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.68
    Published on: 12 Jan 2018  | Viewed:1351  | Downloaded:103
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Surgical management of clinoidal meningiomas: 10 cases analysis

    Shamsul Alam, Bipin Kumar Chaurasia, Narendra Shalike, Abu Naim Wakil Uddin, Dhiman Chowdhury, Akhlaque Hossain Khan, Ayub Ansari, Kanak Kanti Barua, Mashiur Rahman Majumder
    Aim: The purpose of this article is to advocate standard skull base technique for removing the clinoidal meningioma and to delineate the technique’s advantages that aid in achieving an improved extent of tumor resection and enhancing the patients’ overall outcome, specially their visual outcome. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 10 consecutive patients with clinoidal meningiomas who underwent surgical resection at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and other private clinics between May 2013 and July 2016. A standard pterional craniotomy technique consisting of... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Tumor
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:21. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.64
    Published on: 24 May 2018  | Viewed:1311  | Downloaded:78
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Neuron specific enolase is a potential target for regulating neuronal cell survival and death: implications in neurodegeneration and regeneration

    Rachel Polcyn, Mollie Capone, Azim Hossain, Denise Matzelle, Naren L. Banik, Azizul Haque
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:254-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.59
    Published on: 6 Dec 2017  | Viewed:1265  | Downloaded:104
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Precentral gyrus abnormal connectivity in male and female patients with schizophrenia

    Mahdi Zarei
    Aim: Dysfunction of the precentral gyrus plays a role in the impairments of voluntary movement associated with schizophrenia and it has significantly reduced functional activity in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the precentral gyrus alteration and its abnormal connectivity in schizophrenia. Methods: The region of interest-based analysis method was used to investigate the precentral gyrus connectivity alteration in schizophrenia. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of healthy control subjects and patients with schizophrenia... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:13. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.02
    Published on: 23 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1151  | Downloaded:36
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    Inflammation and genetic factors in stroke pathogenesis

    Hua Su
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:260-2. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.22
    Published on: 8 Dec 2017  | Viewed:1123  | Downloaded:90
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Streptococcus gallolyticus meningocephalitis in adults: the first case report in China

    Yue-Man Dai, Min Zhao, Hong-Ji Lu, Li-Xin Wan
    We report on the first case of a Streptococcus gallolyticus meningocephalitis in China. The bacterium was first isolated from the patient’s cerebrospinal fluid and has so far not been associated with human infections of the central nervous system. We hope our case report can give some references for the diagnosis and treatment of the Streptococcus gallolyticus meningocephalitis in China. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:28. | doi:10.20517//2347-8659.2018.09
    Published on: 16 Jul 2018  | Viewed:912  | Downloaded:21
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Multiple sclerosis: depression and disability are globally shared issues of concern

    Victor M. Rivera
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:12. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.16
    Published on: 18 Apr 2018  | Viewed:873  | Downloaded:41
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  • Review|Open Access

    A concise review of immunotherapy for glioblastoma

    Omer Sager, Ferrat Dincoglan, Selcuk Demiral, Bora Uysal, Hakan Gamsiz, Bahar Dirican, Murat Beyzadeoglu
    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumors in adults with a universally poor prognosis despite multimodal management including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Among the novel therapeutic strategies, immunotherapy deserves particular attention with its potential to evoke biologic response and harness the host immune system. Considerable success achieved for other tumors has elicited great enthusiasm and prompted research on immunotherapy for GB. While the central nervous system has traditionally been thought of as an immune-privileged site,... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:25. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.12
    Published on: 15 Jun 2018  | Viewed:864  | Downloaded:119
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    The emerging TDP-43 proteinopathy

    George P. Paraskevas, Mara Bourbouli, Ioannis Zaganas, Elisabeth Kapaki
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:17. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.18
    Published on: 10 May 2018  | Viewed:753  | Downloaded:48
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  • Technical Note|Open Access

    Classification of brain tumor using devernay sub-pixel edge detection and k-nearest neighbours methodology

    Ayush Arora, Ritesh Kumar, Shubham Tiwari, Mysore Shwetha, Selvam Venkatesan, Ramesh Babu
    Any disease can be treated only once it is imaged, detected and classified. This paper proposes a set of algorithms for classification of a brain tumor with better accuracy and efficiency. The proposal uses a JPEG format of the DICOM image fed into three stages namely pre-processing, segmentation using sub-pixel edge detection method and using the nearest neighbor methodology for the detection and differentiation of benign and malignant tumors. Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:26. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.11
    Published on: 19 Jun 2018  | Viewed:739  | Downloaded:31
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Peripheral plasmablasts in anti-MuSK myasthenia gravis

    Guillermo Delgado-García, Teresa Corona-Vázquez
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:236-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.39
    Published on: 9 Nov 2017  | Viewed:730  | Downloaded:52
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Very rare upperdorsal intramedullary epidermoid with paraplegia: a case report

    Md. Atikur Rahman, Bipin Kumar Chaurasia, Md. Arif Hossain, Saequa Habib, Kanak Kanti Barua
    Intramedullary upperdorsal epidermoid tumor is very rare. As far as we know, a small number of epidermoid tumors in the spinal cord have been reported in the journal for a long time. Most of the time, the spinal cord epidermoids are intradural extramedullary. We are reporting a case of a 21-year-old young man with paraplegia and upper dorsal pain for 6 months with normal physical findings. Magnetic resonance imaging scan shows that spinal intramedullary space occupying lesions in the dorsal 2/3 (D2/3) level. Total clearance was accomplished by performing laminectomy. Day to day paraplegia... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:14. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.57
    Published on: 23 Apr 2018  | Viewed:687  | Downloaded:33
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Shifting paradigm in brain abscess management at tertiary care centre in Nepal

    Prakash Kafle, Mohan Raj Sharma, Sushil Krishna Shilpakar, Gopal Sedain, Amit Pradhanang, Ram Kumar Shrestha, Binod Raj Bhandari, Christine Groves
    Aim: Brain abscess is a challenging clinical entity with substantial high case fatality rates despite significant advances in imaging techniques, laboratory modalities, surgical interventions, and antimicrobial treatment.Otogenic and cardiogenic sources are among the most common. Classic clinical presentation is seen in very few cases only. Burr hole with aspiration works well with good clinical outcomes. Control of primary source in cases of ear infection in the single setting results in good outcomes, reduces for additional surgery, and decreases the duration of hospital stay. Methods:... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on neuro-immunological and neuro-inflammatory lesions
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:24. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.10
    Published on: 7 Jun 2018  | Viewed:680  | Downloaded:34
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  • Review|Open Access

    Therapeutic approach targeting apolipoprotein E binding region and low-density lipoprotein receptor for Alzheimer’s disease

    Michael Leon, Darrell Sawmiller, Brian Giunta, Jun Tan
    Approximately 13% of the population over the age of 65 years is estimated to have AD. The total number of cases is expected to increase over the coming decades. The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype is the greatest genetic determinant for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) development. The ApoE4 allele increases the risk of AD by 4 to 14 fold while the ApoE2 allele has an opposing effect; decreasing risk. Indeed many studies have demonstrated that carriers of the ApoE2 allele are associated with greater likelihood of survival to advanced age, superior verbal learning ability in advanced age, and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:30. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.26
    Published on: 31 Jul 2018  | Viewed:545  | Downloaded:27
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    The novel-molecule T11TS facilitated arousal of glioma-mediated dormancy of bone-marrow hematopoietic stem-cells

    Somnath Mondal, Ankur Datta, Iman Hazra, Sk Md Omar Faruk, Saibal Moitra, Suhnrita Chaudhuri, Lakshyajeet Nath, Prasanta Kumar Das, Anjan Kumar Basu, Santanu Kumar Tripathi, Swapna Chaudhuri
    Aim: T11TS, a potent anti-gliomagenic glycoprotein, stimulates both peripheral and intracranial immune response. The status of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BMHSCs), the cradle of regeneration of all blood cells, during gliomagenic global immune devastations has not yet been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to delineate the effects of T11TS on immature and mature compartments of hematopoietic machinery. Methods: Flowcytometric analysis of cultured BMHSCs was evaluated for assesing the expression pattern of early hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) markers such as CD34+, Sca-1+, c-kit+... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:34. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.13
    Published on: 30 Aug 2018  | Viewed:522  | Downloaded:18
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Customized autophagy: a long way to go

    Jayantee Kalita, Usha Kant Misra, Alok Kumar
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:16. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.22
    Published on: 7 May 2018  | Viewed:513  | Downloaded:46
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  • Review|Open Access

    Systemic therapy in patients with NSCLC with brain metastasis: the emerging role of immunotherapy

    Jiaxin Niu, Junle Zhou, Sara Lindebak, Fade Mahmoud
    Brain metastasis (BM) is very common in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The development of BM remains a serious complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The traditional approach has been largely focusing on local therapy with surgery and/or radiation. New approaches to treat BM in NSCLC are urgently needed to offer safe and effective therapy as well as to preserve neurocognitive function. There has been significant progress in development of systemic therapies to treat advanced NSCLC in recent years. Targeted therapy has been gradually... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:32. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.39
    Published on: 23 Aug 2018  | Viewed:511  | Downloaded:76
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Hypoparathyroidism presenting with late onset seizures - a report of two cases from rural India

    Archana Verma, Alok Kumar
    Hypoparathyroidism leading to hypocalcaemia is an important treatable cause of recurrent seizures. Neurological manifestations due to hypoparathyroidism include: seizures, paresthesia, depression, psychosis, extra pyramidal symptoms, and features of raised intracranial pressure. Seizures may be the presenting symptoms preceding other signs of hypocalcaemia. Primary hypoparathyroidism presenting for the first time as seizures in the elderly is quite rare. Here we report two cases of hypoparathyroidism presenting with seizures in the elderly as the sole manifestation of hypocalcaemia. The... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:20. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.65
    Published on: 23 May 2018  | Viewed:446  | Downloaded:27
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Commentary on “Depression severity and its predictors among multiple sclerosis patients in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study”

    Thomas Müller
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:23. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.27
    Published on: 7 Jun 2018  | Viewed:440  | Downloaded:24
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  • Review|Open Access

    Glioma associated microglia/macrophages, a potential pharmacological target to promote antitumor inflammatory immune response in the treatment of glioblastoma

    Cinzia Dello Russo, Natalia Cappoli
    Glioma associated microglia/macrophages (GAMs) constitute the largest proportion of glioma infiltrating cells, particularly in high grade tumors (i.e., glioblastoma). Once inside the tumors, GAMs usually acquire a specific phenotype of activation that favors tumor growth, angiogenesis and promotes the invasion of normal brain parenchyma. Therefore, treatments that limit or prevent GAMs’ recruitment at the tumor site or modulate their immune activation promoting antitumor activities are expected to exert beneficial effects in glioblastoma. In the present paper, we aim at the revision of... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:36. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.42
    Published on: 20 Sep 2018  | Viewed:433  | Downloaded:45
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Commentary on interactions between neurotropic pathogens, neuroinflammatory pathways, and autophagic neural cell death

    Michaela Cellina, Marcello Orsi
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:22. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.15
    Published on: 5 Jun 2018  | Viewed:422  | Downloaded:24
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Demyelinating central nervous system lesions, following the use of tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist

    Emmanuel Bogdos, Sofia Markoula, Anastasia Zikou, Paraskevi Voulgari, Aleksandros Drosos, Spyridon Konitsiotis
    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antagonists have been a valuable tool in treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but reports and case series of neurological adverse events due to TNFα antagonists have been reported. Furthermore, central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma always remains a remote, yet a worrisome complication in RA patients, especially in those under treatment with methotrexate (MTX). We present a female patient with RA with tumor-like active demyelinating lesions attributed to TNFα antagonist, confirmed by an FNA biopsy, otherwise clinically and radiologically... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:19. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.07
    Published on: 22 May 2018  | Viewed:417  | Downloaded:36
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Cerebral fat embolism syndrome after long bone fracture due to traffic accident: a case report

    Xing-Yong Chen, Jian-Ming Fan, Ming-Feng Deng, Ting Jiang, Feng Luo
    Cerebral fat embolism syndrome (CFES) is an uncommon but serious complication of long bone fracture. We reported a 19-year-old male patient who sustained CFES due to multiple limbs long bone fractures after a traffic accident injury. He gradually developed into coma within 24 h after his injury. The arterial blood gas analyses were normal. There was a small amount of gas in the right pleural cavity on the thoracic computed tomography (CT). Although there were no remarkable intracranial abnormalities on the initial brain CT findings, the typical brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:31. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.23
    Published on: 1 Aug 2018  | Viewed:394  | Downloaded:25
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Sleep disturbance and treatment adherence: commentary on the study by Bosch et al. (2016)

    Kanako Ishizuka, Toshiya Inada
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:15. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.14
    Published on: 26 Apr 2018  | Viewed:305  | Downloaded:38
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    In silico design of novel gold-phosphate containing compounds as selective inhibitors of cathepsin B in neuroinflammation

    Alexsey V. Raevsky, Mohsen Sharifi, Vasily Pinchuk, Andis Klegeris
    Aim: Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by pathological protein aggregates and microglia-driven chronic neuroinflammation. Cathepsin B has been proposed as the potential target for inhibiting adverse activation of microglia and slowing down this neurodegenerative disease. Currently available inhibitors of cathepsin B enzymatic activity are non-selective; therefore, the design and synthesis of novel specific inhibitors could facilitate the development of a new class of anti-Alzheimer medications targeting the neuroinflammatory component of this disease. Methods: We describe molecular... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:33. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.34
    Published on: 27 Aug 2018  | Viewed:286  | Downloaded:32
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Changes in microglia activity of rat brain induced by Macrovipera lebetina obtusa venom

    Anna A. Darbinyan, Marina V. Antonyan, Hasmik R. Koshatashyan, Susanna S. Gevorgyan, Hovhannes V. Arestakesyan, Zaruhi I. Karabekian, Naira M. Ayvazyan, Armen V. Voskanyan
    Aims: The microglia activity of rat brain following exposure of the Macrovipera lebetina obtusa venom was investigated. Methods: Histochemical analysis of brain microcirculatory bed staining by Ca2+ ATPase method for variable doses after intraperitoneal injections given for different time periods was used. The hemorrhagic activity of snake venom metalloproteinases was tested. Toxicological data were calculated using Behrens and Miller-Tainter methods. Surface, size of brain microglial cells (MGCs) and staining intensity were quantified using ImageJ software. Results: The vasodestructive... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:41. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.33
    Published on: 29 Sep 2018  | Viewed:279  | Downloaded:9
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Bone mineral density in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Chrissa Sioka, Andreas Fotopoulos
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:18. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.06
    Published on: 22 May 2018  | Viewed:247  | Downloaded:24
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Azygos anterior cerebral artery aneurysm with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Dhiman Chowdhury, Nazmin Ahmed, Bipin Chaurasia, Kanak Kanti Barua
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:39. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.37
    Published on: 28 Sep 2018  | Viewed:238  | Downloaded:28
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Predictors of severity and outcome and roles of intravenous thrombolysis and biomarkers in first ischemic stroke

    Kartick Chandra Ghosh, Ramesh Bhattacharya, Saikat Ghosh, Manoj Mahata, Sarbajit Das, Suman Das, Gourango Prosad Mondal
    Aim: Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability. The proportion of patients receiving recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is low in our country. Biomarkers to identify patients at risk of severe disease, and guide treatment and prognosis would be valuable. This article aims to identify the factors that can independently prognosticate the acute phase of ischemic stroke. Methods: All patients with the first episode of ischemic stroke admitted to the Neurology Department between 1st December 2017 to 31st March 2018 were included in this pilot study. Stroke severity was... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:38. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.28
    Published on: 27 Sep 2018  | Viewed:214  | Downloaded:15
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  • Erratum|Open Access

    Erratum: Characteristics and predictive biomarkers of drug resistant epilepsy -- study in Georgia

    Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation Editorial Office
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:35. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.54
    Published on: 6 Sep 2018  | Viewed:200  | Downloaded:12
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  • Meeting Abstracts|Open Access

    2018 Mental Health and Neurology Conference

    Moh Hasan Machfoed
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:37. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.45
    Published on: 25 Sep 2018  | Viewed:184  | Downloaded:8
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  • Review|Open Access

    Presynaptic mechanisms at prefrontal synapses involved in persistent pain

    Hiroki Toyoda
    The cumulative evidence from animal and human studies revealed that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays essential roles in pain sensation and persistent pain. It has been evident in the ACC synapses of animals that changes in both the presynaptic and postsynaptic function are caused by peripheral nerve injury. Thus far, postsynaptic changes in the ACC following nerve injury have been primarily studied to understand the mechanisms of chronic pain. In recent years, studies focusing on the presynaptic mechanisms in chronic pain have been progressively increased. In this review, I will... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:40. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.48
    Published on: 29 Sep 2018  | Viewed:138  | Downloaded:5
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  • Review|Open Access

    It takes two: potential therapies and insights involving microglia and macrophages in glioblastoma

    John Choi, Nicholas Mai, Christopher Jackson, Zineb Belcaid, Michael Lim
    Microglia and macrophages, two myeloid cell lineages with different origins, make up the majority of immune cells present in glioblastoma (GBM). However, much of the literature does not distinguish between microglia and macrophages, despite a growing body of evidence that demonstrates key structural and functional differences between the cell types. Furthermore, the current M1/M2 paradigm used to sub-classify microglia and macrophages has proven to be incomplete at best, with the growing amount of in vivo and genomic data incompatible with this dichotomy. Finally, a number of studies have... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:42. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.47
    Published on: 18 Oct 2018  | Viewed:34  | Downloaded:2
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  • Review|Open Access

    CAR-T cell therapy in neuro-oncology: applications and toxicity

    Akanksha Sharma, Gustavo De Leon, Alyx Porter, Marie F Grill, Allison Rosenthal, Christine E Brown, Kristin Swanson, Maciej M Mrugala
    A new era for cancer treatment has been ushered in with the field of cancer immunotherapy. After initial success with systemic malignancies, several of these promising treatments are being investigated for efficacy with primary and secondary brain tumors. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are being studied, both with systemic infusion and direct administration to the tumor and into the cerebrospinal fluid, with promising early results. Systemic CAR-T treatment can have serious systemic and neurological toxicities that are important for the practicing neurologist and neuro-oncologist... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:43. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.51
    Published on: 18 Oct 2018  | Viewed:5  | Downloaded:0
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