Most Viewed: Last 12 Months
  • Review

    Current diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Xiao-Su Guo , Hui Bu , Jun-Ying He , Yue-Li Zou , Yue Zhao , Yuan-Yuan Li , Jun-Zhao Cui , Ming-Ming Zheng , Wei-Xin Han , Ze-Yan Zhao
    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a central nervous system infectious disease caused by Cryptococcus. It is the most common fungal infection in the central nervous system, accounting for about 48% of fungal infection. The disease occurs mainly in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and concentrates in the immunocompromised people without AIDS. There are nearly one million new cases of CM each year, and about 70% of them died. In China, CM occurs mainly in people without AIDS and there is an increasing trend in recent years. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to reducing...
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016
    Views: 14249
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  • Review

    Necroptosis: a new link between cell death and inflammation

    Yuan-Hang Pan , Xun-Yuan Liu , Jia-Qiang Liu , Qian Liu , Yang Yang , Jia-Lei Yang , Xiu-Fen Zhang , Yin Wu , Ya-Zhou Wang
    Necroptosis is a type of newly identified cell death induced by apoptotic stimuli under conditions where apoptotic execution is prevented. Studies over the past 10 years have revealed the molecular mechanism of necroptosis and challenged the old conception that necrosis is un-programmed. Recently, more and more data have emerged suggesting a close association between necroptosis and inflammation. In this review, the authors summarized the current knowledge of the mechanism of necroptosis, focusing on tumour necrosis factor α induced necroptosis and the roles of necroptosis in regulating...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
    Views: 4335
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies targeting the voltage-gated potassium channel complex: immunobiology and clinical characteristics

    Domenico Plantone , Rosaria Renna , Tatiana Koudriavtseva
    Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) represent a group of tetrameric signaling proteins with several functions, including modulation of neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. Moreover, VGKCs give a key contribution to the generation of the action potential. VGKCs are complexed with other neuronal proteins, and it is now widely known that serum autoantibodies directed against VGKCs are actually directed against the potassium channel subunits only in a minority of patients. By contrast, these autoantibodies more commonly target three proteins that are complexed with...
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016
    Views: 4071
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  • Case Report

    Differentiation of radiation necrosis from glioblastoma recurrence after radiotherapy

    Chrissa Sioka , Anastasia Zikou , Anna Goussia , Spyridon Tsiouris , Loucas G. Astrakas , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    The standard treatment of glioblastoma, the most common type of primary-brain-tumor, involves radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy. A patient with glioblastoma, post radiotherapy developed magnatic resonance imaging (MRI) changes consistent with either radiation-induced tumor necrosis or tumor recurrence. Perfusion MRI was suggestive of radiation necrosis, but magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 99mTc-Tetrofosmin single photon emission computed tomography was indicative of tumor recurrence. Positron emission tomography scan was not available. Tumor recurrence was...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
    Views: 3744
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Autoimmune encephalopathies in children: diagnostic clues and therapeutic challenges

    Giorgia Olivieri , Ilaria Contaldo , Gloria Ferrantini , Elisa Musto , Roberta Scalise , Maria Chiara Stefanini , Domenica Battaglia , Eugenio Mercuri
    Neuronal surface antibody syndromes (NSAS) encompass a variety of disorders associated with “neuronal surface antibodies”. These share clinical and neuroradiological features that pose challenges related to their recognition and treatment. Recent epidemiological studies show a clear predominance for the glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in both adults and pediatric population. Despite this, the overall NSAS’s incidence remains underestimated, and diagnosis persists to be not always easy to achieve. Based on current literature data, in this paper the authors propose a...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
    Views: 3604
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Diagnostic algorithms in autoimmune encephalitis

    Valentina Damato
    Over the past decade the discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with neuronal surface antibodies had changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously mischaracterized. Recognition of clinical syndromes, consistent methods of diagnosis, and early targeted immunotherapy can lead to a favorable outcome in diseases that may be associated with significant disability or death if left untreated. Here the conditions associated with neuronal surface antibodies are briefly reviewed, some general aspects of these syndromes are considered and guidelines that...
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016
    Views: 3437
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  • Editorial

    On the need to unify neuroscience and physics

    Maurits van den Noort , Sabina Lim , Peggy Bosch
    Published on: 26 Dec 2016
    Views: 2910
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  • Original Article

    Symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence among patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression

    Peggy Bosch , Janina Waberg , Maurits van den Noort , Heike Staudte , Sabina Lim , Jos Egger
    Aim: Treatment non-adherence is a common problem in patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression. This study investigated the possible relationships between symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence. Methods: Thirty outpatients with schizophrenia and 58 outpatients with depression were enrolled in this study. The beck depression Inventory-II, the positive and negative syndrome scale, and the pittsburgh sleep quality index were used to assess symptom severity and quality of sleep, and sleep log data were used to measure treatment adherence. Results: The preliminary...
    Published on: 20 May 2016
    Views: 2643
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  • Case Report

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension complicated with cerebral venous thrombosis and subdural effusion: a case report

    Murali Krishna Menon , Thara Prathap , Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension treatment can be complicated by concomitant cerebral venous thrombosis and subdural hematoma. A 48 years old male, presenting orthostatic headache and neck pain for 1 month displayed sagittal sinus thrombosis and bilateral subdural effusions, as well as extradural fluid collection at T3-T8 level, upon magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure was 50 mmH2O, and a leak was confirmed at C2-C3 level by computed tomography (CT) myelogram. The presence of subdural hematoma precluded anticoagulation treatments. An autologous epidural...
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016
    Views: 2641
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  • Case Report

    Progressive muscle cramps with pain as atypical initial presentations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case report

    Cheng-Hui Liu , Chi Zhu , Fan Zeng , Heng Yang , Yan-Jiang Wang
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease and is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative disease that affects both lower and upper motor neurons. Muscle cramps, which are characterized by a sudden, painful, involuntary contraction of muscles, are not rare in ALS patients. However, muscle cramps do not normally present early in ALS and therefore not used for the initial diagnosis of ALS. In this paper the authors present a case of ALS with initial manifestation of progressive painful muscle cramps in the absence of muscle weakness. This case...
    Published on: 20 Jul 2016
    Views: 2071
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Encephalitis associated with autoantibody binding to the anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor: immunopathogenesis, mechanisms, and clinical characteristics

    Adhasit Nawa-apisak , Saharat Aungsumart , Metha Apiwattanakul
    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has been increasingly recognized in recent years. This condition may be the most common cause of antibody-mediated encephalitis worldwide. The majority of patients are young at the time of onset, female, and present with an acute-to-subacute onset of behavioral changes followed by seizure, abnormal movement, autonomic dysfunction, and finally hypoventilation with coma if left untreated. The immunopathogenesis of this disease may be due to antibody-mediated internalization of NMDARs from synapses, which results in the dysfunction of...
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016
    Views: 1848
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Encephalitis associated with autoantibodies binding to γ-aminobutyric acid-A, γ-aminobutyric acid-B and glycine receptors: immunopathogenic mechanisms and clinical characteristics

    Amy May Lin Quek , Orna O'Toole
    Recent, discoveries of neural antibodies have facilitated the diagnosis of immune-mediated, immunotherapy-responsive neurologic disorders. Antibodies that target inhibitory central nervous system receptors, such as γ-aminobutyric acid-B, γ-aminobutyric acid-A, and glycine receptors, disrupt inhibitory regulatory synaptic functions, and lead to neuronal hyperexcitability. The myriad of neurologic, manifestations associated with these antibodies includes seizures, encephalopathy, muscle rigidity and stiffness. This article provides a review of the immunopathogenic mechanisms and the clinical...
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016
    Views: 1837
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  • Review

    Statins in acute neurologic disease: which one, which dose, when to start, and when not to stop

    Bong-Su Kang , Gene Sung , May Kim-Tenser , Nerses Sanossian
    Statins could have physiologic properties that may benefit patients that have been diagnosed with various acute neurological diseases. This review aims tosummarize the literature pertaining to stain use in acute neurological disease such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), cerebral ischemia (CI), traumatic brain injury, status epilepticus and meningitis. The authors reviewed published abstracts and manuscripts pertaining to experimental and clinical trials relevant to statins in acute neurological disease. Although acute statin therapy in the setting of subarachnoid...
    Published on: 20 Jun 2016
    Views: 1777
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  • Case Report

    Huge supratentorial cortical ependymoma in a young child: case report and literature review

    Mehdi Darmoul , Mohamed Kilani , Atef Ben Nsir , Mohamed Nejib Hattab
    Supratentorial cortical ependymomas are uncommon in the pediatric population and extremely rare in very young children. Histologically, tumors of the anaplastic type are also less common in children. The authors report one case of anaplastic cortical ependymoma in a 16-month-old girl who presented with a 7-day history of left side weakness and rapid neurological deterioration. Brain imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scanning showed a huge right fronto-parietal cystic and solid lesion compressing the brain parenchyma. The young child was operated via a...
    Published on: 20 Jun 2016
    Views: 1686
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  • Original Article

    Inhibition and reversal of growth cone collapse in adult sensory neurons by enteric glia-induced neurotrophic factors

    Simon Feng , Kiran Reddy , Cai-Xin Su , Shu-Cui Jiang
    Aim: Previous studies show enteric glia (EG)-conditioned medium promotes neurite outgrowth in adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) derived sensory neurons. This EG-conditioned medium contains various neurotrophic factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). This study attempts to determine the importance of these neurotrophic factors in enabling DRG-derived sensory neuron axons to overcome the inhibitory guidance cues released from the glial scar. Methods: A Semaphorin 3A...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
    Views: 1575
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  • Case Report

    Good recovery of a patient with neurocysticercosis using two antihelminthic drugs combined with steroid

    Xin-Di Li , Hua-Bing Wang , Heng Zhou , An-Na Zhou , Lin Zhao , Yong-Hong Liu , Xiao-Qing Gong , Xing-Hu Zhang
    Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. We present a case report of a neurocysticercosis patient with multiple cysts, who presented with new onset generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A 4-cycle treatment of 2 different antihelminthic drugs with dexamethasone and sodium valproate led to clinical improvement without any adverse reactions. The manifestations of neurocysticercosis are protean and the diagnosis should be considered whenever multiple cysts are seen on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The antihelminthic treatment of...
    Published on: 20 May 2016
    Views: 1362
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  • Review

    Neurological manifestations in Fabry disease

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks , Yara Dadalti Fragoso
    Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, progressive, multisystem and highly debilitating disease. FD is an X-linked lysosome storage disorder that results in α-galactosidase A deficiency. The subsequent accumulation of glycosphingolipids is more evident in vascular endothelium and smooth-muscle cells. The resulting effect of the deposition is generalized inflammation and vasculopathy, which can also affect the central and peripheral nervous system. FD progresses with kidney dysfunction, angiokeratoma of the skin, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular events and neurological disorders. In the present...
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016
    Views: 1298
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  • Review

    Current and emerging therapies for neuromyelitis optica

    Cong Zhao , Hong-Zeng Li , Ya-Nan Bai , Zhu-Yi Li , Jun Guo
    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease that mainly affects the optic nerve and spinal cord, potentially resulting in blindness and paralysis. Once thought to be a clinical variant of multiple sclerosis, NMO is currently considered as a different disease with its own features due to the identification of a specific autoantibody against aquaporin 4. Given the high risk of disability, treatment should be launched once the diagnosis is established. Evidence from clinical practice showed that traditional immunosuppressive agents affecting the function of T and B cells...
    Published on: 20 Jun 2016
    Views: 1286
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  • Review

    Immune-to-brain signaling and substrates of altered behavior during inflammation

    Jan Pieter Konsman
    During the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection, and when in a safe environment, endothermic mammals typically display reduced activity and food intake, increased sleep, and the adoption of a curled-up position. These changes in behavior, in concert with fever, are adaptive in that they contribute to host survival. The present review addresses the immune-to-brain signaling pathways as well as possible neural substrates mediating reduced exploration and food intake during acute systemic inflammation. These involve rapid activation of peripheral nerves and glutamatergic brainstem...
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016
    Views: 1160
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  • Original Article

    Thrombolysis lead to better long-term outcome in Chinese stroke patients

    Nian-Tong Lin , Ying-Chun Cao , Zheng-Zheng Cheng , Yuan Wang , Ping-Yi Xu
    Aim: The rate of thrombolysis in Chinese acute ischemic stroke (AIS) was low and little was known about the long-term outcome. We aimed to compare the prognosis between thrombolysis and ordinary anti-platelet strategies in AIS. Methods: Patients, who were consecutively registered in our hospital from January 2005 to June 2012, were retrospectively studied. Inclusion criteria: (1) primary diagnoses of cerebral infarction coded with implantable cardioverter defibrillator-10 I63 to I69; (2) symptoms onset to treatment time (OTT) within 6 h; (3) thrombolysis with alteplase (TROM) or ordinary...
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016
    Views: 1102
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