Most Viewed: Last TWO YEARS
  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System

    Current diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Xiao-Su Guo , Hui Bu , Jun-Ying He , Yue-Li Zou , Yue Zhao , Yuan-Yuan Li , Jun-Zhao Cui , Ming-Ming Zheng , Wei-Xin Han , Ze-Yan Zhao
    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a central nervous system infectious disease caused by Cryptococcus. It is the most common fungal infection in the central nervous system, accounting for about 48% of fungal infection. The disease occurs mainly in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and concentrates in the immunocompromised people without AIDS. There are nearly one million new cases of CM each year, and about 70% of them died. In China, CM occurs mainly in people without AIDS and there is an increasing trend in recent years. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to reducing...
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016
    Views: 33007
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  • Review

    Neuroinflammatory modulators of oligodendrogenesis

    Ana Armada-Moreira , Filipa F. Ribeiro , Ana M. Sebastião , Sara Xapelli
    Oligodendrocytes are key neural cells that are responsible for producing myelin sheaths that wrap around neuronal axons in the central nervous system. Myelin is essential to insulate neurons and maintain a fast and saltatory propagation of action potentials along the axon. However, oligodendrocytes are very susceptible to damage, and thus demyelination may arise from a brain lesion or a neurodegenerative disorder. Consequently, demyelination produces a loss of axonal insulation leading to sensory or motor neuron failure. During adulthood, there are two main sources of oligodendrocytes:...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
    Views: 12531
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  • Review

    Neuronal toll-like receptors and neuro-immunity in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and stroke

    Carmen D. Rietdijk , Richard J. A. van Wezel , Johan Garssen , Aletta D. Kraneveld
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are part of the innate immune system important for the initiation of proper immune responses towards microorganisms. Neuronal TLRs are considered to be part of the interactions between the immune system and the nervous system, the major sensing systems in mammals. The review entitled “Neuronal toll-like receptors and neuro-immunity in Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and stroke” by Rietdijk et al. offers an overview of the current knowledge about (neuronal) TLRs in neurodegenerative pathologies.
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016
    Views: 12462
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies targeting the voltage-gated potassium channel complex: immunobiology and clinical characteristics

    Domenico Plantone , Rosaria Renna , Tatiana Koudriavtseva
    Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) represent a group of tetrameric signaling proteins with several functions, including modulation of neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. Moreover, VGKCs give a key contribution to the generation of the action potential. VGKCs are complexed with other neuronal proteins, and it is now widely known that serum autoantibodies directed against VGKCs are actually directed against the potassium channel subunits only in a minority of patients. By contrast, these autoantibodies more commonly target three proteins that are complexed with...
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016
    Views: 12418
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  • Review

    Neurological manifestations in Fabry disease

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks , Yara Dadalti Fragoso
    Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, progressive, multisystem and highly debilitating disease. FD is an X-linked lysosome storage disorder that results in α-galactosidase A deficiency. The subsequent accumulation of glycosphingolipids is more evident in vascular endothelium and smooth-muscle cells. The resulting effect of the deposition is generalized inflammation and vasculopathy, which can also affect the central and peripheral nervous system. FD progresses with kidney dysfunction, angiokeratoma of the skin, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular events and neurological disorders. In the present...
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016
    Views: 11241
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  • Guidelines

    China guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of myasthenia gravis

    Zhu-Yi Li
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a typical autoimmune disease mediated by auto-antibodies, immune cells and complement systems at the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction. Over 80 % of MG patients have anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody. This guideline will describe the clinical manifestations and classification, laboratory examinations, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016
    Views: 9538
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  • Review

    Necroptosis: a new link between cell death and inflammation

    Yuan-Hang Pan , Xun-Yuan Liu , Jia-Qiang Liu , Qian Liu , Yang Yang , Jia-Lei Yang , Xiu-Fen Zhang , Yin Wu , Ya-Zhou Wang
    Necroptosis is a type of newly identified cell death induced by apoptotic stimuli under conditions where apoptotic execution is prevented. Studies over the past 10 years have revealed the molecular mechanism of necroptosis and challenged the old conception that necrosis is un-programmed. Recently, more and more data have emerged suggesting a close association between necroptosis and inflammation. In this review, the authors summarized the current knowledge of the mechanism of necroptosis, focusing on tumour necrosis factor α induced necroptosis and the roles of necroptosis in regulating...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
    Views: 8693
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Diagnostic algorithms in autoimmune encephalitis

    Valentina Damato
    Over the past decade the discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with neuronal surface antibodies had changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously mischaracterized. Recognition of clinical syndromes, consistent methods of diagnosis, and early targeted immunotherapy can lead to a favorable outcome in diseases that may be associated with significant disability or death if left untreated. Here the conditions associated with neuronal surface antibodies are briefly reviewed, some general aspects of these syndromes are considered and guidelines that...
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016
    Views: 7147
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  • Case Report

    Disc herniation or ependymoma recurrence?

    Aristeidis H. Katsanos , Ioannis Sarmas , Sotirios Giannopoulos , Sigliti-Henrietta Pelidou , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    We present a 41-year-old female with previous history of ependymoma who underwent gross-total resection of the tumor and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt placement, followed by radiotherapy. Three years later a small enhancing area was noted in the left anterolateral spinal cord at the level of the C1-C2 vertebrae and a left posterior-lateral herniated disk in the C5-C6 level which was not present in the earlier MRI. This is a unique case, in which herniated disk pressuring effects needed to be differentiated from both radiation-induced treatment effect and tumor recurrence.
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016
    Views: 6660
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Autoimmune encephalopathies in children: diagnostic clues and therapeutic challenges

    Giorgia Olivieri , Ilaria Contaldo , Gloria Ferrantini , Elisa Musto , Roberta Scalise , Maria Chiara Stefanini , Domenica Battaglia , Eugenio Mercuri
    Neuronal surface antibody syndromes (NSAS) encompass a variety of disorders associated with “neuronal surface antibodies”. These share clinical and neuroradiological features that pose challenges related to their recognition and treatment. Recent epidemiological studies show a clear predominance for the glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in both adults and pediatric population. Despite this, the overall NSAS’s incidence remains underestimated, and diagnosis persists to be not always easy to achieve. Based on current literature data, in this paper the authors propose a...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
    Views: 6607
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  • Case Report

    Artery of Percheron occlusion: role of diffusion-weighted imaging in the early diagnosis

    Murali Krishna Menon , Suma Mariam Jacob , Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
    Bilateral thalamic infarcts have a low frequency among different subtypes of strokes. Since it does not involve a particular vascular territory, it therefore usually involves the occlusion of the artery of Percheron (AOP). Here we report a 79-year-old right-handed Parkinsonian female patient, who was found unresponsive in bed. On examination, the patient was drowsy with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 10/15 (E2M5V3). She had absent doll’s eye response with anisocoric pupils and intermittent vertical gaze palsy. Although the patient had no apparent motor deficits, she was in a state of...
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016
    Views: 5269
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Psychotic and nonpsychotic mood disorders in autoimmune encephalitis: diagnostic issues and research implications

    Giuseppe Quaranta , Nunzio Bucci , Cristina Toni , Giulio Perugi
    Recent research on autoimmune disorders suggests additional links between systemic and central nervous system (CNS) pathophysiology, among which the identification of antibody-induced limbic encephalitis provided the strongest evidence for the potential involvement of autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of severe mood and psychotic symptoms. In these illnesses, psychiatric symptoms predominate in the initial phase of the disorder in up to 70% of the cases, and they often lead patients to early psychiatric evaluation. For this reason, it is very important to increase the limited knowledge among...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
    Views: 5144
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  • Review

    The endonuclease VIII-like proteins: new targets in the treatment of ischemic stroke?

    Long-Xiu Yang , Wei Wang , Xiao Zhang , Qi Zhu , Qing Zhao , Gang Zhao
    Oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage is one of the major causes of neuronal injury in ischemia. The endonuclease VIII-like (NEIL) DNA glycosylases have a specific role in recognition and removal of oxidative DNA damage. The NEIL family includes NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3, that differ in substrate specificity, catalytic efficiency, and subcellular/tissue distribution. This opens for a situation-dependent phenotype in their absence. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge on the involvement of the NEILs in ischemic stroke and discuss the potential of these enzymes to serve...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
    Views: 5115
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  • Original Article

    Morphological and behavioural variation in CNS innate defence cell microglia is development and age sensitive

    Payel Ghosh , Anirban Ghosh
    Aim: Microglia, the innate defence cells in central nervous system (CNS), alters their shapes and function with age. We observed and identified these morphological changes and functional association throughout the developmental gradient until adulthood in rat brain. Methods: Early and late embryonic stages, neonates and adult brains of albino rats were sectioned for routine Haematoxylin Eosin (HE) staining and specialized silver-gold staining to show distribution and morphological variation in situ. Isolated microglia from different age groups was subjected to scanning electron microscopy...
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016
    Views: 4925
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  • Case Report

    Differentiation of radiation necrosis from glioblastoma recurrence after radiotherapy

    Chrissa Sioka , Anastasia Zikou , Anna Goussia , Spyridon Tsiouris , Loucas G. Astrakas , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    The standard treatment of glioblastoma, the most common type of primary-brain-tumor, involves radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy. A patient with glioblastoma, post radiotherapy developed magnatic resonance imaging (MRI) changes consistent with either radiation-induced tumor necrosis or tumor recurrence. Perfusion MRI was suggestive of radiation necrosis, but magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 99mTc-Tetrofosmin single photon emission computed tomography was indicative of tumor recurrence. Positron emission tomography scan was not available. Tumor recurrence was...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
    Views: 4673
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Bipolar disorder preceding the onset of multiple sclerosis

    Ciro Marangoni , Maria Giulia Nanni , Luigi Grassi , Gianni M. Faedda
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory demyelinating brain disease. The occurrence of psychiatric disorders, especially for major depression, in the course of MS is high. Reports concerning bipolar disorder (BD) remain rather scarce although early descriptions were found in the old neurological literature. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the epidemiology, comorbidity, and treatment findings regarding BD preceding the onset of MS.
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
    Views: 4504
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  • Editorial

    On the need to unify neuroscience and physics

    Maurits van den Noort , Sabina Lim , Peggy Bosch
    Published on: 26 Dec 2016
    Views: 4428
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  • Case Report

    Progressive muscle cramps with pain as atypical initial presentations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case report

    Cheng-Hui Liu , Chi Zhu , Fan Zeng , Heng Yang , Yan-Jiang Wang
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease and is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative disease that affects both lower and upper motor neurons. Muscle cramps, which are characterized by a sudden, painful, involuntary contraction of muscles, are not rare in ALS patients. However, muscle cramps do not normally present early in ALS and therefore not used for the initial diagnosis of ALS. In this paper the authors present a case of ALS with initial manifestation of progressive painful muscle cramps in the absence of muscle weakness. This case...
    Published on: 20 Jul 2016
    Views: 4369
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Neuroinflammation and excitatory symptoms in bipolar disorder

    Isabella Panaccione , Gianfranco Spalletta , Gabriele Sani
    Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a strong biological factor underlying the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. A role for dysregulation of the immune system was initially suggested in depressive disorders and subsequently extended to other illnesses, including bipolar disorder (BD). Indeed, there is growing evidence confirming the presence of a generalized pro‑inflammatory state in BD patients, involving alterations in cytokine, acute‑phase proteins, and complement factor secretion, white blood cell differentiation, microglial activation, arachidonic acid signaling pathways, and...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
    Views: 4324
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  • Review

    Progress in mechanisms of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

    Shao-Min Li , Ming-Shu Mo , Ping-Yi Xu
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Currently, only two classes of drugs, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and memantine are approved. AChEIs ameliorate cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in AD patients through activation of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors by increased synaptic ACh levels and also have protective effects against glutamate neurotoxicity and inflammation, whereas memantine appears to mainly protect against excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration. Herein, we review the pharmacologic properties of the available AChEIs and memantine,...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
    Views: 4307
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