Most Viewed: Last TWO YEARS
  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Current diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Xiao-Su Guo , Hui Bu , Jun-Ying He , Yue-Li Zou , Yue Zhao , Yuan-Yuan Li , Jun-Zhao Cui , Ming-Ming Zheng , Wei-Xin Han , Ze-Yan Zhao
    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a central nervous system infectious disease caused by Cryptococcus. It is the most common fungal infection in the central nervous system, accounting for about 48% of fungal infection. The disease occurs mainly in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and concentrates in the immunocompromised people without AIDS. There are nearly one million new cases of CM each year, and about 70% of them died. In China, CM occurs mainly in people without AIDS and there is an increasing trend in recent years. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to reducing... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:249-56. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.10
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016  | Viewed:34190  | Downloaded:275
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neurological manifestations in Fabry disease

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks , Yara Dadalti Fragoso
    Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, progressive, multisystem and highly debilitating disease. FD is an X-linked lysosome storage disorder that results in α-galactosidase A deficiency. The subsequent accumulation of glycosphingolipids is more evident in vascular endothelium and smooth-muscle cells. The resulting effect of the deposition is generalized inflammation and vasculopathy, which can also affect the central and peripheral nervous system. FD progresses with kidney dysfunction, angiokeratoma of the skin, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular events and neurological disorders. In the present... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:228-31. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.36
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:20167  | Downloaded:1239
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens|Open Access

    Neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies targeting the voltage-gated potassium channel complex: immunobiology and clinical characteristics

    Domenico Plantone , Rosaria Renna , Tatiana Koudriavtseva
    Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) represent a group of tetrameric signaling proteins with several functions, including modulation of neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. Moreover, VGKCs give a key contribution to the generation of the action potential. VGKCs are complexed with other neuronal proteins, and it is now widely known that serum autoantibodies directed against VGKCs are actually directed against the potassium channel subunits only in a minority of patients. By contrast, these autoantibodies more commonly target three proteins that are complexed with... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:69-78. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.169883
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016  | Viewed:19743  | Downloaded:488
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neuronal toll-like receptors and neuro-immunity in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and stroke

    Carmen D. Rietdijk , Richard J. A. van Wezel , Johan Garssen , Aletta D. Kraneveld
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are part of the innate immune system important for the initiation of proper immune responses towards microorganisms. Neuronal TLRs are considered to be part of the interactions between the immune system and the nervous system, the major sensing systems in mammals. The review entitled “Neuronal toll-like receptors and neuro-immunity in Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and stroke” by Rietdijk et al. offers an overview of the current knowledge about (neuronal) TLRs in neurodegenerative pathologies. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:27-37. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.28
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016  | Viewed:16879  | Downloaded:472
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  • Review|Open Access

    Necroptosis: a new link between cell death and inflammation

    Yuan-Hang Pan , Xun-Yuan Liu , Jia-Qiang Liu , Qian Liu , Yang Yang , Jia-Lei Yang , Xiu-Fen Zhang , Yin Wu , Ya-Zhou Wang
    Necroptosis is a type of newly identified cell death induced by apoptotic stimuli under conditions where apoptotic execution is prevented. Studies over the past 10 years have revealed the molecular mechanism of necroptosis and challenged the old conception that necrosis is un-programmed. Recently, more and more data have emerged suggesting a close association between necroptosis and inflammation. In this review, the authors summarized the current knowledge of the mechanism of necroptosis, focusing on tumour necrosis factor α induced necroptosis and the roles of necroptosis in regulating... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:156-60. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.59
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016  | Viewed:13239  | Downloaded:488
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  • Guidelines|Open Access

    China guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of myasthenia gravis

    Zhu-Yi Li
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a typical autoimmune disease mediated by auto-antibodies, immune cells and complement systems at the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction. Over 80 % of MG patients have anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody. This guideline will describe the clinical manifestations and classification, laboratory examinations, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:1-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.60
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016  | Viewed:12560  | Downloaded:301
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens|Open Access

    Diagnostic algorithms in autoimmune encephalitis

    Valentina Damato
    Over the past decade the discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with neuronal surface antibodies had changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously mischaracterized. Recognition of clinical syndromes, consistent methods of diagnosis, and early targeted immunotherapy can lead to a favorable outcome in diseases that may be associated with significant disability or death if left untreated. Here the conditions associated with neuronal surface antibodies are briefly reviewed, some general aspects of these syndromes are considered and guidelines that... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:93-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.43
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016  | Viewed:10520  | Downloaded:735
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Disc herniation or ependymoma recurrence?

    Aristeidis H. Katsanos , Ioannis Sarmas , Sotirios Giannopoulos , Sigliti-Henrietta Pelidou , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    We present a 41-year-old female with previous history of ependymoma who underwent gross-total resection of the tumor and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt placement, followed by radiotherapy. Three years later a small enhancing area was noted in the left anterolateral spinal cord at the level of the C1-C2 vertebrae and a left posterior-lateral herniated disk in the C5-C6 level which was not present in the earlier MRI. This is a unique case, in which herniated disk pressuring effects needed to be differentiated from both radiation-induced treatment effect and tumor recurrence. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:65-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.42
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016  | Viewed:9083  | Downloaded:101
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens|Open Access

    Autoimmune encephalopathies in children: diagnostic clues and therapeutic challenges

    Giorgia Olivieri , Ilaria Contaldo , Gloria Ferrantini , Elisa Musto , Roberta Scalise , Maria Chiara Stefanini , Domenica Battaglia , Eugenio Mercuri
    Neuronal surface antibody syndromes (NSAS) encompass a variety of disorders associated with “neuronal surface antibodies”. These share clinical and neuroradiological features that pose challenges related to their recognition and treatment. Recent epidemiological studies show a clear predominance for the glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in both adults and pediatric population. Despite this, the overall NSAS’s incidence remains underestimated, and diagnosis persists to be not always easy to achieve. Based on current literature data, in this paper the authors propose a... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:147-55. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.09
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016  | Viewed:8623  | Downloaded:584
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Progressive muscle cramps with pain as atypical initial presentations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case report

    Cheng-Hui Liu , Chi Zhu , Fan Zeng , Heng Yang , Yan-Jiang Wang
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease and is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative disease that affects both lower and upper motor neurons. Muscle cramps, which are characterized by a sudden, painful, involuntary contraction of muscles, are not rare in ALS patients. However, muscle cramps do not normally present early in ALS and therefore not used for the initial diagnosis of ALS. In this paper the authors present a case of ALS with initial manifestation of progressive painful muscle cramps in the absence of muscle weakness. This case... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:170-2. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.49
    Published on: 20 Jul 2016  | Viewed:7061  | Downloaded:466
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Artery of Percheron occlusion: role of diffusion-weighted imaging in the early diagnosis

    Murali Krishna Menon , Suma Mariam Jacob , Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
    Bilateral thalamic infarcts have a low frequency among different subtypes of strokes. Since it does not involve a particular vascular territory, it therefore usually involves the occlusion of the artery of Percheron (AOP). Here we report a 79-year-old right-handed Parkinsonian female patient, who was found unresponsive in bed. On examination, the patient was drowsy with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 10/15 (E2M5V3). She had absent doll’s eye response with anisocoric pupils and intermittent vertical gaze palsy. Although the patient had no apparent motor deficits, she was in a state of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:14-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.30
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016  | Viewed:6889  | Downloaded:242
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Differentiation of radiation necrosis from glioblastoma recurrence after radiotherapy

    Chrissa Sioka , Anastasia Zikou , Anna Goussia , Spyridon Tsiouris , Loucas G. Astrakas , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    The standard treatment of glioblastoma, the most common type of primary-brain-tumor, involves radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy. A patient with glioblastoma, post radiotherapy developed magnatic resonance imaging (MRI) changes consistent with either radiation-induced tumor necrosis or tumor recurrence. Perfusion MRI was suggestive of radiation necrosis, but magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 99mTc-Tetrofosmin single photon emission computed tomography was indicative of tumor recurrence. Positron emission tomography scan was not available. Tumor recurrence was... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:161-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.08
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016  | Viewed:6498  | Downloaded:233
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Morphological and behavioural variation in CNS innate defence cell microglia is development and age sensitive

    Payel Ghosh , Anirban Ghosh
    Aim: Microglia, the innate defence cells in central nervous system (CNS), alters their shapes and function with age. We observed and identified these morphological changes and functional association throughout the developmental gradient until adulthood in rat brain. Methods: Early and late embryonic stages, neonates and adult brains of albino rats were sectioned for routine Haematoxylin Eosin (HE) staining and specialized silver-gold staining to show distribution and morphological variation in situ. Isolated microglia from different age groups was subjected to scanning electron microscopy... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:38-47. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.32
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016  | Viewed:5751  | Downloaded:180
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    On the need to unify neuroscience and physics

    Maurits van den Noort , Sabina Lim , Peggy Bosch
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:271-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.55
    Published on: 26 Dec 2016  | Viewed:5278  | Downloaded:883
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence among patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression

    Peggy Bosch , Janina Waberg , Maurits van den Noort , Heike Staudte , Sabina Lim , Jos Egger
    Aim: Treatment non-adherence is a common problem in patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression. This study investigated the possible relationships between symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence. Methods: Thirty outpatients with schizophrenia and 58 outpatients with depression were enrolled in this study. The beck depression Inventory-II, the positive and negative syndrome scale, and the pittsburgh sleep quality index were used to assess symptom severity and quality of sleep, and sleep log data were used to measure treatment adherence. Results: The preliminary... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:109-16. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.54
    Published on: 20 May 2016  | Viewed:4955  | Downloaded:133
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  • Review|Open Access

    Immune-to-brain signaling and substrates of altered behavior during inflammation

    Jan Pieter Konsman
    During the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection, and when in a safe environment, endothermic mammals typically display reduced activity and food intake, increased sleep, and the adoption of a curled-up position. These changes in behavior, in concert with fever, are adaptive in that they contribute to host survival. The present review addresses the immune-to-brain signaling pathways as well as possible neural substrates mediating reduced exploration and food intake during acute systemic inflammation. These involve rapid activation of peripheral nerves and glutamatergic brainstem... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:207-14. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.19
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:4360  | Downloaded:181
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens|Open Access

    Encephalitis associated with autoantibodies binding to γ-aminobutyric acid-A, γ-aminobutyric acid-B and glycine receptors: immunopathogenic mechanisms and clinical characteristics

    Amy May Lin Quek , Orna O'Toole
    Recent, discoveries of neural antibodies have facilitated the diagnosis of immune-mediated, immunotherapy-responsive neurologic disorders. Antibodies that target inhibitory central nervous system receptors, such as γ-aminobutyric acid-B, γ-aminobutyric acid-A, and glycine receptors, disrupt inhibitory regulatory synaptic functions, and lead to neuronal hyperexcitability. The myriad of neurologic, manifestations associated with these antibodies includes seizures, encephalopathy, muscle rigidity and stiffness. This article provides a review of the immunopathogenic mechanisms and the clinical... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:86-92. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.170633
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016  | Viewed:4283  | Downloaded:270
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  • Short Communication|Open Access

    Trends in neurology fellowship training

    Jordan S.A. Williams , Trent S. Hodgson , Fernando D. Goldenberg , Rimas V. Lukas
    Aim: A need for Neurologists exists in the US. The majority of Neurology residency graduates go on to additional subspecialty training. Methods: Data from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education from 2001-2014 and the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties from was analyzed for trends in the number of Neurology subspecialty training programs and their composition. Results: There has been an overall trend of growth in the number of accredited Neurology subspecialty training programs and fellows. These trends vary between specific subspecialties. Conclusion: The authors... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:65-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.11
    Published on: 18 Apr 2017  | Viewed:4266  | Downloaded:84
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Good recovery of a patient with neurocysticercosis using two antihelminthic drugs combined with steroid

    Xin-Di Li , Hua-Bing Wang , Heng Zhou , An-Na Zhou , Lin Zhao , Yong-Hong Liu , Xiao-Qing Gong , Xing-Hu Zhang
    Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. We present a case report of a neurocysticercosis patient with multiple cysts, who presented with new onset generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A 4-cycle treatment of 2 different antihelminthic drugs with dexamethasone and sodium valproate led to clinical improvement without any adverse reactions. The manifestations of neurocysticercosis are protean and the diagnosis should be considered whenever multiple cysts are seen on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The antihelminthic treatment of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:120-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.51
    Published on: 20 May 2016  | Viewed:4076  | Downloaded:382
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension complicated with cerebral venous thrombosis and subdural effusion: a case report

    Murali Krishna Menon , Thara Prathap , Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension treatment can be complicated by concomitant cerebral venous thrombosis and subdural hematoma. A 48 years old male, presenting orthostatic headache and neck pain for 1 month displayed sagittal sinus thrombosis and bilateral subdural effusions, as well as extradural fluid collection at T3-T8 level, upon magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure was 50 mmH2O, and a leak was confirmed at C2-C3 level by computed tomography (CT) myelogram. The presence of subdural hematoma precluded anticoagulation treatments. An autologous epidural... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:104-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.35
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016  | Viewed:4048  | Downloaded:218
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Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation Print ISSN: 2347-8659; Online ISSN: 2349-6142
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