Most Viewed: Last TWO YEARS
  • Review|Open Access

    Neurological manifestations in Fabry disease

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks , Yara Dadalti Fragoso
    Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, progressive, multisystem and highly debilitating disease. FD is an X-linked lysosome storage disorder that results in α-galactosidase A deficiency. The subsequent accumulation of glycosphingolipids is more evident in vascular endothelium and smooth-muscle cells. The resulting effect of the deposition is generalized inflammation and vasculopathy, which can also affect the central and peripheral nervous system. FD progresses with kidney dysfunction, angiokeratoma of the skin, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular events and neurological disorders. In the present... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:228-31. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.36
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:39549  | Downloaded:4903
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Current diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Xiao-Su Guo , Hui Bu , Jun-Ying He , Yue-Li Zou , Yue Zhao , Yuan-Yuan Li , Jun-Zhao Cui , Ming-Ming Zheng , Wei-Xin Han , Ze-Yan Zhao
    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a central nervous system infectious disease caused by Cryptococcus. It is the most common fungal infection in the central nervous system, accounting for about 48% of fungal infection. The disease occurs mainly in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and concentrates in the immunocompromised people without AIDS. There are nearly one million new cases of CM each year, and about 70% of them died. In China, CM occurs mainly in people without AIDS and there is an increasing trend in recent years. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to reducing... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:249-56. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.10
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016  | Viewed:36734  | Downloaded:388
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  • Short Communication|Open Access

    Trends in neurology fellowship training

    Jordan S.A. Williams , Trent S. Hodgson , Fernando D. Goldenberg , Rimas V. Lukas
    Aim: A need for Neurologists exists in the US. The majority of Neurology residency graduates go on to additional subspecialty training. Methods: Data from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education from 2001-2014 and the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties from was analyzed for trends in the number of Neurology subspecialty training programs and their composition. Results: There has been an overall trend of growth in the number of accredited Neurology subspecialty training programs and fellows. These trends vary between specific subspecialties. Conclusion: The authors... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:65-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.11
    Published on: 18 Apr 2017  | Viewed:14352  | Downloaded:142
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    Role of neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke

    Rui Liu , Meng-Xian Pan , Jun-Chun Tang , Ya Zhang , Hua-Bao Liao , Yang Zhuang , Dan Zhao , Qi Wan
    Ischemic stroke causes the depletion of energy and induce excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation in the brain that results from thrombotic blockage. Neuroinflammation occurs initially depending on activated resident microglia that has the same function as the macrophage. Activated microglia participates in the neuroinflammatory process by phagocytosing the injured brain cells and producing the pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. In this review, the authors present an overview of the role of microglia in mediating neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:158-66. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.09
    Published on: 28 Aug 2017  | Viewed:7405  | Downloaded:342
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    On the need to unify neuroscience and physics

    Maurits van den Noort , Sabina Lim , Peggy Bosch
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:271-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.55
    Published on: 26 Dec 2016  | Viewed:7311  | Downloaded:944
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  • Review|Open Access

    Immune-to-brain signaling and substrates of altered behavior during inflammation

    Jan Pieter Konsman
    During the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection, and when in a safe environment, endothermic mammals typically display reduced activity and food intake, increased sleep, and the adoption of a curled-up position. These changes in behavior, in concert with fever, are adaptive in that they contribute to host survival. The present review addresses the immune-to-brain signaling pathways as well as possible neural substrates mediating reduced exploration and food intake during acute systemic inflammation. These involve rapid activation of peripheral nerves and glutamatergic brainstem... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:207-14. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.19
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:5949  | Downloaded:327
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neuroimaging of corpus callosum in central nervous system demyelinating disorders

    Masoud Etemadifar , Amir Neshatfar , Amir Arsalan Zamani , Mehri Salari
    Corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter structure in the brain, consisting of 200-250 million contralateral axonal projections. It is the major commissural pathway connecting the hemispheres of human brain. The pathology of CC includes wide variety of entities that arise from different causes such as congenital, inflammatory, tumoral, degenerative, infectious, etc. This study reviews the most reliable neuroimaging data of human CC in central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases to facilitate the understanding of different pathological entities of the CC and their role in... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:69-77. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.02
    Published on: 27 Apr 2017  | Viewed:5564  | Downloaded:191
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  • Review|Open Access

    Interactions between neurotropic pathogens, neuroinflammatory pathways, and autophagic neural cell death

    Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu , Eunice Ter
    In recent times, there has been a significant increase in studies focusing on immunological functions of autophagy, however, knowledge of its roles and regulations in the central nervous system remains unclear. Present reviews highlight the molecular cross talk between host cell autophagy with inflammatory pathways in the context of neuro-infections. Intracellular pathogens might have an ability to manipulate the autophagy regulation process. An augmented autophagy and inflammation at the site of infection is traditionally considered host protective. Moreover, host cell autophagy might also... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:2. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.43
    Published on: 17 Jan 2018  | Viewed:5199  | Downloaded:248
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Meningeal carcinomatosis: a retrospective analysis of seventy-seven cases

    Feng-Na Chu , Yue Lang , Xiao-Min Sun , Li Cui
    Aim: Meningeal carcinomatosis is a special type of malignant tumor characterized by short survival and poor prognosis. In the present study, the authors aim to analyze the clinical, laboratory data and prognosis of meningeal carcinomatosis patients. Methods: The authors enrolled 77 cases of meningeal carcinomatosis from 2003 to 2013 in the First Hospital of Jilin University. The clinical data including age, gender, symptoms at onset, clinical manifestations, primary tumors and the laboratory data including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), tumor markers as well as the imaging data were analyzed.... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:1-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.23
    Published on: 20 Jan 2017  | Viewed:4794  | Downloaded:151
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Steroids and plasma exchange in Isaacs' syndrome with anti-Caspr2 antibodies

    Daniele Orsucci , Gianfranco Cafforio , Gianluca Moscato , Alessandro Napolitano , Marco Margelli , Monica Mazzoni
    Isaacs’ syndrome is a disease characterized by nerve hyperexcitability. The patients are commonly treated with symptomatic therapies and immunomodulatory approaches, but no clinical trials are available to date. Here, we report the case of an anti-Caspr2-positive patient, presenting with continuous muscle twitches and diffuse muscle pain. He experienced a nearly complete clinical response to intravenous high-dose steroids combined with plasma exchange, sustained for at least 1 year. Our experience suggests that methylprednisolone 1000 mg/day × 5 days and consecutive tapering followed by... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.67
    Published on: 8 Mar 2018  | Viewed:4571  | Downloaded:111
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Single low-dose lipopolysaccharide preconditioning: neuroprotective against axonal injury and modulates glial cells

    Ryan C. Turner , Zachary J. Naser , Brandon P. Lucke-Wold , Aric F. Logsdon , Reyna L. Vangilder , Rae R. Matsumoto , Jason D. Huber , Charles L. Rosen
    Aim: Over 7 million traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are reported each year in the United States. However, treatments and neuroprotection following TBI are limited because secondary injury cascades are poorly understood. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration before controlled cortical impact can contribute to neuroprotection. However, the underlying mechanisms and whether LPS preconditioning confers neuroprotection against closed-head injuries remains unclear. Methods: The authors hypothesized that preconditioning with a low dose of LPS (0.2 mg/kg) would regulate glial reactivity and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:6-15. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.40
    Published on: 20 Jan 2017  | Viewed:4493  | Downloaded:332
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Peripheral NK and B regulatory cell frequencies are altered with symptomatic exacerbation in generalized myasthenia gravis patients

    Xiao-Yin Lai , Meng-Cui Gui , Jing Lin , Yue Li , Xuan Luo , Long-Xuan Li , Bi-Tao Bu
    Aim: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease, in which immunotherapy can improve symptoms for a period, but the majority of patients still experience symptomatic fluctuation or develop myasthenic crisis. This study aimed to explore the relationship between frequency of peripheral lymphocyte subsets and myasthenia gravis disease stage. Methods: The percentages of B regulatory (Breg) cells and natural killer (NK) cells in the peripheral blood samples obtained from 54 MG patients and 10 healthy controls were surveyed using flow cytometry. MG patients were subdivided into the ocular MG,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:179-87. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.29
    Published on: 18 Sep 2017  | Viewed:4452  | Downloaded:117
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Endocannabinoid metabolism in neurodegenerative diseases

    Chu Chen
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:268-70. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.46
    Published on: 15 Dec 2016  | Viewed:4396  | Downloaded:182
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  • Review|Open Access

    The association between human cytomegalovirus and glioblastomas: a review

    Christian B. Hochhalter , Christopher Carr , Brannan E. O’Neill , Marcus L. Ware , Michael J. Strong
    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was reported in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) over a decade ago and this finding has the potential to increase our understanding of the disease and it offers an alternative tumor-specific therapeutic target. Due of this promise, there is a fair amount of time, energy and money being directed towards understanding and utilizing this connection for eventual therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, the association between GBM and HCMV remains controversial. Several studies have reported conflicting results, further undermining the potential clinical value of this... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:96-108. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.10
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017  | Viewed:4345  | Downloaded:217
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Screening of genetic loci predisposing to herpes simplex virus infection on mouse chromosome 17

    Xiu-Ying Chen , Wei-Ju Tang , Xu-Zheng Zuo , Gong Wang , Hao-Xiang Wang , Peng Xie , Wen Huang
    Aim: The herpes simplex virus (HSV), one of the most common viruses infecting humans, is featured by a high infection rate and usually causes complex disorders difficult to diagnose and treat. Disease progression is always combined with the specific interaction between organism and environment, but genetic factors play a decisive role in most pathogenic processes. Like most human disorders, individual difference has also been involved in the pathogenesis of HSV infection. The present study aimed to screen the potential gene loci that regulates human predisposition to HSV infection. Methods:... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:274-82. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.21
    Published on: 26 Dec 2016  | Viewed:4269  | Downloaded:266
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A rare case of quadrigeminal plate lipoma presenting with the sixth cranial nerve palsy

    Bipin Kumar Chaurasia , Narendra Shalike , Silak Ram Chaudhary , Shamsul Alam , Dhiman Chowdhory , Kanak Kanti Barua , Ranjit Kumar Chaurasiya , Raushan Kumar Chaurasia , Ramesh Kumar Chaurasia , Tolga Dundar
    Intracranial lipomas are rare benign tumour that is slow growing, generally asymptomatic, most frequently located in the midline areas and are usually an incidental finding on imaging and therefore cases are not frequently reported. This study reports a case of a patient with quadrigeminal plate lipoma presenting with obstructive hydrocephalous and the 6th cranial nerve palsy that was successfully treated with ventriculo-peritoneal shunting without addressing the lesion. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:232-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.40
    Published on: 9 Nov 2017  | Viewed:4223  | Downloaded:84
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Neuroprotection by minocycline in murine traumatic spinal cord injury: analyses of matrix metalloproteinases

    Tiffany Rice , Jennifer E.A. Larsen , Hui Li , Robert K. Nuttall , Peter H. Larsen , Steven Casha , John Hurlbert , Dylan R. Edwards , V. Wee Yong
    Aim: Minocycline has neuroprotective activities in several models of neurological disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI) where it prevents axonal loss and improves functional recovery. There are still gaps of knowledge on minocycline in SCI including whether it ameliorates neuronal loss at the focal site of trauma, and whether minocycline reduces the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of enzymes implicated in the pathophysiology of SCI. This study addressed these gaps. Methods: Mice were treated with either minocycline or vehicle control after a spinal cord... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:243-53. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.51
    Published on: 28 Nov 2017  | Viewed:4036  | Downloaded:31
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    When friend turns foe: central and peripheral neuroinflammation in central nervous system injury

    Paul Marcet , Nicole Santos , Cesar V. Borlongan
    Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is common, and though it has been well studied, many aspects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke are poorly understood. TBI and stroke are two pathologic events that can cause severe, immediate impact to the neurostructure and function of the CNS, which has been recognized recently to be exacerbated by the body’s own immune response. Although the brain damage induced by the initial trauma is most likely unsalvageable, the secondary immunologic deterioration of neural tissue gives ample opportunity for therapeutic strategists seeking to... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:82-92. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.07
    Published on: 17 May 2017  | Viewed:3992  | Downloaded:237
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Parasellar extra-axial cavernoma mimicking meningioma: a case report

    Arun Oommen , Thara Pratap , Sushil Chandi , Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
    Parasellar extra-axial cavernomas are rare lesions. The authors report a case of extra-axial cavernoma in a 50-year-old male patient, who presented with occipital headache and double vision. The magnetic resonance imaging showed an enhancing extra-axial dural-based mass in the left parasellar region invading cavernous sinus, hyper-intense on T2-weighted images, iso-intense on T1-weighted images and high relative cerebral blood velocity on magnetic resonance perfusion. The patient underwent a left pterional craniotomy and parasellar space occupying lesion was excised. Histopathology was... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:16-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.49
    Published on: 20 Jan 2017  | Viewed:3898  | Downloaded:238
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Inhibition and reversal of growth cone collapse in adult sensory neurons by enteric glia-induced neurotrophic factors

    Simon Feng , Kiran Reddy , Cai-Xin Su , Shu-Cui Jiang
    Aim: Previous studies show enteric glia (EG)-conditioned medium promotes neurite outgrowth in adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) derived sensory neurons. This EG-conditioned medium contains various neurotrophic factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). This study attempts to determine the importance of these neurotrophic factors in enabling DRG-derived sensory neuron axons to overcome the inhibitory guidance cues released from the glial scar. Methods: A Semaphorin 3A... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:180-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.03
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:3793  | Downloaded:149
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  • Guidelines|Open Access

    Treatment guidelines of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in China

    Li-Ying Cui , Chuan-Qiang Pu , Xue-Qiang Hu
    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder at the peripheral nervous system, in which the progression is chronic and also remission relapse. In most cases, it is also associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein-cell separation. Electrophysiologically, the peripheral nerve conduction velocity decreases, blocks and characterized as discrete abnormal waveform. Pathologically, there is also multifocal demyelination of myelinated fibers, nerve endometrial edema,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:20-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.14
    Published on: 20 Feb 2017  | Viewed:3575  | Downloaded:602
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    A review with comments on herpes simplex encephalitis in adults

    Xu-Zheng Zuo , Wei-Ju Tang , Xiu-Ying Chen , Wen Huang
    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can cause permanent injury to the brain parenchyma. As such, it is usually treated as a medical emergency for which correct immediate diagnosis and introduction of specific therapies are critical for survival and prognosis. Here, the authors review the current status of diagnosis and treatments and discuss unsolved issues surrounding therapeutic interventions. The authors also highlight the current expectations for future management of HSE. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:24-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.34
    Published on: 20 Feb 2017  | Viewed:3441  | Downloaded:432
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case report of acute pediatric bacterial meningitis due to the rare isolate, Pseudomonas putida

    Grishma V. Kulkarni
    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is the medical emergency which warrants an early diagnosis and an aggressive therapy. Despite the availability of the potent newer antibiotics, the mortality caused by ABM and its complications remain high in India, ranging from 16% to 32%. The aim of this case report is to present the rare isolation of Pseudomonas putida from cerebrospinal fluid sample. Besides this, the author also emphasizes the importance of correctly identifying the organism and thus the selection of the most accurate antibiotic from the susceptibility profile to allow for early... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:215-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.55
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:3404  | Downloaded:208
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    LPS-induced TLR4 neuroinflammatory signaling in CHME-5 microglial cells

    Leandra K. Figueroa-Hall , Michael B. Anderson , Subhas Das , Craig W. Stevens , Randall L. Davis
    Aim: In the field of neuroinflammation, identifying specific effects of pharmacological agents and other factors is problematic given the relative difficulty and expense in obtaining and culturing primary microglia. Immortalized microglial cell lines are very useful, but only a limited number have been characterized for inflammatory signaling. Therefore, characterization of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in CHME-5, a microglial cell line, is expected to be of value as an experimental model of inflammatory signaling in the central nervous system (CNS).... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:219-31. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.38
    Published on: 19 Oct 2017  | Viewed:3371  | Downloaded:97
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  • Review|Open Access

    The role of ubiquitinated TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Yi Dong , Yan Chen
    Deposition of intracellular ubiquitin inclusion in motor neurons is one of the leading pathogenic mechanisms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The transactive response DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is the main component of intracellular ubiquitin inclusion bodies in pathological deposits. TDP-43 is mainly distributed in the nucleus of neurons, and participates in nuclear RNA transcription, alternative splicing and mRNA stability regulation. The tardbp, as a coding gene, provides instructions for making TDP-43. After post-translational modification, the pathological TDP-43 induces... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.47
    Published on: 26 Feb 2018  | Viewed:3232  | Downloaded:179
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Possible role of microparticles in neuroimmune signaling of microglial cells

    Stephanie M. Schindler , Ekta Bajwa , Jonathan P. Little , Andis Klegeris
    Aim: Submicron fragments termed microparticles (MPs), derived from all major central nervous system cell types including neurons and glia (microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes), have emerged as novel intercellular signaling agents. This study tested the hypothesis that MPs derived from activated microglia, which represent the mononuclear phagocyte system in the brain, could induce pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic responses of microglia in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Methods: Human THP-1 monocytic cells were used to model human microglia. MPs derived from these cells were reapplied to... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:232-42. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.25
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:3232  | Downloaded:159
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Analysis of clinical data of viral encephalitis patients complicated with epilepsy during the acute phase

    Shi-Ying Chen , Wei Ma , Yan-Yan Chen , Xue-Wen Fan
    Aim: To compare the difference between viral encephalitis patients complicated with epilepsy group and those without epilepsy. Methods: The authors retrospectively study 116 cases of viral encephalitis patients admitted to the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and the Cardia-Cerebrovascular Disease Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from January 2011 to December 2016. There were 39 cases with epilepsy and 77 cases without epilepsy. By surveying the Hospital Information System, the authors collected their clinical data including general situations, medical history, physical... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:124-31. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.17
    Published on: 11 Jul 2017  | Viewed:3159  | Downloaded:148
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Hypodysfibrinogenemia in a young patient with recurrent strokes

    Daniele Orsucci , Stefania Salvetti , Marco Margelli , Michele Puglioli , Marco Vista , Monica Mazzoni
    Stroke is a complex disease, but in some instances is the direct result of a monogenic disease. Here we report the case of a 44-year-old Italian man who experienced recurrent transitory ischemic attacks and strokes. He also had right fetal-type posterior cerebral artery. He was diagnosed with congenital hypodysfibrinogenemia due to a mutation leading to a truncated fibrinogen gamma chain. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the links between fibrinogen dysfunction and stroke. Hypodysfibrinogenemia should be included among the monogenic diseases associated with ischemic stroke.... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.66
    Published on: 7 Mar 2018  | Viewed:3135  | Downloaded:76
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  • Topic: Alzheimer’s Disease|Open Access

    Altered filamin A enables amyloid beta-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease

    Lindsay H. Burns , Hoau-Yan Wang
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with proteopathy characterized by abnormalities in amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau proteins. Defective amyloid and tau propagate and aggregate, leading to eventual amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. New data show that a third proteopathy, an altered conformation of the scaffolding protein filamin A (FLNA), is critically linked to the amyloid and tau pathologies in AD. Altered FLNA is pervasive in AD brain and without apparent aggregation. In a striking interdependence, altered FLNA is both induced by Aβ and required for two... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:263-71. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.50
    Published on: 8 Dec 2017  | Viewed:2968  | Downloaded:97
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis with ADEM-like clinical/MR findings

    Jia Liu , Huan Yi , Li Xu , Min Li , Xuan Wang , Fu-Hua Peng
    In recent years, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis overlapping with demyelinating disorders has attracted more and more attention. The case is about a 52-year-old woman with anti-NMDAR encephalitis presenting acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like clinical/magnetic resonance (MR) findings. Here, the authors report this case and briefly review her MR evolution and the conditions of her prognosis. The recognition that patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis may have demyelinating disorders, simultaneously or sequentially, is important. Otherwise, a high dose of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:257-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.28
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016  | Viewed:2794  | Downloaded:258
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Applying clustering coefficient to the pattern of international author collaboration in neuroimmunology and neuroinflammation

    Chen-Fang Hsu , Tsair-Wei Chien , Julie Chi Chow , Willy Chou
    Aim: To apply cluster coefficient (CC) to the pattern of international author collaborations in neuroimmunology and neuroinflammation using data from Medline and to visualize results using Google maps and social network analysis (SNA). Methods: Selecting 2799 abstracts, author names, countries, and keywords on January 22, 2018 from Medline based on keyword neuroimmunology (or neuroinflammation) within the article title since 1982, we reported following features: (1) nation distribution for the 1st author’s nationality; (2) eminent journals and authors in the field of neuroimmunology and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.03
    Published on: 30 Mar 2018  | Viewed:2704  | Downloaded:58
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome: single photon emission computerized tomography observations

    Salvadeeswaran Meenakshi-Sundaram , Sathyam Senthilnathan , Kaliappan Gurusamy Srinivasan , Somalinga Nagendran Karthik , Pandi Suresh , Somasundaram Palanirajan
    The authors report clinical correlations of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) findings in reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy (RPL). These are observations that have not received wide attention in literature. A 31-year-old hypertensive gentleman, on discontinuing antihypertensive medications, presented with vomiting, headache, focal motor to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures, altered sensorium, right gaze palsy and right hemiparesis. Accelerated hypertension was noted and he improved well with antihypertensive and anticonvulsant therapy. While cranial magnetic... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:28-32. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.12
    Published on: 20 Feb 2017  | Viewed:2697  | Downloaded:127
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Developing an international consensus guidance for myasthenia gravis using RAND/UCLA appropriateness method

    Wei-Bin Liu , Hao Ran , Chuang-Yi Ou , Li Qiu , Zhi-Dong Huang , Zhong-Qiang Lin , Yin-Kai Li , Xiao-Xi Liu , Hao Huang , Wei Fang
    Aim: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare and heterogeneous disease for which there is no generally accepted standard of care. Thus, it is critical that MG experts develop consensus guidelines based on their practice and disease management to assist clinicians and provide advice for insurance companies, health organizations and institutional review boards. Methods: An international treatment guidance was developed based on national guidelines established in the US, Denmark, Norway, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and Europe. The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method (RAM) was applied to... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:54-60. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.47
    Published on: 30 Mar 2017  | Viewed:2696  | Downloaded:181
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Prenatal zinc supplementation to lipopolysaccharide infected female rats prevents neurochemical, behavioral and biochemical deficits produced in infants

    Neha Sharma , Palvi Arora , Bimla Nehru
    Aim: Recent research revealed an association between maternal infection i.e. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure during pregnancy and increased risk for central nervous system disorders being passed onto the off-spring. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of LPS infection during d14-17 of pregnancy (equivalent to third trimester in humans) on neurochemical, neurobehavioral abnormalities, biochemical as well as histopathological parameters in male/female pups. Also, the effect of zinc supplementation throughout pregnancy to female rats in ameliorating LPS... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:33-45. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.38
    Published on: 21 Mar 2017  | Viewed:2678  | Downloaded:117
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation for schizophrenia: potential and risks

    Peggy Bosch , Sujung Yeo , Heike Staudte , Pia Barisch , Sabina Lim , Maurits van den Noort
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:258-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.48
    Published on: 6 Dec 2017  | Viewed:2666  | Downloaded:134
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalitis in a patient with sarcoidosis on hydroxychloroquine with negative cerebrospinal fluid testing for the John Cunningham virus

    Ovais Inamullah , Casey Farin , Linh Tran , Roger McLendon , Mark Skeen , Joel Morgenlander
    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by the John Cunningham (JC) virus typically seen in immuno-compromised patients. Several drugs that suppress that immune system have already been known to cause PML such as natalizumab and rituximab. We present a patient with sarcoidosis who develops PML in the rare setting of minimal immunosuppression with only hydroxychloroquine. There was significant delay in the diagnosis due to negative cerebrospinal fluid testing for JC virus and concern for neuro-sarcoidosis, but... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.61
    Published on: 31 Jan 2018  | Viewed:2665  | Downloaded:72
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Characteristics and predictive biomarkers of drug resistant epilepsy -- study in Georgia

    Maia Alkhidze , Giorgi Lomidze , Sofia Kasradze , Aleksander Tsiskaridze
    Aim: The authors conducted a case-control study to estimate predictive factors for timely identification of patients at higher risk for developing drug resistant epilepsy. Methods: The retrospective case-control study was conducted among people diagnosed as having drug resistant epilepsy (cases) and their controls, identified as having drug-responsive seizures. All participants were admitted to the tertiary Epilepsy Center at the Institute of Neurology and Neuropsychology (Tbilisi, Georgia) during 2011. The data on demographic features and disease characteristics were analyzed. Multiple... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:191-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.14
    Published on: 27 Sep 2017  | Viewed:2660  | Downloaded:181
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  • Review|Open Access

    Clinical application of cerebrospinal fluid cytology in China

    Hong-Zhi Guan , Gang Zhao
    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology is a fundamental test for the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) disease in neurological practice in China. CSF cytology provides diagnostic evidence in cases suspected of CNS infectious diseases, autoimmune encephalitis and CNS neoplastic disorders. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry make the cytological diagnosis more sensitive and specific. However, the diagnostic significance of CSF cytology should be interpreted and evaluated in the context of specific clinical backgrounds. Although molecular diagnostic techniques, including polymerase... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.52
    Published on: 11 Feb 2018  | Viewed:2651  | Downloaded:80
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    The expanding spectrum of pediatric anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody mediated CNS disease - a chance association?

    Deepak Menon , Ramshekhar N. Menon , Hardeep Kumar , Ashalatha Radhakrishnan , Sudheeran Kannoth , Muralidharan Nair Nair , Sanjeev Thomas
    Central nervous system autoimmunity in the pediatric age group represents an evolving constellation of various syndromes distinct from the adult age group. One of the rarely described pathogenic auto-antibodies (ab) is the one directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). While its pathogenic role is controversial, literature concerning adult patients abounds with heterogeneous presentations with epilepsy often as part of limbic encephalitis or chronic temporal lobe epilepsy and cerebellar ataxia accompanying endocrinopathies or paraneoplastic disorders. Diagnosis is often delayed... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:219-24. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.02
    Published on: 28 Sep 2016  | Viewed:2554  | Downloaded:212
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  • Minireview|Open Access

    How are necroptosis, immune dysfunction, and motoneuron death connected in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    Jian-Feng Liu , Ou-Xiang Zheng , Jun-Guo Xin , Hannah H. Chen , John J. Xin
    Abnormal immune response/inflammation is present in patients of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Autoimmune-related inflammation has been thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of ALS. However, how the abnormal immune responses are initiated, what specific immune cells and how these immune cells are involved in this disease have not been well understood. This is partly owing to two facts of ALS: late diagnosis and chronic nature. The late diagnosis makes it difficult to conclude whether the abnormal immune responses/inflammation is the cause or result of the disease. The chronic... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:109-16. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.12
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017  | Viewed:2447  | Downloaded:147
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case of atypical progressive multifocal encephalopathy mimicking acute ischemic stroke: case report and review of literature

    Maria Teresa Infante , Giovanni Novi , Riccarda Gentile , Laura Malfatto , Lucio Castellan , Carlo Serrati , Laura Barletta
    Progressive multifocal encephalopathy (PML) is a rare but often fatal infectious brain disease caused by the reactivation of John Cunningham polyomavirus. Reactivation occurs in immunocompromised individuals with AIDS and leukemia, on chemotherapy or being treated with immunosuppressant drugs (e.g. monoclonal antibodies). Cases of PML have been described in patients treated with natalizumab, efalizumab and rituximab used, respectively, for the treatment of (1) multiple sclerosis, (2) psoriasis and (3) haematological malignancies or systemic autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:211-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.52
    Published on: 19 Oct 2017  | Viewed:2381  | Downloaded:89
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    Cerebral ischemia at early postoperative period of direct revascularization for moyamoya disease: a case report and literature review

    Xiao-Lin Chen , Li Ma , Yu Chen , Jun-Lin Lu , Xun Ye , Rong Wang , Yuan-Li Zhao
    Hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion could be causes of early postoperative complications that lead to neurological deterioration in patients with moyamoya diseases (MMD) after superficial temporal artery (STA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis. Here, the authors described a case of child-onset bilateral MMD that manifested transient cerebral ischemia in the contralateral hemisphere after left STA-MCA bypass in young adulthood. A new onset of cerebral ischemia in the contralateral hemisphere and transient neurological deterioration suggested the fragile hemodynamics of MMD during... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:46-53. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.04
    Published on: 24 Mar 2017  | Viewed:2370  | Downloaded:152
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Interleukin-1beta: a common thread between inflammation, pain and opioid tolerance

    Shekher Mohan
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:201-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.37
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:2357  | Downloaded:167
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  • Review|Open Access

    MicroRNA-126 is a prospective target for vascular disease

    Mei-Jie Qu , Jia-Ji Pan , Xiao-Jing Shi , Zhi-Jun Zhang , Yao-Hui Tang , Guo-Yuan Yang
    MicroRNA-126 was involved in angiogenesis during physiological and pathological process. It was mainly expressed in endothelial cells, and defined as a pivotal biological molecule associated with vascular disease. Increased microRNA-126 in endothelial cells promotes angiogenesis in ischemic stroke, repairs impaired endothelial cells in atherosclerosis, and attenuates vascular dysfunction in diabetics. By contrast, microRNA-126 transferred from endothelial cell to smooth muscle cells could lead to proliferation that induced intimal hyperplasia. Additionally, microRNA-126 could be a tumor... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:10. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.01
    Published on: 9 Apr 2018  | Viewed:2315  | Downloaded:60
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Schizophrenia and comorbid sleep disorders

    Maurits van den Noort , Heike Staudte , Benoît Perriard , Sujung Yeo , Sabina Lim , Peggy Bosch
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:225-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.42
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:2269  | Downloaded:253
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Depression severity and its predictors among multiple sclerosis patients in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

    Adel Ali Alhazzani , Mohammed Saeed Alqahtani , Hassan Ogran , Osamah Hussain Abuhawi , Abdulrahman Yahya Asiri , Ali Mohammed Al-Hanash , Reem Ali AlQahtany , Adel Ali Alfaifi , Abdullmgeed Abdullah Asiri , Muhannad Ali Asiri
    Aim: To assess depression severity among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods: Our survey was carried out among a sample of 598 MS patients (35.8% were males and 64.2% were females) from all different regions of KSA. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The Chi-square test was applied to examine the association between demographic factors, depression severity and level of disability. Results: The mean age of patients at the time of diagnosis was 26.1 ± 7.9 years (range 15 to 60 years). The mean duration of the disease was 6.6 ± 4.8 years. More than quarter of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.55
    Published on: 23 Mar 2018  | Viewed:2242  | Downloaded:91
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Takayasu’s arteritis - aphasia as an initial presentation

    Davinder Singh Rana , Anuradha Batra , Ish Anand , Samir Patel , Pooja Gupta
    Takayasu arteritis (TA) is an uncommon disease of young women, characterized by granulomatous vasculitis of medium and large arteries. Neurological involvement is reported in only a minority of patients and occurrence of neurological syndromes as the first manifestation of disease has been rarely reported. We present clinical, laboratory and imaging findings of a 40 years old lady with TA, who initially presented with clinical manifestations of stroke in form of aphasia. The rarity of the disease and especially such a presentation can cause considerable delay in the diagnosis and treatment. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:192-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.52
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:2218  | Downloaded:156
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case report of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor autoimmune encephalitis with sensory attack. Is limbic encephalitis only “limbic”?

    Sheng Chen , Xiao-Jie Zhang , Meng-Sha Yao , Xing-Hua Luan , Fei Yuan , Jun Liu , Shu-Feng Chen , Chen-Fei Jia , Sheng-Di Chen
    To emphasize the early diagnosis and treatment of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) autoimmune encephalitis, a rare clinical condition, teratoma-related, anti-NMDAR encephalitis should be suspected if young patients present with psychiatric, movement, and sensory symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment can decrease the mortality and disability rate. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:78-81. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.39
    Published on: 10 May 2017  | Viewed:2170  | Downloaded:109
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Cerebral venous thrombosis in patient of relapse of ulcerative colitis: report of a case

    Rajat Agarwal , Anuradha Batra , Ish Anand , Davinder Singh Rana , Samir Patel
    Amongst the various systemic complications of ulcerative colitis, cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon and serious neurological complication mainly associated during episodes of relapse of ulcerative colitis. CVT is suspected to be a consequence of hypercoagulable state occurring during the disease in genetic predisposed persons. Most patients present with rapid neurological deterioration. This devastating intracranial complication requires immediate medical intervention to avoid potentially life threatening consequences. The outcome is good, provided the disease is diagnosed on... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:243-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.15
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:2142  | Downloaded:133
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    The roles of endoglin gene in cerebrovascular diseases

    Wan Zhu , Li Ma , Rui Zhang , Hua Su
    Endoglin (ENG, also known as CD105) is a transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) associated receptor and is required for both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is important in the development of cerebral vasculature and in the pathogenesis of cerebral vascular diseases. ENG is an essential component of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation complex. Animal studies showed that ENG deficiency impairs stroke recovery. ENG deficiency also impairs the regulation of vascular tone, which contributes to the pathogenesis of brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) and vasospasm. In... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:199-210. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.18
    Published on: 17 Oct 2017  | Viewed:2134  | Downloaded:88
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Advancements in diagnosis and treatment of meningeal carcinomatosis in solid cancer

    Jun-Zhao Cui , Jun-Ying He , Qing Li , Xiao-Qing Li , Rui-Ping Gao , Hui Bu , Yue-Li Zou , Xiao-Su Guo , Wei-Xin Han , Ze-Yan Zhao , Yuan-Yuan Li , Ming-Ming Zheng , Ya-Juan Liu , Li-Tian Yan
    Meningeal carcinomatosis (MC) is a disease that malignant tumor cells cultivate in the cerebrospinal fluid or meninges. With the development of therapy methods and new techniques, survival time of patients with tumor is prolonged, and the incidence of MC is increasing. Diagnosis is based on the evaluation of clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging findings. Furthermore, in recent years, the diagnostic value of the tumor-derived cell-free DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is promising and may improve the diagnostic yield of CSF analysis. Traditional treatments of MC... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:167-78. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.26
    Published on: 18 Sep 2017  | Viewed:2065  | Downloaded:154
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Dramatic recovery from stroke following intravenous thrombolysis in a patient on prasugrel for recent percutaneous coronary angioplasty

    Salvadeeswaran Meenakshi-Sundaram , Palanikumar Subburamakrishnan , Jude Vinoth , Simon Victor Rajah Sanjeevi Madhan-Rajah , Somalinga Nagendran Karthik , Pandi Suresh
    The authors report the first case of thrombolysis in a patient already receiving both aspirin and prasugrel following a recent ischemic coronary event. A 55-year-old gentleman was treated for inferior wall myocardial infarction with aspirin, prasugrel and percutaneous angioplasty of right coronary artery. Three days following the procedure he developed acute ischemic stroke due to a left middle cerebral artery infarction with a National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) of 24 and was treated with alteplase. Therapy was interrupted after completion of 29 mg (for a body weight of 65... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:216-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.57
    Published on: 19 Oct 2017  | Viewed:2047  | Downloaded:83
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    Relationship of cerebral microbleeds to inflammatory marker levels

    Qiao-Li Lu , Chen Li , Ying Song , Liang Wang , Zhi-Rong Jia
    Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence, distribution and risk factors of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and the relation between CMBs and inflammation in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Methods: Two hundred and one patients without acute infarction or transient ischemic attack were enrolled. The presence and number of CMB were assessed on susceptibility-weighted imaging. The traditional risk factors of CMB were recorded. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were tested. Logistic regression... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:145-51. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.05
    Published on: 8 Aug 2017  | Viewed:2012  | Downloaded:105
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  • Review|Open Access

    Population of inflammatory cells in intracranial aneurysm with the special insight to the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches

    Hirokazu Koseki , Tomohiro Aoki
    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) can cause a lethal subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture. The prevalence of IA is high in the general public; however, the annual risk for the rupture of an incidentally found lesion is relatively low. Therefore, it is crucial to selectively diagnose rupture-prone IAs among many diagnosed IAs, and properly treat such IAs before rupture. Recent studies using human IA specimens or experimentally-induced IAs in animals have revealed some important findings regarding the role of inflammatory cells infiltrating IA lesions. Currently, IA is considered an inflammatory... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:173-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.05
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:2011  | Downloaded:173
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Emerging roles of microglia cells in the regulation of adult neural stem cells

    Eduardo Lira-Diaz , Oscar Gonzalez-Perez
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:204-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.32
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:2002  | Downloaded:138
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    D-cycloserin, a NMDA-agonist may be a treatment option for anti-NMDAR encephalitis

    Hong-Zhi Guan , Tie-Kuan Du , Jin Xu , Xia Lv , Hua-Dong Zhu , Yi-Cheng Zhu , Bin Peng , Li-Ying Cui
    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is caused by reversible neuron dysfunction associated an autoantibody-mediated decrease of NMDAR in the entire brain. A N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) -agonist treatment for anti-NMDAR encephalitis might have a role considering its specific mechanism. The authors used D-cycloserine, a partial NMDA-agonist in a refractory case with prolonged intensive care unit duration. A 13-year-old female presented with headache, cognitive deterioration, generalized seizures, coma and hypoventilation with required mechanical ventilation. Anti-NMDAR... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:189-91. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.29
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:1875  | Downloaded:250
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Cytology abnormal of cerebrospinal fluid in superficial siderosis of the central nervous system

    Cui Wang , Jian-Xia Diao , Shu-Min Li
    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SSCNS) is usually caused by chronic subarachnoid hemorrhage which leads to the accumulation of hemosiderin in the subpial layers of the brain and the spinal cord. The exact clinical manifestations and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the patient presented here is diagnosed SSCNS mainly due to the cytology of cerebrospinal fluid (CCSF) and the superficial siderosis of T2-weighted MRI. CCSF can be a good complementary to the diagnosis of SSCNS. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:155-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.03
    Published on: 9 Aug 2017  | Viewed:1808  | Downloaded:89
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Sparganosis of the brain: a case report and brief review

    Hai-Xia Li , Shi-Hai Luan , Wei Guo , Ling-Yang Hua , Hong-Da Zhu , Jiao-Jiao Deng , Hai-Liang Tang , Xian-Cheng Chen , Qing Xie , Ye Gong
    Human sparganosis is a rare disease often affecting muscle, subcutaneous tissue and other locations, but sparganosis invading the brain is rather rare. Cerebral sparganosis has no specific symptoms which makes the diagnosis quite difficult and is usually neglected in the clinic. Here the authors reported a case of a 29-year-old female who was diagnosed with cerebral sparganosis and underwent surgery in their department and a brief review of the literature was conducted as well. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:238-42. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.16
    Published on: 20 Nov 2017  | Viewed:1724  | Downloaded:72
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Low antioxidant status of patients with central nervous system infections

    Jia Liu , Feng Tan , Min Li , Huan Yi , Li Xu , Xuan Wang , Xiu-Feng Zhong , Fu-Hua Peng
    Aim: The pathogenesis of central nervous system infections (CNSI) has not been fully understood; some studies indicated that reactive oxygen species may induce brain damage. The aim of our study was to investigate serum antioxidant status in patients with CNSI. Methods: The serum levels of uric acid (UA), bilirubin and albumin of 548 individuals were enrolled in our study, comprising of 114 healthy controls (HC) and 434 patients with five different kinds of CNSI, which including viral meningitis and/or meningoencephalitis, cysticercosis of brain, tuberculous meningitis and/or... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:262-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.20
    Published on: 15 Dec 2016  | Viewed:1597  | Downloaded:127
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Thymoma-associated panencephalitis: a newly emerging paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome

    Lynda Adaobi Nwabuobi , Jacob Christian Pellinen , Thomas Mark Wisniewski
    Recently, a few case reports of thymoma-associated panencephalitis (TAPE) have brought to light a disease entity that has not been fully characterized. Literature review of TAPE reveals an array of associated neuronal antibodies, with varied responses to thymomectomy with or without immunotherapy. This report describes a case of TAPE and proposes that the GABAA receptor antibody is a potential target antigen driving the immune process in this disease entity. Treatment-wise, early thymomectomy consistently improves the overall course of disease. Further study of such cases will be critical... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:117-23. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.53
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017  | Viewed:1499  | Downloaded:88
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome after cerebral hemorrhage or head trauma

    Huan Jia , Ye Tian , Yan-Min Wu , Bin Li
    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an uncommon disease involving widespread peripheral nerve inflammatory demyelination which results in ascending symmetrical limb paralysis and areflexia. Approximately 2/3 of cases occurred following a simple, trivial antecedent infection. In northern China, diarrhea caused by Campylobacter jejuni is the most common etiology of GBS. This article presents 2 cases - post cerebral hemorrhage and post head traumatic GBS. Both patients suffered from acute motor axonal neuropathy, a main subtype of GBS, 14 days after cerebral hemorrhage or head trauma without any... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:61-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.51
    Published on: 12 Apr 2017  | Viewed:1480  | Downloaded:130
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Miller-Fisher syndrome after etanercept

    Elena Grebenciucova , John H. Pula
    The authors describe a case of Miller-Fischer syndrome, a rare demyelinating syndrome, preceded by a viral prodrome and three doses of etanercept, an anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα) agent. Anti-TNFα agents are associated with an induction of episodes of demyelination and may unmask multiple sclerosis in those who are immunogenetically predisposed. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:93-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.48
    Published on: 23 May 2017  | Viewed:1456  | Downloaded:119
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Developments in auxiliary examination of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Wei Zhao , Jiao-Jiao Jiang , Jia-Tang Zhang
    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), which is caused by prion scrapie protein, is a rare, chronic, transmissible and fatal disease. Clinical manifestations of CJD include rapidly progressive dementia, cerebellar ataxia, visual disturbance, as well as pyramidal and extrapyramidal tract signs. Four subtypes of CJD have been reported, including sporadic, familial or genetic, iatrogenic and variant. Given the infectiousness and high mortality of the disease, it is imperative that earlier and more accurate diagnostic methods are developed. In the past years, 14-3-3 protein testing and periodic sharp... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:136-44. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.01
    Published on: 21 Jul 2017  | Viewed:1425  | Downloaded:112
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Hot topics of autoimmune encephalitis

    Ying Peng , Jia-Wei Wang
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:132-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.50
    Published on: 11 Jul 2017  | Viewed:1400  | Downloaded:238
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Comments on “Loss of intranetwork and internetwork resting state functional connections with Alzheimer’s disease progression”

    Jiu Chen
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:247-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.30
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:1393  | Downloaded:88
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Acute demyelinating lesions with restricted diffusion in multiple sclerosis: a new variant?

    Sofia Markoula , Anastassia Zikou , Persephoni Margariti , Maria Argyropoulou , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:188-90. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.33
    Published on: 21 Sep 2017  | Viewed:1357  | Downloaded:170
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Serum immuno-biomarkers in gliomas

    Robin A. Buerki , Rimas V. Lukas
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:198-200. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.41
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:1303  | Downloaded:153
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Auto-reactive B cells in MuSK myasthenia gravis

    Yoon-Ho Hong , Jung-Joon Sung
    Acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) is a protoypical autoimmune disease caused by a dysfunction of neuromuscular transmission at the postsynaptic part. Patients experience fluctuating muscle weakness that increases with exertion. It is typically classified into clinical subtypes depending on distribution of involved muscles, onset age, thymic pathology, and auto-antibodies. While the most common auto-antibodies are targeted towards the skeletal muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR), the list of target molecules of pathogenic auto-antibodies has been expanding to include the muscle specific... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:196-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.33
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:1265  | Downloaded:121
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Isolated unilateral chorea: a diagnostic challenge

    Marta Lopes , Eva Brandão
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:260-1. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.45
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016  | Viewed:1215  | Downloaded:193
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Deep learning based computer-aided diagnosis for neuroimaging data: focused review and future potential

    V. B. Surya Prasath
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:1. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.68
    Published on: 12 Jan 2018  | Viewed:1172  | Downloaded:89
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Neurocysticercosis and hippocampal damage: a causal link favored by epileptogenesis or neuroinflammation?

    Oscar H. Del Brutto , Victor J. Del Brutto
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:152-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.23
    Published on: 8 Aug 2017  | Viewed:1134  | Downloaded:98
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Neuron specific enolase is a potential target for regulating neuronal cell survival and death: implications in neurodegeneration and regeneration

    Rachel Polcyn , Mollie Capone , Azim Hossain , Denise Matzelle , Naren L. Banik , Azizul Haque
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:254-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.59
    Published on: 6 Dec 2017  | Viewed:1123  | Downloaded:94
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Acetaminophen metabolites p-aminophenol and AM404 inhibit microglial activation

    Wyatt T. Slattery , Andis Klegeris
    Aim: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, deposits of amyloid beta and neurofibrillary tangles. Inflammation facilitated by microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. Epidemiological data indicate that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, reduce the risk of developing AD when administered over the course of two or more years. The mechanisms underlying this protective effect are unknown. Acetaminophen (paracetamol), which is not effective... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:11. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.05
    Published on: 12 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1008  | Downloaded:54
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    Inflammation and genetic factors in stroke pathogenesis

    Hua Su
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:260-2. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.22
    Published on: 8 Dec 2017  | Viewed:995  | Downloaded:81
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Precentral gyrus abnormal connectivity in male and female patients with schizophrenia

    Mahdi Zarei
    Aim: Dysfunction of the precentral gyrus plays a role in the impairments of voluntary movement associated with schizophrenia and it has significantly reduced functional activity in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the precentral gyrus alteration and its abnormal connectivity in schizophrenia. Methods: The region of interest-based analysis method was used to investigate the precentral gyrus connectivity alteration in schizophrenia. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of healthy control subjects and patients with schizophrenia... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:13. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.02
    Published on: 23 Apr 2018  | Viewed:866  | Downloaded:32
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Surgical management of clinoidal meningiomas: 10 cases analysis

    Shamsul Alam , Bipin Kumar Chaurasia , Narendra Shalike , Abu Naim Wakil Uddin , Dhiman Chowdhury , Akhlaque Hossain Khan , Ayub Ansari , Kanak Kanti Barua , Mashiur Rahman Majumder
    Aim: The purpose of this article is to advocate standard skull base technique for removing the clinoidal meningioma and to delineate the technique’s advantages that aid in achieving an improved extent of tumor resection and enhancing the patients’ overall outcome, specially their visual outcome. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 10 consecutive patients with clinoidal meningiomas who underwent surgical resection at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and other private clinics between May 2013 and July 2016. A standard pterional craniotomy technique consisting of... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Tumor
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:21. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.64
    Published on: 24 May 2018  | Viewed:736  | Downloaded:29
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Multiple sclerosis: depression and disability are globally shared issues of concern

    Victor M. Rivera
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:12. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.16
    Published on: 18 Apr 2018  | Viewed:732  | Downloaded:26
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    The emerging TDP-43 proteinopathy

    George P. Paraskevas , Mara Bourbouli , Ioannis Zaganas , Elisabeth Kapaki
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:17. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.18
    Published on: 10 May 2018  | Viewed:601  | Downloaded:38
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Peripheral plasmablasts in anti-MuSK myasthenia gravis

    Guillermo Delgado-García , Teresa Corona-Vázquez
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:236-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.39
    Published on: 9 Nov 2017  | Viewed:587  | Downloaded:46
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Very rare upperdorsal intramedullary epidermoid with paraplegia: a case report

    Md. Atikur Rahman , Bipin Kumar Chaurasia , Md. Arif Hossain , Saequa Habib , Kanak Kanti Barua
    Intramedullary upperdorsal epidermoid tumor is very rare. As far as we know, a small number of epidermoid tumors in the spinal cord have been reported in the journal for a long time. Most of the time, the spinal cord epidermoids are intradural extramedullary. We are reporting a case of a 21-year-old young man with paraplegia and upper dorsal pain for 6 months with normal physical findings. Magnetic resonance imaging scan shows that spinal intramedullary space occupying lesions in the dorsal 2/3 (D2/3) level. Total clearance was accomplished by performing laminectomy. Day to day paraplegia... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:14. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.57
    Published on: 23 Apr 2018  | Viewed:530  | Downloaded:22
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Customized autophagy: a long way to go

    Jayantee Kalita , Usha Kant Misra , Alok Kumar
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:16. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.22
    Published on: 7 May 2018  | Viewed:405  | Downloaded:34
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Streptococcus gallolyticus meningocephalitis in adults: the first case report in China

    Yue-Man Dai , Min Zhao , Hong-Ji Lu , Li-Xin Wan
    We report on the first case of a Streptococcus gallolyticus meningocephalitis in China. The bacterium was first isolated from the patient’s cerebrospinal fluid and has so far not been associated with human infections of the central nervous system. We hope our case report can give some references for the diagnosis and treatment of the Streptococcus gallolyticus meningocephalitis in China. Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:28. | doi:10.20517//2347-8659.2018.09
    Published on: 16 Jul 2018  | Viewed:371  | Downloaded:2
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  • Review|Open Access

    Photodynamic therapy mediated immune therapy of brain tumors

    Henry Hirschberg , Kristian Berg , Qian Peng
    Photodynamic therapy of tumors requires the topical, systemic or oral administration of a photosensitizing compound,illumination of the tumor area by light of a specific wavelength and the presence of oxygen. Light activation of the photosensitizer transfers energy to molecular oxygen creating singlet oxygen, a highly reactive and toxic species that rapidly reacts with cellular components causing oxidative damage, ultimately leading to cell death. Tumor destruction caused by photodynamic therapy is not only a result of direct tumor cell toxicity via the generation of reactive oxygen species... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:27. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.31
    Published on: 10 Jul 2018  | Viewed:328  | Downloaded:30
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  • Technical Note|Open Access

    Classification of brain tumor using devernay sub-pixel edge detection and k-nearest neighbours methodology

    Ayush Arora , Ritesh Kumar , Shubham Tiwari , Mysore Shwetha , Selvam Venkatesan , Ramesh Babu
    Any disease can be treated only once it is imaged, detected and classified. This paper proposes a set of algorithms for classification of a brain tumor with better accuracy and efficiency. The proposal uses a JPEG format of the DICOM image fed into three stages namely pre-processing, segmentation using sub-pixel edge detection method and using the nearest neighbor methodology for the detection and differentiation of benign and malignant tumors. Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:26. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.11
    Published on: 19 Jun 2018  | Viewed:323  | Downloaded:17
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Shifting paradigm in brain abscess management at tertiary care centre in Nepal

    Prakash Kafle , Mohan Raj Sharma , Sushil Krishna Shilpakar , Gopal Sedain , Amit Pradhanang , Ram Kumar Shrestha , Binod Raj Bhandari , Christine Groves
    Aim: Brain abscess is a challenging clinical entity with substantial high case fatality rates despite significant advances in imaging techniques, laboratory modalities, surgical interventions, and antimicrobial treatment.Otogenic and cardiogenic sources are among the most common. Classic clinical presentation is seen in very few cases only. Burr hole with aspiration works well with good clinical outcomes. Control of primary source in cases of ear infection in the single setting results in good outcomes, reduces for additional surgery, and decreases the duration of hospital stay. Methods:... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on neuro-immunological and neuro-inflammatory lesions
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:24. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.10
    Published on: 7 Jun 2018  | Viewed:286  | Downloaded:17
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  • Review|Open Access

    A concise review of immunotherapy for glioblastoma

    Omer Sager , Ferrat Dincoglan , Selcuk Demiral , Bora Uysal , Hakan Gamsiz , Bahar Dirican , Murat Beyzadeoglu
    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumors in adults with a universally poor prognosis despite multimodal management including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Among the novel therapeutic strategies, immunotherapy deserves particular attention with its potential to evoke biologic response and harness the host immune system. Considerable success achieved for other tumors has elicited great enthusiasm and prompted research on immunotherapy for GB. While the central nervous system has traditionally been thought of as an immune-privileged site,... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:25. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.12
    Published on: 15 Jun 2018  | Viewed:270  | Downloaded:35
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Hypoparathyroidism presenting with late onset seizures - a report of two cases from rural India

    Archana Verma , Alok Kumar
    Hypoparathyroidism leading to hypocalcaemia is an important treatable cause of recurrent seizures. Neurological manifestations due to hypoparathyroidism include: seizures, paresthesia, depression, psychosis, extra pyramidal symptoms, and features of raised intracranial pressure. Seizures may be the presenting symptoms preceding other signs of hypocalcaemia. Primary hypoparathyroidism presenting for the first time as seizures in the elderly is quite rare. Here we report two cases of hypoparathyroidism presenting with seizures in the elderly as the sole manifestation of hypocalcaemia. The... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:20. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.65
    Published on: 23 May 2018  | Viewed:229  | Downloaded:15
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Sleep disturbance and treatment adherence: commentary on the study by Bosch et al. (2016)

    Kanako Ishizuka , Toshiya Inada
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:15. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.14
    Published on: 26 Apr 2018  | Viewed:199  | Downloaded:32
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Demyelinating central nervous system lesions, following the use of tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist

    Emmanuel Bogdos , Sofia Markoula , Anastasia Zikou , Paraskevi Voulgari , Aleksandros Drosos , Spyridon Konitsiotis
    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antagonists have been a valuable tool in treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but reports and case series of neurological adverse events due to TNFα antagonists have been reported. Furthermore, central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma always remains a remote, yet a worrisome complication in RA patients, especially in those under treatment with methotrexate (MTX). We present a female patient with RA with tumor-like active demyelinating lesions attributed to TNFα antagonist, confirmed by an FNA biopsy, otherwise clinically and radiologically... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:19. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.07
    Published on: 22 May 2018  | Viewed:188  | Downloaded:13
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Commentary on “Depression severity and its predictors among multiple sclerosis patients in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study”

    Thomas Müller
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:23. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.27
    Published on: 7 Jun 2018  | Viewed:182  | Downloaded:13
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Commentary on interactions between neurotropic pathogens, neuroinflammatory pathways, and autophagic neural cell death

    Michaela Cellina , Marcello Orsi
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:22. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.15
    Published on: 5 Jun 2018  | Viewed:153  | Downloaded:13
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Bone mineral density in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Chrissa Sioka , Andreas Fotopoulos
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2018;5:18. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2018.06
    Published on: 22 May 2018  | Viewed:144  | Downloaded:18
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Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation ISSN 2349-6142 (Online), ISSN 2347-8659 (Print)
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