Most Viewed: Last TWO YEARS
  • Review

    Current diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Xiao-Su Guo , Hui Bu , Jun-Ying He , Yue-Li Zou , Yue Zhao , Yuan-Yuan Li , Jun-Zhao Cui , Ming-Ming Zheng , Wei-Xin Han , Ze-Yan Zhao
    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a central nervous system infectious disease caused by Cryptococcus. It is the most common fungal infection in the central nervous system, accounting for about 48% of fungal infection. The disease occurs mainly in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and concentrates in the immunocompromised people without AIDS. There are nearly one million new cases of CM each year, and about 70% of them died. In China, CM occurs mainly in people without AIDS and there is an increasing trend in recent years. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to reducing...
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016
    Views: 32007
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  • Review

    Neuroinflammatory modulators of oligodendrogenesis

    Ana Armada-Moreira , Filipa F. Ribeiro , Ana M. Sebastião , Sara Xapelli
    Oligodendrocytes are key neural cells that are responsible for producing myelin sheaths that wrap around neuronal axons in the central nervous system. Myelin is essential to insulate neurons and maintain a fast and saltatory propagation of action potentials along the axon. However, oligodendrocytes are very susceptible to damage, and thus demyelination may arise from a brain lesion or a neurodegenerative disorder. Consequently, demyelination produces a loss of axonal insulation leading to sensory or motor neuron failure. During adulthood, there are two main sources of oligodendrocytes:...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
    Views: 11814
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  • Review

    Neuronal toll-like receptors and neuro-immunity in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and stroke

    Carmen D. Rietdijk , Richard J. A. van Wezel , Johan Garssen , Aletta D. Kraneveld
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are part of the innate immune system important for the initiation of proper immune responses towards microorganisms. Neuronal TLRs are considered to be part of the interactions between the immune system and the nervous system, the major sensing systems in mammals. The review entitled “Neuronal toll-like receptors and neuro-immunity in Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and stroke” by Rietdijk et al. offers an overview of the current knowledge about (neuronal) TLRs in neurodegenerative pathologies.
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016
    Views: 11530
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  • Original Article

    Brain abscess: surgical experiences of 162 cases

    Forhad Hossain Chowdhury , Md Raziul Haque , Mainul Haque Sarkar , S. M. Noman Khaled Chowdhury , Zahed Hossain , Shisir Ranjan
    Aim: Brain abscess still poses a public health challenge in spite of the advent of modern neurosurgical techniques and antibiotics. Here, we present our surgical experiences and ultimate outcome in the management of brain abscess. Methods: Totally, 162 patients with proved brain abscess who underwent surgical treatment were included in this study. The prospectively recorded data of surgical management of brain abscess and the ultimate outcome (by Glasgow outcome scale) were studied retrospectively. Results: Total number of cases was 162, of which 113 were acute pyogenic abscess while 49...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
    Views: 10324
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies targeting the voltage-gated potassium channel complex: immunobiology and clinical characteristics

    Domenico Plantone , Rosaria Renna , Tatiana Koudriavtseva
    Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) represent a group of tetrameric signaling proteins with several functions, including modulation of neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. Moreover, VGKCs give a key contribution to the generation of the action potential. VGKCs are complexed with other neuronal proteins, and it is now widely known that serum autoantibodies directed against VGKCs are actually directed against the potassium channel subunits only in a minority of patients. By contrast, these autoantibodies more commonly target three proteins that are complexed with...
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016
    Views: 9717
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  • Case Report

    Isolated palatal palsy: a clinical rarity

    Harpreet Singh , Rekha Mathur , Parminder Kaur
    Acquired isolated palatal palsy is a rare disease. It is commonly seen in children. It usually presents with acute onset nasal regurgitation of fluids, rhinolalia, and palatal asymmetry. Many causes of this disease, such as infections, trauma, tumor, and brainstem lesions, etc., have been reported. However, the most plausible explanation is immunological/ischemic damage to the affected nerve. After ruling out major potential causes of this disease, the damage is often considered to be idiopathic in nature. This disease has a benign self‑limiting course with excellent recovery. In accordance...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
    Views: 9116
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  • Guidelines

    China guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of myasthenia gravis

    Zhu-Yi Li
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a typical autoimmune disease mediated by auto-antibodies, immune cells and complement systems at the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction. Over 80 % of MG patients have anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody. This guideline will describe the clinical manifestations and classification, laboratory examinations, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016
    Views: 8995
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  • Review

    Neurological manifestations in Fabry disease

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks , Yara Dadalti Fragoso
    Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, progressive, multisystem and highly debilitating disease. FD is an X-linked lysosome storage disorder that results in α-galactosidase A deficiency. The subsequent accumulation of glycosphingolipids is more evident in vascular endothelium and smooth-muscle cells. The resulting effect of the deposition is generalized inflammation and vasculopathy, which can also affect the central and peripheral nervous system. FD progresses with kidney dysfunction, angiokeratoma of the skin, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular events and neurological disorders. In the present...
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016
    Views: 8522
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  • Review

    Microglia and astroglia: the role of neuroinflammation in lead toxicity and neuronal injury in the brain

    Jin-Tao Liu , Mo-Han Dong , Jie-Qiong Zhang , Ya Bai , Fang Kuang , Liang-Wei Chen
    Lead (Pb2+), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, may widely affect the function of many organs or systems of human beings, especially the brain. Although lead is believed to transport into the brain through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cause direct neuronal injury, growing data have shown that lead exposure could induce brain dysfunction by triggering microglial and astroglial activation, pro‑inflammatory cytokine production and inflammatory response, generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, and finally result in BBB dysfunction and neuronal damage. This review...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
    Views: 8380
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  • Review

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation research on reading and dyslexia: a new clinical intervention technique for treating dyslexia?

    Maurits van den Noort , Esli Struys , Peggy Bosch
    Nowadays, several noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), exist. The working mechanism behind TMS is a rapidly changing magnetic field that generates an electric current via electromagnetic induction. When the coil is placed on the scalp, the magnetic field generates a physiological reaction in the underlying neural tissue. The TMS‑induced change in the participant’s behavior is used by researchers to investigate the causal relations between specific brain areas and cognitive functions such as language. A variant of TMS has been developed,...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
    Views: 7622
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  • Review

    Necroptosis: a new link between cell death and inflammation

    Yuan-Hang Pan , Xun-Yuan Liu , Jia-Qiang Liu , Qian Liu , Yang Yang , Jia-Lei Yang , Xiu-Fen Zhang , Yin Wu , Ya-Zhou Wang
    Necroptosis is a type of newly identified cell death induced by apoptotic stimuli under conditions where apoptotic execution is prevented. Studies over the past 10 years have revealed the molecular mechanism of necroptosis and challenged the old conception that necrosis is un-programmed. Recently, more and more data have emerged suggesting a close association between necroptosis and inflammation. In this review, the authors summarized the current knowledge of the mechanism of necroptosis, focusing on tumour necrosis factor α induced necroptosis and the roles of necroptosis in regulating...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
    Views: 7049
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  • Case Report

    Disc herniation or ependymoma recurrence?

    Aristeidis H. Katsanos , Ioannis Sarmas , Sotirios Giannopoulos , Sigliti-Henrietta Pelidou , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    We present a 41-year-old female with previous history of ependymoma who underwent gross-total resection of the tumor and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt placement, followed by radiotherapy. Three years later a small enhancing area was noted in the left anterolateral spinal cord at the level of the C1-C2 vertebrae and a left posterior-lateral herniated disk in the C5-C6 level which was not present in the earlier MRI. This is a unique case, in which herniated disk pressuring effects needed to be differentiated from both radiation-induced treatment effect and tumor recurrence.
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016
    Views: 5966
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  • Review

    Neuroinflammation and neurological alterations in chronic liver diseases

    Carmina Montoliu , Marta Llansola , Vicente Felipo
    Several million people with chronic liver diseases (cirrhosis, hepatitis) show neurological alterations, named hepatic encephalopathy (HE) with cognitive and motor alterations that impair quality of life and reduces life span. Inflammation acts synergistically with hyperammonemia to induce cognitive and motor alterations in patients with chronic liver disease and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Previous studies in animal models have suggested that neuroinflammation is a major player in HE. This would also be the case in patients with liver cirrhosis or hepatitis C with HE. Rats with...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
    Views: 5887
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  • Original Article

    Neurocysticercosis in Nepal: a retrospective clinical analysis

    Rajeev Ojha , Dinesh Bikram Shah , Amina Shrestha , Sunil Koirala , Apurba Dahal , Khem Adhikari , Anjal Bisht , Pratik Wagle
    Aim: The prevalence of epilepsy is higher in Nepal. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC) among seizure patients admitted to our center. Methods: We retrospectively studied all the NCC patients admitted to Neurology Department, Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from April 2012 to February 2014. Computer tomography/ magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) head, clinical profile, lab investigations and exclusion of other causes were the basis of the NCC diagnosis. Chi‑square and Student’s t‑test were used for comparison of variables. Results: Out...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
    Views: 5752
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Autoimmune encephalopathies in children: diagnostic clues and therapeutic challenges

    Giorgia Olivieri , Ilaria Contaldo , Gloria Ferrantini , Elisa Musto , Roberta Scalise , Maria Chiara Stefanini , Domenica Battaglia , Eugenio Mercuri
    Neuronal surface antibody syndromes (NSAS) encompass a variety of disorders associated with “neuronal surface antibodies”. These share clinical and neuroradiological features that pose challenges related to their recognition and treatment. Recent epidemiological studies show a clear predominance for the glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in both adults and pediatric population. Despite this, the overall NSAS’s incidence remains underestimated, and diagnosis persists to be not always easy to achieve. Based on current literature data, in this paper the authors propose a...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
    Views: 5646
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Diagnostic algorithms in autoimmune encephalitis

    Valentina Damato
    Over the past decade the discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with neuronal surface antibodies had changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously mischaracterized. Recognition of clinical syndromes, consistent methods of diagnosis, and early targeted immunotherapy can lead to a favorable outcome in diseases that may be associated with significant disability or death if left untreated. Here the conditions associated with neuronal surface antibodies are briefly reviewed, some general aspects of these syndromes are considered and guidelines that...
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016
    Views: 5434
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  • Review

    The endonuclease VIII-like proteins: new targets in the treatment of ischemic stroke?

    Long-Xiu Yang , Wei Wang , Xiao Zhang , Qi Zhu , Qing Zhao , Gang Zhao
    Oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage is one of the major causes of neuronal injury in ischemia. The endonuclease VIII-like (NEIL) DNA glycosylases have a specific role in recognition and removal of oxidative DNA damage. The NEIL family includes NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3, that differ in substrate specificity, catalytic efficiency, and subcellular/tissue distribution. This opens for a situation-dependent phenotype in their absence. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge on the involvement of the NEILs in ischemic stroke and discuss the potential of these enzymes to serve...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
    Views: 5031
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Psychotic and nonpsychotic mood disorders in autoimmune encephalitis: diagnostic issues and research implications

    Giuseppe Quaranta , Nunzio Bucci , Cristina Toni , Giulio Perugi
    Recent research on autoimmune disorders suggests additional links between systemic and central nervous system (CNS) pathophysiology, among which the identification of antibody-induced limbic encephalitis provided the strongest evidence for the potential involvement of autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of severe mood and psychotic symptoms. In these illnesses, psychiatric symptoms predominate in the initial phase of the disorder in up to 70% of the cases, and they often lead patients to early psychiatric evaluation. For this reason, it is very important to increase the limited knowledge among...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
    Views: 4863
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  • Case Report

    Artery of Percheron occlusion: role of diffusion-weighted imaging in the early diagnosis

    Murali Krishna Menon , Suma Mariam Jacob , Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
    Bilateral thalamic infarcts have a low frequency among different subtypes of strokes. Since it does not involve a particular vascular territory, it therefore usually involves the occlusion of the artery of Percheron (AOP). Here we report a 79-year-old right-handed Parkinsonian female patient, who was found unresponsive in bed. On examination, the patient was drowsy with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 10/15 (E2M5V3). She had absent doll’s eye response with anisocoric pupils and intermittent vertical gaze palsy. Although the patient had no apparent motor deficits, she was in a state of...
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016
    Views: 4851
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  • Original Article

    Morphological and behavioural variation in CNS innate defence cell microglia is development and age sensitive

    Payel Ghosh , Anirban Ghosh
    Aim: Microglia, the innate defence cells in central nervous system (CNS), alters their shapes and function with age. We observed and identified these morphological changes and functional association throughout the developmental gradient until adulthood in rat brain. Methods: Early and late embryonic stages, neonates and adult brains of albino rats were sectioned for routine Haematoxylin Eosin (HE) staining and specialized silver-gold staining to show distribution and morphological variation in situ. Isolated microglia from different age groups was subjected to scanning electron microscopy...
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016
    Views: 4719
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