• Original Article|Open Access

    Increased circulating rather than spinal cytokines accompany chronic pain behaviors in experimental bone cancer and arthritis

    Line Pourtau, Amarins Nieske Heeringa, Carole Rovère, Agnès Aubert, Jean-Louis Nahon, Sylvain Miraux, Jan Pieter Konsman
    Aim: Peripheral cytokines contribute to arthritis and bone cancer pain through sensory nerve actions. However, increased spinal cytokine and glial filament expression, coined neuroinflammation, has also been proposed to play a part in chronic pain. Therefore, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:153-60. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143680
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:8612  | Downloaded:156
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  • Review|Open Access

    Current overview of myasthenia gravis and experience in China

    Jun Guo, Dan Dang, Hong-Zeng Li, Zhu-Yi Li
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an acquired autoimmune disease affecting synaptic transmission via the neuromuscular junction mainly due to the presence of auto-antibodies targeting acetylcholine receptors. Ocular or generalized MG is clinically diagnosed when the extra-ocular muscles or other muscle... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:127-30. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143664
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:20126  | Downloaded:1190
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Distinctive distribution of lymphocytes in unruptured and previously untreated brain arteriovenous malformation

    Yi Guo, Tarik Tihan, Helen Kim, Christopher Hess, Michael T. Lawton, William L. Young, Yuan-Li Zhao, Hua Su
    Aim: To test the hypothesis that lymphocyte infiltration in brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is not associated with iron deposition (indicator of micro-hemorrhage). Methods: Sections of unruptured, previously untreated bAVM specimens (n = 19) were stained immunohistochemically for... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:147-52. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143674
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:8095  | Downloaded:124
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  • Review|Open Access

    Clinicogenetics of Parkinson's disease: a drawing but not completed picture

    Chao-Dong Wang, Piu Chan
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder mainly affecting the population over the age of 60 years. The past decade has seen rapidly emerging data supporting a major importance of genetic factors in the development of PD. Increasing number of large-scale and replicating... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:115-26. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143662
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:13299  | Downloaded:239
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Assessment of cognitive function in patients with myasthenia gravis

    Sherifa A. Hamed, Ahmad H. Youssef, Mohamad A. Abd ElHameed, Mohamed F. Mohamed, Amal M. Elattar
    Aim: During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in the evaluation of cognitive function in myasthenia gravis (MG), neuromuscular transmission disorder caused by acetylcholine receptor auto-antibodies. However, the results of previous studies on cognition and MG are inconsistent... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:141-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143671
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:11079  | Downloaded:866
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  • Review|Open Access

    Positron emission tomography imaging in gliomas

    Assimakis Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos Polyzoidis, Chrissa Sioka
    Glioma, the most frequent primary brain tumor in adults, is a highly infiltrative tumor exhibiting resistance to most treatments and associated with short survival of patients. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using various tracers takes advantage of the increased metabolic rate of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:107-14. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143659
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:8345  | Downloaded:211
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 is upregulated in the endothelium and tumor cells in melanoma brain metastasis

    Patrick N. Harter, Anna-Eva Blank, Benjamin Weide, Rudi Beschorner, Simon Bernatz, Peter Baumgarten, Anne K. Braczynski, Elke Hattingen, Michael W. Ronellenfitsch, Herbert Schwarz, Michel Mittelbronn
    Aim: The cytokine receptor tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9) is mainly considered to be a co-stimulatory activation marker in hematopoietic cells. Several preclinical models have shown a dramatic beneficial effect of treatment approaches targeting TNFRSF9 with... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:135-40. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143670
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:7796  | Downloaded:210
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  • Review|Open Access

    Role of the neuromuscular ultrasound in the diagnostic of the multifocal motor neuropathy

    Antonios Kerasnoudis, Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Min-Suk Yoon
    Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is the one of the most common acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorders of the peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis is based on the distribution pattern of the neurological semiology and the pathological changes of nerve conduction studies (NCS) in... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:103-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143657
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:7770  | Downloaded:220
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in glioblastoma

    George A. Alexiou, Evrysthenis Vartholomatos, Panagiota Zagorianakou, Spyridon Voulgaris
    Aim: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has prognostic value in patients with a variety of cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of NLR in patients with glioblastoma. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on patients receiving surgery for... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:131-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143666
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:7282  | Downloaded:245
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Systemic non-albicans infections presented as meningitis in chronic hepatitis B patient: a case report

    Wen-Jing Lv, Hui Bu, Jun-Ying He, Ran-Ran Sun, Yue-Li Zou
    Non-albicans candida meningitis is a relatively rare disease, with nonspecific clinical manifestation, which makes the misdiagnosis occur sometimes, especially in the early stage of the disease. Abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids, central vein cannulas, senility, big operation,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:161-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143681
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:6853  | Downloaded:162
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  • Review|Open Access

    Chronic inflammation drives glioma growth: cellular and molecular factors responsible for an immunosuppressive microenvironment

    Edward T. Ha, Joseph P. Antonios, Horacio Soto, Robert M. Prins, Isaac Yang, Noriyuki Kasahara, Linda M. Liau, Carol A. Kruse
    This review examines glioma disease initiation, promotion, and progression with a focus on the cell types present within the tumor mass and the molecules responsible for the immunosuppressive microenvironment that are present at each step of the disease. The cell types and molecules present also... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:66-76. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139717
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:13895  | Downloaded:662
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Primary diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cranial vault

    Shantanu Ghosh, Debabrata Das, Praveen Kumar, Rahul Varshney
    Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cranial vault with extra and intracranial extension in a nonimmunocompromised patient is extremely uncommon. Until date, only limited number of such cases has been reported in the literature and none was the lesion located as a diffuse swelling in the forehead.... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:98-101. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139723
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:7940  | Downloaded:154
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  • Review|Open Access

    Pyroptosis and neurological diseases

    Zhen Xie, Gang Zhao
    Pyroptosis is a new process of programmed cell death, which has been discovered and confirmed in recent years. Its cardinal features include activation of caspase-1 and a massive release of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18), etc. The morphological characteristics, occurrence and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:60-5. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139716
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:7871  | Downloaded:483
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Malignant middle-cerebral artery territory infarction in tuberculous vasculitis

    Salvadeeswaran Meenakshi-Sundaram, Sundararajan Srinivasan, Somalinga Nagendran Karthik, Suresh Pandi, Alagappan Periyakaruppan, Bharathi Sundar
    Intracranial large vessel involvement is an unusual complication of tuberculous meningitis. The authors report a 39-year-old female presenting with an episode of seizure, followed by rapid decline in sensorium without prominent systemic features. An initial cranial magnetic resonance imaging... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:95-7. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139722
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:7998  | Downloaded:177
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  • Review|Open Access

    Targeting glioma stem cells via the Hedgehog signaling pathway

    Yang Liu, Xing Liu, Ling-Chao Chen, Wen-Zhong Du, Yu-Qiong Cui, Xing-Yin Piao, Yong-Li Li, Chuan-Lu Jiang
    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Gliomas are among the most devastating tumor types, and current clinical therapies are unsatisfactory. Recent reports revealed the importance of glioma-propagating cells in the malignancy of gliomas. These cells, also referred to as glioma... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:51-9. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139715
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:25995  | Downloaded:344
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    A novel method for evaluating microglial activation using ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 staining: cell body to cell size ratio

    Iris Bertha Hovens, Csaba Nyakas, Regien Geertruida Schoemaker
    Aim: The aim was to validate a newly developed methodology of semi-automatic image analysis to analyze microglial morphology as marker for microglial activation in ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 (IBA-1) stained brain sections. Methods: The novel method was compared to currently used... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:82-8. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139719
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:22074  | Downloaded:839
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Fan Zeng, Heng Yang, Hua-Dong Zhou, Yan-Jiang Wang
    Toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy is a frequently seen medical condition worldwide; however the lack of specific clinical manifestations and laboratory tests makes it difficult to diagnose. Neuroimaging and medical history are often crucial to diagnosis of this disorder. In this report, a case... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:92-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139721
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:6918  | Downloaded:693
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  • Review|Open Access

    Human leukocyte antigens-immunogenetics of neuromyelitis optica or Devic's disease and the impact on the immunopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment: a critical review

    Maria Panos Gontika, Maria Constantinos Anagnostouli
    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder, predominantly characterized by severe optic neuritis, transverse myelitis and the high level of antibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4) or NMO-immunoglobulin G (IgG). Researches trying to correlate NMO with specific human leukocyte... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:44-50. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139713
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:10437  | Downloaded:239
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Effect of conduction block in classification and prognosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Yu-Chen Wang, Guo-Dong Feng, Jing Wang, Xue-Dong Liu, Gang Zhao
    Aim: The aim was to investigate the electro-physiological characteristics in disease progression of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and observe the effect of conduction block (CB) in classification and severity of the disease. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-four patients with GBS were divided into... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:77-81. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139718
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:10726  | Downloaded:253
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome due to seronegative systemic lupus erythematosus

    Sawan Verma, Irfan Yousuf, Mushtaq Ahmad Wani, Ravouf Asimi, Sheikh Saleem, Mudasir Mushtaq, Irfan Shah, Skeikh Nawaz, Riyaz Ahmad Daga
    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurotoxic state coupled with a unique computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance. Recognized in the setting of a number of complex conditions (preeclampsia/eclampsia, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, organ... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:89-91. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139720
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:7194  | Downloaded:169
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Diagnosis and therapy of rare central nervous system infections

    Xiao-Kun Qi
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:8-12. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135568
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:10223  | Downloaded:194
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    The M1/M2 immune polarization concept in microglia: a fair transfer?

    Michel Mittelbronn
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:6-7. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135567
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:10321  | Downloaded:438
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Neonatal immune activation during early and late postnatal brain development differently influences depression-related behaviors in adolescent and adult C57BL/6 mice

    Jafar Majidi-Zolbanin, Mohammad-Hossein Doosti, Behzad Baradaran, Mohammad Amani, Maryam Azarfarin, Ali-Akbar Salari
    Aim: Immune challenge during early and late neonatal periods can induce robust alterations in physiological and behavioral functions, resulting in greater risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, later in life. In addition, previous studies concluded... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:35-9. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135575
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:11791  | Downloaded:288
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Pitfalls in clinical diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis in China

    Jia-Tang Zhang
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:3-5. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135566
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:7372  | Downloaded:157
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  • Research Highlights|Open Access

    The expanding phenotype of stroke-induced immune alterations

    Johanna Ruhnau, Antje Vogelgesang, Alexander Dressel
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:15-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135570
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:6653  | Downloaded:176
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Imaging and cytological analysis of 92 patients with Japanese encephalitis

    Qi Meng, Yue-Li Zou, Hui Bu, Jun-Ying He
    Aim: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus and demonstrates high mortality and serious sequelae. Imaging and cytological examinations are important for the diagnosis of JE. We performed this study to analyze the imaging and cytological characteristics of JE. Methods:... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:29-34. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135574
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:10208  | Downloaded:181
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Welcome to Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation: a new open access journal for neuroscience

    Gang Zhao, Thomas Müller
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:1-2. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135565
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:6999  | Downloaded:139
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  • Research Highlights|Open Access

    Differences in stroke damage in aged mice may not be due to differential cerebral blood flow dynamics

    Venugopal Reddy Venna, Louise D. McCullough
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:13-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135569
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:6569  | Downloaded:156
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  • Review|Open Access

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in China

    Li Li, Cheng-Bin Wang, Gang Zhao
    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are mainly distributed in the central nervous system, and play important roles in the mechanisms of learning and memory. A newly discovered disease caused by autoantibody to NMDAR has been described, and is called anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Patients with this... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:17-23. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135571
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:10446  | Downloaded:191
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Detection of Epstein-Barr virus infection subtype in patients with multiple sclerosis by indirect immunofluorescence assay

    Shan-Chao Zhang, Lei Liu, Rui-Jin Wang, Hou-Zhen Tuo, Yan-Jun Guo, Li Yi, De-Xin Wang, Jia-Wei Wang
    Aim: The aim was to investigate the infectious conditions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 20 patients with MS and 20 with other neurological diseases (OND) were tested with indirect immunofluorescence for anti-EBV capsid... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:24-8. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135572
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:15433  | Downloaded:3561
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    POEMS syndrome associated with Castleman disease: a case report and literature review

    Juan Kang, Fang Yang, Hong-Ya Zhang, Meng-Meng Hu, Feng Xia, Jin-Cun Wang, Yan-Chun Deng, Gang Zhao
    Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M proteins, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a multisystemic disorder that clinically manifests as paraneoplastic and monoclonal plasma cell dyscrasia. Its acronym is derived from its principal characteristics: polyneuropathy, organomegaly,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:40-3. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135577
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:9311  | Downloaded:362
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Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation ISSN 2349-6142 (Online), ISSN 2347-8659 (Print)
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