Articles
  • Original Article

    Increased circulating rather than spinal cytokines accompany chronic pain behaviors in experimental bone cancer and arthritis

    Line Pourtau , Amarins Nieske Heeringa , Carole Rovère , Agnès Aubert , Jean-Louis Nahon , Sylvain Miraux , Jan Pieter Konsman
    Aim: Peripheral cytokines contribute to arthritis and bone cancer pain through sensory nerve actions. However, increased spinal cytokine and glial filament expression, coined neuroinflammation, has also been proposed to play a part in chronic pain. Therefore, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia and circulating cytokines were compared in murine arthritis and bone cancer models in relationship to behavioral signs of pain. Methods: Exploratory behaviors were studied after intra‑articular complete Freund’s adjuvant or bone intramedullary sarcoma cell injection. Nervous tissue and blood cytokine...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Review

    Current overview of myasthenia gravis and experience in China

    Jun Guo , Dan Dang , Hong-Zeng Li , Zhu-Yi Li
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an acquired autoimmune disease affecting synaptic transmission via the neuromuscular junction mainly due to the presence of auto-antibodies targeting acetylcholine receptors. Ocular or generalized MG is clinically diagnosed when the extra-ocular muscles or other muscle groups beyond the extra-ocular muscles are involved. MG occurs in both sexes at any ages from all races but shows a wide variability in incidence and prevalence. Differences in clinical phenotypes of MG patients between West and East countries have been observed. Herein, we review the current concept...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Original Article

    Distinctive distribution of lymphocytes in unruptured and previously untreated brain arteriovenous malformation

    Yi Guo , Tarik Tihan , Helen Kim , Christopher Hess , Michael T Lawton , William L Young , Yuan-Li Zhao , Hua Su
    Aim: To test the hypothesis that lymphocyte infiltration in brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is not associated with iron deposition (indicator of micro-hemorrhage). Methods: Sections of unruptured, previously untreated bAVM specimens (n = 19) were stained immunohistochemically for T-lymphocytes (CD3+), B-lymphocytes (CD20+), plasma cells (CD138+) and macrophages (CD68+). Iron deposition was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin and Prussian blue stains. Superficial temporal arteries (STA) were used as control. Results: Both T‑lymphocytes and macrophages were present in unruptured,...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Review

    Clinicogenetics of Parkinson's disease: a drawing but not completed picture

    Chao-Dong Wang , Piu Chan
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder mainly affecting the population over the age of 60 years. The past decade has seen rapidly emerging data supporting a major importance of genetic factors in the development of PD. Increasing number of large-scale and replicating association studies has facilitated the confirmation of the possible predisposing factors to PD and the selection of genetic variants for risk prediction. While evidences are accumulating that variations within the SNCA, LRRK2, MAPT and GBA genes increase the individuals' vulnerability to PD,...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Original Article

    Assessment of cognitive function in patients with myasthenia gravis

    Sherifa A Hamed , Ahmad H Youssef , Mohamad A Abd ElHameed , Mohamed F Mohamed , Amal M Elattar
    Aim: During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in the evaluation of cognitive function in myasthenia gravis (MG), neuromuscular transmission disorder caused by acetylcholine receptor auto-antibodies. However, the results of previous studies on cognition and MG are inconsistent and controversial. This study aimed to evaluate cognition in patients with mild/moderate grades of MG. Methods: This study included 20 patients with MG with a mean age of 28.45 ± 8.89 years and duration of illness of 3.52 ± 1.15 years. Cognition was tested using a sensitive battery of psychometric...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Review

    Positron emission tomography imaging in gliomas

    Assimakis Assimakopoulos , Konstantinos Polyzoidis , Chrissa Sioka
    Glioma, the most frequent primary brain tumor in adults, is a highly infiltrative tumor exhibiting resistance to most treatments and associated with short survival of patients. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using various tracers takes advantage of the increased metabolic rate of neoplastic cells, in order to detect tumors and validate the treatment response. The most frequently used PET tracer, the (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is useful during the initial and follow-up assessment of patients with gliomas because it can assist in the selection of the initial biopsy site and...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Original Article

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 is upregulated in the endothelium and tumor cells in melanoma brain metastasis

    Patrick N Harter , Anna-Eva Blank , Benjamin Weide , Rudi Beschorner , Simon Bernatz , Peter Baumgarten , Anne K Braczynski , Elke Hattingen , Michael W Ronellenfitsch , Herbert Schwarz , Michel Mittelbronn
    Aim: The cytokine receptor tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9) is mainly considered to be a co-stimulatory activation marker in hematopoietic cells. Several preclinical models have shown a dramatic beneficial effect of treatment approaches targeting TNFRSF9 with agonistic antibodies. However, preliminary clinical phase I/II studies were stopped after the occurrence of several severe deleterious side effects. In a previous study, it was demonstrated that TNFRSF9 was strongly expressed by reactive astrocytes in primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, but was...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Review

    Role of the neuromuscular ultrasound in the diagnostic of the multifocal motor neuropathy

    Antonios Kerasnoudis , Kalliopi Pitarokoili , Min-Suk Yoon
    Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is the one of the most common acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorders of the peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis is based on the distribution pattern of the neurological semiology and the pathological changes of nerve conduction studies (NCS) in classical cases. However, in cases with subtle clinical presentation, an extended diagnostic workup may be needed, such as cerebrospinal fluid examination, laboratory tests, and nerve biopsy. NCS remain nowadays fundamental not only for the diagnosis, but also for the follow-up and measurement of...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Original Article

    Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in glioblastoma

    George A Alexiou , Evrysthenis Vartholomatos , Panagiota Zagorianakou , Spyridon Voulgaris
    Aim: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has prognostic value in patients with a variety of cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of NLR in patients with glioblastoma. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on patients receiving surgery for glioblastoma. Preoperative NLR was recorded and correlated with other prognostic factors and survival. Results: Fifty‑one patients were included in the study. The mean NLR ratio was 6.7 ± 4.6. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, an NLR cut‑off value of 4.7 was determined to best predict...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Case Report

    Systemic non-albicans infections presented as meningitis in chronic hepatitis B patient: a case report

    Wen-Jing Lv , Hui Bu , Jun-Ying He , Ran-Ran Sun , Yue-Li Zou
    Non-albicans candida meningitis is a relatively rare disease, with nonspecific clinical manifestation, which makes the misdiagnosis occur sometimes, especially in the early stage of the disease. Abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids, central vein cannulas, senility, big operation, malignancy, and total parenteral alimentation were all the susceptible factors of non-albicans candida infection. We present a case of this type of non-albicans infection in a 42-year-old woman who was early misdiagnosed as tuberculous meningitis and was treated with antibiotics and antituberculosis...
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014
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  • Review

    Chronic inflammation drives glioma growth: cellular and molecular factors responsible for an immunosuppressive microenvironment

    Edward T Ha , Joseph P Antonios , Horacio Soto , Robert M Prins , Isaac Yang , Noriyuki Kasahara , Linda M Liau , Carol A Kruse
    This review examines glioma disease initiation, promotion, and progression with a focus on the cell types present within the tumor mass and the molecules responsible for the immunosuppressive microenvironment that are present at each step of the disease. The cell types and molecules present also correlate with the grade of malignancy. An overall "type 2" chronic inflammatory microenvironment develops that facilitates glioma promotion and contributes to the neo-vascularization characteristic of gliomas. An immunosuppressive microenvironment shields the tumor mass from clearance by the...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Case Report

    Primary diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cranial vault

    Shantanu Ghosh , Debabrata Das , Praveen Kumar , Rahul Varshney
    Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cranial vault with extra and intracranial extension in a nonimmunocompromised patient is extremely uncommon. Until date, only limited number of such cases has been reported in the literature and none was the lesion located as a diffuse swelling in the forehead. Imaging of the present case showed in a homogenous contrast enhancement mass involving the scalp of bifrontal supraorbital compartment and intracranial extra axial extension through the frontal bone with extension to the right orbit and right ethmoidal sinus. The intracranial mass was excised along...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Review

    Pyroptosis and neurological diseases

    Zhen Xie , Gang Zhao
    Pyroptosis is a new process of programmed cell death, which has been discovered and confirmed in recent years. Its cardinal features include activation of caspase-1 and a massive release of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18), etc. The morphological characteristics, occurrence and regulatory mechanisms of the pyroptosis greatly, differ from other cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necrosis. It has already been proven that pyroptosis participates and plays an important role in a wide range of neuronal diseases. Here, we review the current understanding of the...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Case Report

    Malignant middle-cerebral artery territory infarction in tuberculous vasculitis

    Salvadeeswaran Meenakshi-Sundaram , Sundararajan Srinivasan , Somalinga Nagendran Karthik , Suresh Pandi , Alagappan Periyakaruppan , Bharathi Sundar
    Intracranial large vessel involvement is an unusual complication of tuberculous meningitis. The authors report a 39-year-old female presenting with an episode of seizure, followed by rapid decline in sensorium without prominent systemic features. An initial cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed tuberculomata and patchy infarcts. Despite antituberculous therapy, she progressively worsened. A cranial computed tomography scan done following the worsening revealed a massive middle-cerebral artery (MCA) infarct. Unfortunately, the patient died in spite of decompressive craniotomy....
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Review

    Targeting glioma stem cells via the Hedgehog signaling pathway

    Yang Liu , Xing Liu , Ling-Chao Chen , Wen-Zhong Du , Yu-Qiong Cui , Xing-Yin Piao , Yong-Li Li , Chuan-Lu Jiang
    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Gliomas are among the most devastating tumor types, and current clinical therapies are unsatisfactory. Recent reports revealed the importance of glioma-propagating cells in the malignancy of gliomas. These cells, also referred to as glioma stem cells (GSCs), share similarities with neural stem cells (NSCs). The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway controls tissue polarity, patterning maintenance, and maintenance of NSCs during embryonic development. Aberrant activation of the Hh pathway resulting from mutation and deregulation has recently...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Original Article

    A novel method for evaluating microglial activation using ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 staining: cell body to cell size ratio

    Iris Bertha Hovens , Csaba Nyakas , Regien Geertruida Schoemaker
    Aim: The aim was to validate a newly developed methodology of semi-automatic image analysis to analyze microglial morphology as marker for microglial activation in ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 (IBA-1) stained brain sections. Methods: The novel method was compared to currently used analysis methods, visual characterization of activation stage and optical density measurement, in brain sections of young and aged rats that had undergone surgery or remained naοve. Results: The cell body to cell size ratio of microglia was strongly correlated to the visual characterization activation...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Case Report

    Toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Fan Zeng , Heng Yang , Hua-Dong Zhou , Yan-Jiang Wang
    Toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy is a frequently seen medical condition worldwide; however the lack of specific clinical manifestations and laboratory tests makes it difficult to diagnose. Neuroimaging and medical history are often crucial to diagnosis of this disorder. In this report, a case is presented of a patient suffering from toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy with deteriorating cognition impairment and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, typified by a "sunflower-like" change in T2-weighted imaging. In addition, the pharmacokinetic properties of toluene are...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Review

    Human leukocyte antigens-immunogenetics of neuromyelitis optica or Devic's disease and the impact on the immunopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment: a critical review

    Maria Panos Gontika , Maria Constantinos Anagnostouli
    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder, predominantly characterized by severe optic neuritis, transverse myelitis and the high level of antibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4) or NMO-immunoglobulin G (IgG). Researches trying to correlate NMO with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles took place in a limited extend in the last few years. Nevertheless, it has become clear that HLAs play a crucial role in the genetic risk of NMO, in the understanding of its pathogenesis and the differential diagnosis mainly from multiple sclerosis (MS), and also from other...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Original Article

    Effect of conduction block in classification and prognosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Yu-Chen Wang , Guo-Dong Feng , Jing Wang , Xue-Dong Liu , Gang Zhao
    Aim: The aim was to investigate the electro-physiological characteristics in disease progression of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and observe the effect of conduction block (CB) in classification and severity of the disease. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-four patients with GBS were divided into acute inflammatory demyelinating poly-neuropathy (AIDP) group, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) group and equivocal group according to their electro-physiological results and then reclassificated after electro-physiological review. All of the patients were followed for 6 months since their...
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Case Report

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome due to seronegative systemic lupus erythematosus

    Sawan Verma , Irfan Yousuf , Mushtaq Ahmad Wani , Ravouf Asimi , Sheikh Saleem , Mudasir Mushtaq , Irfan Shah , Skeikh Nawaz , Riyaz Ahmad Daga
    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurotoxic state coupled with a unique computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance. Recognized in the setting of a number of complex conditions (preeclampsia/eclampsia, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, organ transplantation, autoimmune disease and high-dose chemotherapy) in the imaging, clinical and laboratory features of this toxic state are becoming better elucidated. We are presenting a case of PRES due to seronegative systemic lupus erythematosus, with MRI findings of diffuse vasogenic edema.
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014
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  • Editorial

    Diagnosis and therapy of rare central nervous system infections

    Xiao-Kun Qi
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014
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  • Editorial

    The M1/M2 immune polarization concept in microglia: a fair transfer?

    Michel Mittelbronn
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014
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  • Original Article

    Neonatal immune activation during early and late postnatal brain development differently influences depression-related behaviors in adolescent and adult C57BL/6 mice

    Jafar Majidi-Zolbanin , Mohammad-Hossein Doosti , Behzad Baradaran , Mohammad Amani , Maryam Azarfarin , Ali-Akbar Salari
    Aim: Immune challenge during early and late neonatal periods can induce robust alterations in physiological and behavioral functions, resulting in greater risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, later in life. In addition, previous studies concluded that increasing age correlates with increased depression behaviors in humans and rodents. This study aimed to investigate for the first time whether immune challenge with a viral mimic, synthetic double-stranded ribonucleic acid (Poly I: C) during different neonatal periods can differently affect...
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014
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  • Editorial

    Pitfalls in clinical diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis in China

    Jia-Tang Zhang
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014
    [HTML]   [PDF]   Viewed:7039   Downloaded:108
  • Research Highlights

    The expanding phenotype of stroke-induced immune alterations

    Johanna Ruhnau , Antje Vogelgesang , Alexander Dressel
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014
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  • Original Article

    Imaging and cytological analysis of 92 patients with Japanese encephalitis

    Qi Meng , Yue-Li Zou , Hui Bu , Jun-Ying He
    Aim: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus and demonstrates high mortality and serious sequelae. Imaging and cytological examinations are important for the diagnosis of JE. We performed this study to analyze the imaging and cytological characteristics of JE. Methods: This study enrolled 92 JE patients with 108 cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) samples. Diagnosis was based on clinical features and positive immunoglobulin M antibodies against JE virus, which were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All patients received detailed neurological examinations,...
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014
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  • Editorial

    Welcome to Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation: a new open access journal for neuroscience

    Gang Zhao , Thomas Müller
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014
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  • Research Highlights

    Differences in stroke damage in aged mice may not be due to differential cerebral blood flow dynamics

    Venugopal Reddy Venna , Louise D McCullough
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014
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  • Review

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in China

    Li Li , Cheng-Bin Wang , Gang Zhao
    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are mainly distributed in the central nervous system, and play important roles in the mechanisms of learning and memory. A newly discovered disease caused by autoantibody to NMDAR has been described, and is called anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Patients with this disease often suffer from mental disorders, seizures and other encephalitis-like symptoms. Accumulated data suggests that the severity of the disease makes early diagnosis very important. Accurately detecting the autoantibody to NMDAR is considered to be the gist of diagnosis. Good prognosis is...
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014
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  • Original Article

    Detection of Epstein-Barr virus infection subtype in patients with multiple sclerosis by indirect immunofluorescence assay

    Shan-Chao Zhang , Lei Liu , Rui-Jin Wang , Hou-Zhen Tuo , Yan-Jun Guo , Li Yi , De-Xin Wang , Jia-Wei Wang
    Aim: The aim was to investigate the infectious conditions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 20 patients with MS and 20 with other neurological diseases (OND) were tested with indirect immunofluorescence for anti-EBV capsid antigen (EBV-CA) immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG affinity for anti-EBV-CA, anti-EBV-CA immunoglobulin M (IgM), anti-EBV early antigen (EBV-EA) IgG and anti-EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) IgG. According to the pattern of antibodies in CSF, infection rates of acute, chronic, primary, recurrent, and past...
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014
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  • Case Report

    POEMS syndrome associated with Castleman disease: a case report and literature review

    Juan Kang , Fang Yang , Hong-Ya Zhang , Meng-Meng Hu , Feng Xia , Jin-Cun Wang , Yan-Chun Deng , Gang Zhao
    Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M proteins, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a multisystemic disorder that clinically manifests as paraneoplastic and monoclonal plasma cell dyscrasia. Its acronym is derived from its principal characteristics: polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M proteins, and skin changes. Here, the authors reported a case of POEMS syndrome that was also associated with Castleman disease. A 53-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with limb weakness, numbness, edema, abdominal distention, and fever. Physical examination revealed...
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014
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