Articles
  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorders

    Georgios D. Kotzalidis , Elisa Ambrosi , Alessio Simonetti , Ilaria Cuomo , Antonio Del Casale , Matteo Caloro , Valeria Savoja , Chiara Rapinesi
    Recent literature based on peripheral immunity findings speculated that neuroinflammation, with its connection to microglial activation, is linked to bipolar disorder. The endorsement of the neuroinflammatory hypotheses of bipolar disorder requires the demonstration of causality, which requires longitudinal studies. We aimed to review the evidence for neuroinflammation as a pathogenic mechanism of the bipolar disorder. We carried out a hyper inclusive PubMed search using all appropriate neuroinflammation‑related terms and crossed them with bipolar disorder‑related terms. The search produced...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    The role of neuroinflammation in juvenile bipolar disorder

    Giulia Serra , Lavinia De Chiara , Ciro Marangoni , Gianni L. Faedda
    A pathophysiological relationship has been reported between inflammatory processes, decreased levels of neurotrophins, increased oxidative stress and psychiatric disorders in both juvenile and adult ages. Moreover, this relationship remains unclear in juvenile bipolar disorder (BD). We performed a systematic literature review of studies reporting measurements of inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or neurotrophins in juvenile and young adult subjects with BD. Concordant findings showed that inflammatory markers are increased since the earlier stages of BD. A positive correlation...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    The role of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies in mood disorders

    Marco Liguori , Mirko Manchia , Leonardo Tondo
    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) possibly plays a causative role in mood disorders. This hypothesis originated with studies on the beneficial effect of valproate in mania and as a mood stabilizer. Since valproate is known for its action in increasing the level of GABA, it was indirectly suggested that decreasing levels of GABA were responsible for mood alterations. To identify factors causing the decreased levels of GABA, studies have concentrated on the activity of the enzyme L-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), which catalyzes the transformation of glutamate to GABA, as a decreasing...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Psychotic and nonpsychotic mood disorders in autoimmune encephalitis: diagnostic issues and research implications

    Giuseppe Quaranta , Nunzio Bucci , Cristina Toni , Giulio Perugi
    Recent research on autoimmune disorders suggests additional links between systemic and central nervous system (CNS) pathophysiology, among which the identification of antibody-induced limbic encephalitis provided the strongest evidence for the potential involvement of autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of severe mood and psychotic symptoms. In these illnesses, psychiatric symptoms predominate in the initial phase of the disorder in up to 70% of the cases, and they often lead patients to early psychiatric evaluation. For this reason, it is very important to increase the limited knowledge among...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Neuroinflammation and excitatory symptoms in bipolar disorder

    Isabella Panaccione , Gianfranco Spalletta , Gabriele Sani
    Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a strong biological factor underlying the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. A role for dysregulation of the immune system was initially suggested in depressive disorders and subsequently extended to other illnesses, including bipolar disorder (BD). Indeed, there is growing evidence confirming the presence of a generalized pro‑inflammatory state in BD patients, involving alterations in cytokine, acute‑phase proteins, and complement factor secretion, white blood cell differentiation, microglial activation, arachidonic acid signaling pathways, and...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Microstructural brain abnormalities, affective temperaments, and suicidal behavior in patients with major depression

    Gianluca Serafini , Mario Amore , Zoltan Rihmer
    According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, brain white matter (WM) abnormalities have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and related suicidal behavior. However, MRI findings may be limited by low spatial resolution; therefore, an important contribution to the understanding of the role and significance of WM alterations derived by the development of the most recent magnetic resonance techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Several DTI studies reported an association between altered WM integrity and...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Review

    The endonuclease VIII-like proteins: new targets in the treatment of ischemic stroke?

    Long-Xiu Yang , Wei Wang , Xiao Zhang , Qi Zhu , Qing Zhao , Gang Zhao
    Oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage is one of the major causes of neuronal injury in ischemia. The endonuclease VIII-like (NEIL) DNA glycosylases have a specific role in recognition and removal of oxidative DNA damage. The NEIL family includes NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3, that differ in substrate specificity, catalytic efficiency, and subcellular/tissue distribution. This opens for a situation-dependent phenotype in their absence. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge on the involvement of the NEILs in ischemic stroke and discuss the potential of these enzymes to serve...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Bipolar disorder preceding the onset of multiple sclerosis

    Ciro Marangoni , Maria Giulia Nanni , Luigi Grassi , Gianni M. Faedda
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory demyelinating brain disease. The occurrence of psychiatric disorders, especially for major depression, in the course of MS is high. Reports concerning bipolar disorder (BD) remain rather scarce although early descriptions were found in the old neurological literature. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the epidemiology, comorbidity, and treatment findings regarding BD preceding the onset of MS.
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Review

    Progress in mechanisms of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

    Shao-Min Li , Ming-Shu Mo , Ping-Yi Xu
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Currently, only two classes of drugs, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and memantine are approved. AChEIs ameliorate cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in AD patients through activation of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors by increased synaptic ACh levels and also have protective effects against glutamate neurotoxicity and inflammation, whereas memantine appears to mainly protect against excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration. Herein, we review the pharmacologic properties of the available AChEIs and memantine,...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Case Report

    Angioplasty and stenting for a young stroke patient diagnosed as cerebrovascular fibromuscular dysplasia

    Jia-Ping Xu , Yong-Jun Cao , Guo-Dong Xiao , Chun-Yuan Zhang , Ji-Jun Shi
    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a noninflammatory, nonatherosclerotic, and multifocal vascular disease, commonly involving the cerebral and renal arteries. Cerebrovascular stenosis and spontaneous dissection resulting from cerebrovascular FMD (cFMD) is one of the important causes of young stroke. Here, we reported the case of cFMD in a 28-year-old male patient with stroke. Digital subtraction angiogram demonstrated a dissecting aneurysm in the carotid artery and multiple stenoses in both vertebral arteries. Endovascular angioplasty with balloon predilation and stenting was successfully...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder

    Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory mechanisms associated with mood disorders

    Gianfranco Spalletta , Gabriele Sani
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Review

    Neuroinflammatory modulators of oligodendrogenesis

    Ana Armada-Moreira , Filipa F. Ribeiro , Ana M. Sebastião , Sara Xapelli
    Oligodendrocytes are key neural cells that are responsible for producing myelin sheaths that wrap around neuronal axons in the central nervous system. Myelin is essential to insulate neurons and maintain a fast and saltatory propagation of action potentials along the axon. However, oligodendrocytes are very susceptible to damage, and thus demyelination may arise from a brain lesion or a neurodegenerative disorder. Consequently, demyelination produces a loss of axonal insulation leading to sensory or motor neuron failure. During adulthood, there are two main sources of oligodendrocytes:...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Case Report

    Isolated neurosarcoidosis presenting with recurrent hydrocephalus

    Frederick L. Hitti , Benjamin C. Kennedy , Yazmin Odia , Claire S. Riley , Sameer A. Sheth
    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory process that is characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. This protean disease may afflict nearly any organ system, including the central nervous system. Here, we present a case of isolated neurosarcoidosis that initially presented with hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. The patient’s hydrocephalus recurred multiple times and required two additional shunt placements over the 3‑year course of her illness. Due to the lack of systemic involvement, sarcoidosis was only diagnosed after a tissue biopsy of a Cauda equine...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Case Report

    Isolated palatal palsy: a clinical rarity

    Harpreet Singh , Rekha Mathur , Parminder Kaur
    Acquired isolated palatal palsy is a rare disease. It is commonly seen in children. It usually presents with acute onset nasal regurgitation of fluids, rhinolalia, and palatal asymmetry. Many causes of this disease, such as infections, trauma, tumor, and brainstem lesions, etc., have been reported. However, the most plausible explanation is immunological/ischemic damage to the affected nerve. After ruling out major potential causes of this disease, the damage is often considered to be idiopathic in nature. This disease has a benign self‑limiting course with excellent recovery. In accordance...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Case Report

    Gamma-aminobutyric-acid-B receptor antibodies in limbic encephalitis with small cell lung cancer

    Ke-Qin Liu , Sheng-Qiang Yan , Min Lou
    Encephalitis associated with antibodies to gamma-aminobutyric-acid B (GABA-B) is a subgroup of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis with typical features of limbic encephalitis and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We report a case of anti-GABA-B receptor encephalitis in a 57-year-old man who presented with seizures, memory loss, and abnormal behavior. He developed partially neurological responses to immunotherapy, but refused comprehensive tumor screening. The symptoms were aggravated again 4 months later. Workup showed antibodies to GABA-B receptors and tumor screening revealed SCLC. It...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Case Report

    Decompressive craniectomy in herpes simplex encephalitis

    Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal , Shirley Joan Fernandez , Prithvi Varghese , Murali Krishna Menon
    Intracranial hypertension is a common cause of morbidity in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). HSE is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis. Hereby we report a case of HSE in which decompressive craniectomy was performed to treat refractory intracranial hypertension. A 32-year-old male presented with headache, vomiting, fever, and focal seizures involving the right upper limb. Cerebrospinal fluid‑meningoencephalitic profile was positive for herpes simplex. Magnetic resonance image of the brain showed swollen and edematous right temporal lobe with increased signal in gray matter...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Review

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation research on reading and dyslexia: a new clinical intervention technique for treating dyslexia?

    Maurits van den Noort , Esli Struys , Peggy Bosch
    Nowadays, several noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), exist. The working mechanism behind TMS is a rapidly changing magnetic field that generates an electric current via electromagnetic induction. When the coil is placed on the scalp, the magnetic field generates a physiological reaction in the underlying neural tissue. The TMS‑induced change in the participant’s behavior is used by researchers to investigate the causal relations between specific brain areas and cognitive functions such as language. A variant of TMS has been developed,...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Original Article

    Neurocysticercosis in Nepal: a retrospective clinical analysis

    Rajeev Ojha , Dinesh Bikram Shah , Amina Shrestha , Sunil Koirala , Apurba Dahal , Khem Adhikari , Anjal Bisht , Pratik Wagle
    Aim: The prevalence of epilepsy is higher in Nepal. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC) among seizure patients admitted to our center. Methods: We retrospectively studied all the NCC patients admitted to Neurology Department, Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from April 2012 to February 2014. Computer tomography/ magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) head, clinical profile, lab investigations and exclusion of other causes were the basis of the NCC diagnosis. Chi‑square and Student’s t‑test were used for comparison of variables. Results: Out...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Case Report

    Complete recovery from paraplegia following total spondylectomy for a primary diffuse B-cell lymphoma of the lumbar spine

    Atef Ben Nsir , Mohamed Boughamoura , Rym Hadhri , Mouroug Mahfoudh , Nejib Hattab
    Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the spine is very rare and occurs mostly in adults with strong male predominance. Here, we present the case of a 24-year-old girl harboring a primary diffuse B-cell lymphoma of L2 vertebral body, who was admitted in an emergency with cauda equina syndrome and completely recovered after total spondylectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Such findings have never been previously reported.
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Review

    Neuroinflammation and neurological alterations in chronic liver diseases

    Carmina Montoliu , Marta Llansola , Vicente Felipo
    Several million people with chronic liver diseases (cirrhosis, hepatitis) show neurological alterations, named hepatic encephalopathy (HE) with cognitive and motor alterations that impair quality of life and reduces life span. Inflammation acts synergistically with hyperammonemia to induce cognitive and motor alterations in patients with chronic liver disease and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Previous studies in animal models have suggested that neuroinflammation is a major player in HE. This would also be the case in patients with liver cirrhosis or hepatitis C with HE. Rats with...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Original Article

    Intrathecal dexamethasone and methotrexate treatment of neoplastic meningitis from solid tumors

    Wen-Jing Lv , Jun-Ying He , Yue-Li Zou , Ya-Juan Liu , Qin-Qin Zhang , Xin Liu , Hui Bu
    Aim: Neoplastic meningitis (NM) from solid tumors is an advanced malignancy with poor prognosis. Intrathecal chemotherapy is a reliable treatment, and we have obtained some experiences in the treatment of NM with intrathecal dexamethasone and methotrexate (IT DXM and MTX). Methods: Retrospective study of 23 patients with NM from lung cancer (n = 11), breast cancer (n = 3), gastric cancer (n = 1), malignant melanoma (n = 1), unknown cancer (n = 7) was conducted. Among these patients, eight received IT DXM and MTX treatment, and 15 patients were placed into a palliative care group. Overall...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Case Report

    A clinically isolated syndrome: butterfly glioma mimic

    Ramshekhar Menon , Bejoy Thomas , Hariharan Venkat Easwer , Samvedam Sandhyamani , Amita Nair , Muralidharan Nair
    The report explores a unique and treatable “butterfly”-glioma mimic and the neuroimaging characteristics that help to diagnose this entity. A 35-year-old patient presented with subacute-onset, progressive frontal lobe dysfunction followed by features of raised intracranial pressure. Neuroimaging features were consistent with a “butterfly” lesion that favored the possibility of a gliomatosis cerebri with significant edema and marked corpus callosum and fornix thickening. Contrast‑enhanced and perfusion images revealed a confluent tumefactive lesion with a characteristic “broken-ring” pattern...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Editorial

    The role of glutamate excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation in depression and suicidal behavior: focus on microglia cells

    Gianluca Serafini , Zoltan Rihmer , Mario Amore
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Review

    Microglia and astroglia: the role of neuroinflammation in lead toxicity and neuronal injury in the brain

    Jin-Tao Liu , Mo-Han Dong , Jie-Qiong Zhang , Ya Bai , Fang Kuang , Liang-Wei Chen
    Lead (Pb2+), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, may widely affect the function of many organs or systems of human beings, especially the brain. Although lead is believed to transport into the brain through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cause direct neuronal injury, growing data have shown that lead exposure could induce brain dysfunction by triggering microglial and astroglial activation, pro‑inflammatory cytokine production and inflammatory response, generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, and finally result in BBB dysfunction and neuronal damage. This review...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Original Article

    Brain abscess: surgical experiences of 162 cases

    Forhad Hossain Chowdhury , Md Raziul Haque , Mainul Haque Sarkar , S. M. Noman Khaled Chowdhury , Zahed Hossain , Shisir Ranjan
    Aim: Brain abscess still poses a public health challenge in spite of the advent of modern neurosurgical techniques and antibiotics. Here, we present our surgical experiences and ultimate outcome in the management of brain abscess. Methods: Totally, 162 patients with proved brain abscess who underwent surgical treatment were included in this study. The prospectively recorded data of surgical management of brain abscess and the ultimate outcome (by Glasgow outcome scale) were studied retrospectively. Results: Total number of cases was 162, of which 113 were acute pyogenic abscess while 49...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Case Report

    A case report on subarachnoid and intraventricular neurocysticercosis

    Chen Shang , Hong-Zhi Guan , Li-Ying Cui , Bo Hou , Feng Feng , Ding-Rong Zhong
    Neurocysticercosis is the most common central nervous system helminthic infection in humans. We hereby present a case combining two rare manifestations of neurocysticercosis: the subarachnoid and intraventricular forms. The patient presented with hydrocephalus and neurologic deficits and although endoscopic removal of the cysts and two cycles of postoperative cysticidal drugs resulted in resolution of symptoms, they later recurred. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and a further cycle of albendazole plus dexamethasone led to substantial clinical improvement. Extraparenchymal...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    The role of leukocytes in the formation and rupture of intracranial aneurysms

    Michael J. Strong , Peter S. Amenta , Aaron S. Dumont , Ricky Medel
    Ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) affect a small proportion of the population; however, the morbidity and mortality is disproportionally high. Although little is known about IA formation, progression, and rupture, mounting evidence suggests that inflammation may play an important role in IA pathogenesis. There is emerging evidence to suggest that leukocytes play a key role in generating and maintaining a pathologic inflammatory response that leads to aneurysm formation and rupture. We present the current literature pertaining to the role of leukocytes in aneurysm formation, progression,...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    The role of inflammation in cerebral aneurysms

    Ali H. Turkmani , Nancy J. Edwards , Peng R. Chen
    The natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is poorly understood. At present, risk factors for aneurysm rupture are limited to demographics and rudimentary anatomic features of the aneurysm. The first sign of aneurysm destabilization and rupture may be subarachnoid hemorrhage, a potentially devastating brain injury with high morbidity and mortality. An emerging body of literature suggests a complex inflammatory cascade likely promotes aneurysm wall remodeling and progressive ballooning of the arterial wall, ultimately terminating in aneurysm rupture. These events likely...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Role of the complement cascade in cerebral aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture

    Blake E. S. Taylor , Geoff Appelboom , Robert Zilinyi , Ariana Goodman , David Chapel , Melissa LoPresti , Edward Sander Connolly Jr.
    Rupture of intracranial aneurysms is the most common cause of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, but the intricate neuroinflammatory processes which contribute to aneurysm pathophysiology are not well-understood. Mounting evidence has implicated the complement cascade in the progression of aneurysms from their formation to rupture. In this article, we identify and review studies that have sought to determine the role of the complement system in the aneurysm pathogenesis. The studies were generally conducted by immunhistological analyses on aneurysm tissue collected intraoperatively, and...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Inflammation mediates the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm and becomes therapeutic target

    Tomohiro Aoki
    The treatment of cerebral aneurysms (CAs) is of social importance, because poor outcomes result in subarachnoid hemorrhages after rupture. However, there is currently no medical treatment available to prevent the progression and rupture of CAs, which results in a large number of patients without receiving treatment. Recent studies using human samples have revealed the presence of inflammatory responses in lesions and also the possible correlation of inflammation with CA progression or rupture. Furthermore, experimental studies using animal models of CAs have supported the notion from human...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Inflammation in human cerebral aneurysms: pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, genetics, and therapeutics

    Sarah A. Dooley , Joseph S. Hudson , David M. Hasan
    Intracranial aneurysms are a life-threatening cerebrovascular pathology with a probability of spontaneous rupture. Current intervention techniques carry inherent risk. Recent investigation has reinforced inflammation’s role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral aneurysms. These data suggest alternative diagnostic and noninvasive therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, novel characteristics of the underlying disease have been elucidated through distinct bioinformatic and gene expression profile analyses. This article will emphasize the most recent investigation, highlighting findings of...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Inflammation and intracranial aneurysms: mechanisms of initiation, growth, and rupture

    Peter S. Amenta , Edison Valle , Aaron S. Dumont , Ricky Medel
    Outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remain poor in many patients, despite advances in microsurgical and endovascular management. Consequently, considerable effort has been placed in determining the mechanisms of aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture. Various environmental and genetic factors are implicated as key components in the aneurysm pathogenesis. Currently, sufficient evidence exists to incriminate the inflammatory response as the common pathway leading to aneurysm generation and rupture. Central to this model is the interaction between the vessel wall and...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Hemodynamics, inflammation, vascular remodeling, and the development and rupture of intracranial aneurysms: a review

    Francesco Signorelli , Benjamin Gory , Roberto Riva , Paul-Emile Labeyrie , Isabelle Pelissou-Guyotat , Francis Turjman
    The central nervous system is an immunologically active environment where several components of the immune and inflammatory response interact among them and with the constituents of nervous tissue and vasculature in a critically orchestrated manner, influencing physiologic and pathologic processes. In particular, inflammation takes a central role in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). The common pathway for aneurysm formation involves endothelial dysfunction and injury, a mounting inflammatory response, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) phenotypic modulation, extracellular...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Cerebral aneurysms and inflammation

    Toshihiro Yokoi , Makoto Saito , Yayoi Yoshimura , Keiichi Tsuji , Kazuhiko Nozaki
    Multiple inflammatory factors, playing a crucial role in cerebral aneurysm formation, have been identified. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been revealed to have a close connection with several risk factors that affect aneurysm formation. Remarkable expression in aneurysm walls of mRNA for TNF-α has been observed in humans. Possible therapeutic interventions to reduce the formation of cerebral aneurysms may include the inhibition of mediators of inflammation.
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Advances in the imaging of cerebral aneurysm inflammation

    Michael R. Levitt , M. Yashar S. Kalani , Karam Moon , Cameron G. McDougall , Felipe C. Albuquerque
    Cerebral aneurysm formation, growth and rupture are thought to be the result of a complex interaction between cerebrovascular hemodynamics and pathobiology. Recently, new evidence has emerged regarding the role of inflammation in the walls of cerebral aneurysms. Noninvasive methods to characterize the degree of inflammation in aneurysms could enable clinicians to estimate the risk of future aneurysm growth and rupture, influencing treatment. This review examines emerging techniques of imaging inflammatory biomarkers in cerebral aneurysms.
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Case Report

    Primary supratentorial intracerebral malignant paraganglioma

    Ahmed A. Al Jishi , Boleslaw Lach , Ali Elgheriani , Edward Kachur , Aleksa Cenic
    Paragangliomas are extra-adrenal neuroendocrine tumors that derive from neural crest. In general, they are benign tumors but few cases had shown a tendency to metastasize. Malignant forms have been reported previously with intracranial metastasis from duodenal origin, but primary intracranial origin represents a rare and unusual location for such tumors. Here, we report a rare case of a 48-year-old lady who presented with symptomatic right-sided insular mass with negative metastatic work up. A complete surgical resection had been done with an unexpected diagnosis of primary gangliocytic...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms

    Inflammation of the cerebral arteries: lifting the veil on the pathobiology of intracranial aneurysms

    Dale Ding
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Editorial

    Astrocytes: everything but the glue

    Oscar Gonzalez-Perez , Veronica Lopez-Virgen , Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Case Report

    Concurrent occurrence of both intracranial and intramedullary tuberculomas

    Sreeramulu Diguvinti , Srinivasulu Damam , Kiran Kumar Ubara , Chennakesavulu Dara
    Tuberculosis involving spinal cord in the form of intramedullary tuberculoma is uncommon, and the concurrent occurrence of cranial and intramedullary tuberculomas is extremely rare. We report a case of disseminated tuberculoma involving brain and spinal cord with miliary tuberculosis in a 32-year-old male presenting with fever, cerebellar signs and motor weakness of both upper and lower extremities. Based on magnetic resonance imaging and polymerase chain reaction, we diagnosed as tuberculoma. He completely recovered with conventional antituberculous treatment and steroids. The follow-up of...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Topic: Neuroimmunology and Cancer

    The influence of postoperative infection in survival of patients with high-grade gliomas

    George A Alexiou , Amalia Kallinteri , Euaggelos Michos , Panagiota Zagorianakou , Efthalia Priavali , Dimitrios Pachatouridis , Stamatina Levidiotou , Spyridon Voulgaris
    High-grade gliomas are the most common type of brain tumors. Of these, glioblastoma account for 60-70% and despite treatment carries a dismal prognosis. Postoperative surgical site infection has been associated with prolonged survival. Herewith, we present a case of glioblastoma and a case of anaplastic oligoastrocytoma that developed postoperative infection of the surgical site and had prolonged survival. A thorough literature review is also presented.
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015
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  • Topic: Neuroimmunology and Cancer

    Serum IgE levels in patients with intracranial tumors

    George A Alexiou , Amalia Kallinteri , Eleni Nita , Panagiota Zagorianakou , Stamatina Levidiotou , Spyridon Voulgaris
    Aim: Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between allergy and brain cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare the serum IgE levels between patients with gliomas and nonglial tumors and their possible prognostic role. Methods: A total of 84 patients with intracranial tumors were included in this study. At clinical presentation, estimation of serum IgE levels was assessed by nephelometry. Detailed information regarding the history of allergies was collected by interview. Results: Of the 84 cases, 42 were gliomas, 23 were meningiomas, 16 were metastases and...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015
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  • Topic: Neuroimmunology and Cancer

    A potential role of karyopherin a2 in the impaired maturation of dendritic cells observed in glioblastoma patients

    Konstantinos Gousias , Alexander von Ruecker , Gerrit H Gielen , Pitt Niehusmann , Andreas Waha , Hartmut Vatter , Matthias Simon
    Aim: Patients with glioblastomas demonstrate well-documented immunological impairments including decreased numbers of mature dendritic cells (DCs). Recent data identified karyopherin a2 (KPNA2), a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling receptor, as diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for gliomas. The aim of this ongoing study is to correlate parameters of immunity and nucleocytoplasmic transport in glioblastoma patients. Methods: We preoperatively collected serum from 17 patients with glioblastomas and determined DC subsets (HLA DR+ Lin-, CD34-, CD45+, CD123+, CD11+ were analyzed) using a 6-color flow...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015
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  • Original Article

    Influence of chlorpyrifos oxon on the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice

    Jin Yu , Hong Zhu , Aruna Bhat , Hanaa El-Sayed , Tatyana Gudz , Sebastiano Gattoni-Celli , Mark S Kindy
    Aim: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurological disorder and the most common form of dementia. Until date, the cause of AD eludes us, but a number of hypotheses have been put forward to try and understand the mechanisms involved. A series of studies have indicated that environmental factors, such as pesticides, heavy metals, and others can contribute to the development and progression of AD. Based on these data, we determined the impact of pesticides (chlorpyrifos oxon [CPO]) on AD-like pathogenesis in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. Methods: APP mice were...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015
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  • Topic: Neuroimmunology and Cancer

    Integrins and focal adhesion kinase in the malignant behavior of gliomas

    Efstathia Giannopoulou , Andreas Tzakos , Andreas A Argyriou
    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of glioma and is associated with a very poor prognosis. The standard treatment includes radiotherapy concurrent with temozolomide, however recently the Food and Drug Administration approved bevacizumab for use in patients with progressive glioblastoma following prior therapy. The limited number of treatment options points to the need for novel effective therapeutic approaches. A promising approach is the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in GBM treatment. However, the results from the majority of clinical trials using TKIs are not...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015
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  • Original Article

    Central somatosensory conduction slowing in adults with isolated elevated plasma level of homocysteine

    Jin Jun Luo , Favio Bumanlag , Ramin Ansari , Ya-Mei Tang , Nae J Dun
    Aim: Elevated plasma level of homocysteine (eHcy) is a recognized risk factor for dementia. However, whether the central conduction is affected in patients with an isolated eHcy is unknown. In this study, we addressed whether central conduction is altered in adults with eHcy. Methods: Evoked potential studies including somatosensory (SSEP), visual (VEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), were performed to evaluate central conduction in patients with isolated eHcy. Results: Nine SSEP, 7 VEP, and 6 BAEP were studied in 9 patients with eHcy (age: 63.3 ± 7.5 years old, mean ±...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015
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  • Case Report

    Multiple autoimmune antibody limbic encephalitis: a case in a pregnant woman

    Meha Goyal , Kasey L Gildersleeve , Stuart L Tomko , Joseph S Kass
    Autoimmune limbic encephalitis is most commonly associated with antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), among other neuronal cell surface receptors. Here, a case of a pregnant female with limbic encephalitis in the presence of multiple additional autoimmune antibodies is described. The patient was a 36-year-old female who presented with 4 days of confusion, hallucinations, hypersexuality, disinhibition, and pressured speech. The patient's work-up detected the presence of anti-NMDAR antibodies, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, and a yet uncharacterized...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015
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  • Topic: Neuroimmunology and Cancer

    Targeting glioblastoma with oncolytic adenovirus delta 24

    Konstantinos I Tsamis , George A Alexiou , Athanasios P Kyritsis
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015
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  • Original Article

    Cardiac autonomic function in patients with myasthenia gravis: analysis of the heart-rate variability in the time-domain

    Sherifa Ahmed Hamed , Khaled Osama Mohamad , Mohamad Adam
    Aim: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular transmission disorder caused by acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies. Cardiac autonomic dysfunctions were rarely reported in patients with MG. Functional cardiac abnormalities were variable and reported in patients at severe stages of the disease and with thymoma. We investigated cardiac functions in patients with MG using Ambulatory 24-h electrocardiographic Holter-Monitoring. Methods: This study included 20 patients with MG with a mean age of 28.45 ± 8.89 years and duration of illness of 3.52 ± 1.15 years. The standard Holter reports include...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015
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  • Case Report

    Cardiac arrhythmia with premature ventricular contractures induced by interferon beta in a patient with multiple sclerosis

    Igor Sobol , Marina Sobol , Konstantin E Balashov
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Interferon (IFN) beta is an active ingredient of five out of twelve disease modifying treatments approved for MS. We report a case of IFN-beta-induced cardiac arrhythmia with premature ventricular contractures in a patient recently diagnosed with MS.
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015
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