Articles
  • Editorial

    On the need to unify neuroscience and physics

    Maurits van den Noort , Sabina Lim , Peggy Bosch
    Published on: 26 Dec 2016
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System

    Screening of genetic loci predisposing to herpes simplex virus infection on mouse chromosome 17

    Xiu-Ying Chen , Wei-Ju Tang , Xu-Zheng Zuo , Gong Wang , Hao-Xiang Wang , Peng Xie , Wen Huang
    Aim: The herpes simplex virus (HSV), one of the most common viruses infecting humans, is featured by a high infection rate and usually causes complex disorders difficult to diagnose and treat. Disease progression is always combined with the specific interaction between organism and environment, but genetic factors play a decisive role in most pathogenic processes. Like most human disorders, individual difference has also been involved in the pathogenesis of HSV infection. The present study aimed to screen the potential gene loci that regulates human predisposition to HSV infection. Methods:...
    Published on: 26 Dec 2016
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System

    Low antioxidant status of patients with central nervous system infections

    Jia Liu , Feng Tan , Min Li , Huan Yi , Li Xu , Xuan Wang , Xiu-Feng Zhong , Fu-Hua Peng
    Aim: The pathogenesis of central nervous system infections (CNSI) has not been fully understood; some studies indicated that reactive oxygen species may induce brain damage. The aim of our study was to investigate serum antioxidant status in patients with CNSI. Methods: The serum levels of uric acid (UA), bilirubin and albumin of 548 individuals were enrolled in our study, comprising of 114 healthy controls (HC) and 434 patients with five different kinds of CNSI, which including viral meningitis and/or meningoencephalitis, cysticercosis of brain, tuberculous meningitis and/or...
    Published on: 15 Dec 2016
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  • Editorial

    Endocannabinoid metabolism in neurodegenerative diseases

    Chu Chen
    Published on: 15 Dec 2016
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System

    Current diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Xiao-Su Guo , Hui Bu , Jun-Ying He , Yue-Li Zou , Yue Zhao , Yuan-Yuan Li , Jun-Zhao Cui , Ming-Ming Zheng , Wei-Xin Han , Ze-Yan Zhao
    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a central nervous system infectious disease caused by Cryptococcus. It is the most common fungal infection in the central nervous system, accounting for about 48% of fungal infection. The disease occurs mainly in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and concentrates in the immunocompromised people without AIDS. There are nearly one million new cases of CM each year, and about 70% of them died. In China, CM occurs mainly in people without AIDS and there is an increasing trend in recent years. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to reducing...
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016
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  • Case Report

    A case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis with ADEM-like clinical/MR findings

    Jia Liu , Huan Yi , Li Xu , Min Li , Xuan Wang , Fu-Hua Peng
    In recent years, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis overlapping with demyelinating disorders has attracted more and more attention. The case is about a 52-year-old woman with anti-NMDAR encephalitis presenting acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like clinical/magnetic resonance (MR) findings. Here, the authors report this case and briefly review her MR evolution and the conditions of her prognosis. The recognition that patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis may have demyelinating disorders, simultaneously or sequentially, is important. Otherwise, a high dose of...
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016
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  • Letter to Editor

    Isolated unilateral chorea: a diagnostic challenge

    Marta Lopes , Eva Brandão
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016
    [HTML]   [PDF]   Viewed:614   Downloaded:99
  • Editorial

    Schizophrenia and comorbid sleep disorders

    Maurits van den Noort , Heike Staudte , Benoît Perriard , Sujung Yeo , Sabina Lim , Peggy Bosch
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016
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  • Review

    Neurological manifestations in Fabry disease

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks , Yara Dadalti Fragoso
    Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, progressive, multisystem and highly debilitating disease. FD is an X-linked lysosome storage disorder that results in α-galactosidase A deficiency. The subsequent accumulation of glycosphingolipids is more evident in vascular endothelium and smooth-muscle cells. The resulting effect of the deposition is generalized inflammation and vasculopathy, which can also affect the central and peripheral nervous system. FD progresses with kidney dysfunction, angiokeratoma of the skin, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular events and neurological disorders. In the present...
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016
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  • Original Article

    Possible role of microparticles in neuroimmune signaling of microglial cells

    Stephanie M. Schindler , Ekta Bajwa , Jonathan P. Little , Andis Klegeris
    Aim: Submicron fragments termed microparticles (MPs), derived from all major central nervous system cell types including neurons and glia (microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes), have emerged as novel intercellular signaling agents. This study tested the hypothesis that MPs derived from activated microglia, which represent the mononuclear phagocyte system in the brain, could induce pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic responses of microglia in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Methods: Human THP-1 monocytic cells were used to model human microglia. MPs derived from these cells were reapplied to...
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016
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  • Case Report

    Cerebral venous thrombosis in patient of relapse of ulcerative colitis: report of a case

    Rajat Agarwal , Anuradha Batra , Ish Anand , Davinder Singh Rana , Samir Patel
    Amongst the various systemic complications of ulcerative colitis, cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon and serious neurological complication mainly associated during episodes of relapse of ulcerative colitis. CVT is suspected to be a consequence of hypercoagulable state occurring during the disease in genetic predisposed persons. Most patients present with rapid neurological deterioration. This devastating intracranial complication requires immediate medical intervention to avoid potentially life threatening consequences. The outcome is good, provided the disease is diagnosed on...
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016
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  • Commentary

    Comments on “Loss of intranetwork and internetwork resting state functional connections with Alzheimer’s disease progression”

    Jiu Chen
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016
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  • Case Report

    The expanding spectrum of pediatric anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody mediated CNS disease - a chance association?

    Deepak Menon , Ramshekhar N. Menon , Hardeep Kumar , Ashalatha Radhakrishnan , Sudheeran Kannoth , Muralidharan Nair Nair , Sanjeev Thomas
    Central nervous system autoimmunity in the pediatric age group represents an evolving constellation of various syndromes distinct from the adult age group. One of the rarely described pathogenic auto-antibodies (ab) is the one directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). While its pathogenic role is controversial, literature concerning adult patients abounds with heterogeneous presentations with epilepsy often as part of limbic encephalitis or chronic temporal lobe epilepsy and cerebellar ataxia accompanying endocrinopathies or paraneoplastic disorders. Diagnosis is often delayed...
    Published on: 28 Sep 2016
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  • Editorial

    Emerging roles of microglia cells in the regulation of adult neural stem cells

    Eduardo Lira-Diaz , Oscar Gonzalez-Perez
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016
    [HTML]   [PDF]   Viewed:1073   Downloaded:81
  • Editorial

    Serum immuno-biomarkers in gliomas

    Robin A. Buerki , Rimas V. Lukas
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016
    [HTML]   [PDF]   Viewed:814   Downloaded:85
  • Editorial

    Interleukin-1beta: a common thread between inflammation, pain and opioid tolerance

    Shekher Mohan
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016
    [HTML]   [PDF]   Viewed:1447   Downloaded:94
  • Review

    Immune-to-brain signaling and substrates of altered behavior during inflammation

    Jan Pieter Konsman
    During the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection, and when in a safe environment, endothermic mammals typically display reduced activity and food intake, increased sleep, and the adoption of a curled-up position. These changes in behavior, in concert with fever, are adaptive in that they contribute to host survival. The present review addresses the immune-to-brain signaling pathways as well as possible neural substrates mediating reduced exploration and food intake during acute systemic inflammation. These involve rapid activation of peripheral nerves and glutamatergic brainstem...
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016
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  • Case Report

    A case report of acute pediatric bacterial meningitis due to the rare isolate, Pseudomonas putida

    Grishma V. Kulkarni
    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is the medical emergency which warrants an early diagnosis and an aggressive therapy. Despite the availability of the potent newer antibiotics, the mortality caused by ABM and its complications remain high in India, ranging from 16% to 32%. The aim of this case report is to present the rare isolation of Pseudomonas putida from cerebrospinal fluid sample. Besides this, the author also emphasizes the importance of correctly identifying the organism and thus the selection of the most accurate antibiotic from the susceptibility profile to allow for early...
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016
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  • Case Report

    Takayasu’s arteritis - aphasia as an initial presentation

    Davinder Singh Rana , Anuradha Batra , Ish Anand , Samir Patel , Pooja Gupta
    Takayasu arteritis (TA) is an uncommon disease of young women, characterized by granulomatous vasculitis of medium and large arteries. Neurological involvement is reported in only a minority of patients and occurrence of neurological syndromes as the first manifestation of disease has been rarely reported. We present clinical, laboratory and imaging findings of a 40 years old lady with TA, who initially presented with clinical manifestations of stroke in form of aphasia. The rarity of the disease and especially such a presentation can cause considerable delay in the diagnosis and treatment.
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
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  • Review

    Population of inflammatory cells in intracranial aneurysm with the special insight to the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches

    Hirokazu Koseki , Tomohiro Aoki
    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) can cause a lethal subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture. The prevalence of IA is high in the general public; however, the annual risk for the rupture of an incidentally found lesion is relatively low. Therefore, it is crucial to selectively diagnose rupture-prone IAs among many diagnosed IAs, and properly treat such IAs before rupture. Recent studies using human IA specimens or experimentally-induced IAs in animals have revealed some important findings regarding the role of inflammatory cells infiltrating IA lesions. Currently, IA is considered an inflammatory...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
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  • Original Article

    Inhibition and reversal of growth cone collapse in adult sensory neurons by enteric glia-induced neurotrophic factors

    Simon Feng , Kiran Reddy , Cai-Xin Su , Shu-Cui Jiang
    Aim: Previous studies show enteric glia (EG)-conditioned medium promotes neurite outgrowth in adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) derived sensory neurons. This EG-conditioned medium contains various neurotrophic factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). This study attempts to determine the importance of these neurotrophic factors in enabling DRG-derived sensory neuron axons to overcome the inhibitory guidance cues released from the glial scar. Methods: A Semaphorin 3A...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
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  • Case Report

    D-cycloserin, a NMDA-agonist may be a treatment option for anti-NMDAR encephalitis

    Hong-Zhi Guan , Tie-Kuan Du , Jin Xu , Xia Lv , Hua-Dong Zhu , Yi-Cheng Zhu , Bin Peng , Li-Ying Cui
    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is caused by reversible neuron dysfunction associated an autoantibody-mediated decrease of NMDAR in the entire brain. A N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) -agonist treatment for anti-NMDAR encephalitis might have a role considering its specific mechanism. The authors used D-cycloserine, a partial NMDA-agonist in a refractory case with prolonged intensive care unit duration. A 13-year-old female presented with headache, cognitive deterioration, generalized seizures, coma and hypoventilation with required mechanical ventilation. Anti-NMDAR...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
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  • Commentary

    Auto-reactive B cells in MuSK myasthenia gravis

    Yoon-Ho Hong , Jung-Joon Sung
    Acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) is a protoypical autoimmune disease caused by a dysfunction of neuromuscular transmission at the postsynaptic part. Patients experience fluctuating muscle weakness that increases with exertion. It is typically classified into clinical subtypes depending on distribution of involved muscles, onset age, thymic pathology, and auto-antibodies. While the most common auto-antibodies are targeted towards the skeletal muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR), the list of target molecules of pathogenic auto-antibodies has been expanding to include the muscle specific...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
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  • Case Report

    Progressive muscle cramps with pain as atypical initial presentations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case report

    Cheng-Hui Liu , Chi Zhu , Fan Zeng , Heng Yang , Yan-Jiang Wang
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease and is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative disease that affects both lower and upper motor neurons. Muscle cramps, which are characterized by a sudden, painful, involuntary contraction of muscles, are not rare in ALS patients. However, muscle cramps do not normally present early in ALS and therefore not used for the initial diagnosis of ALS. In this paper the authors present a case of ALS with initial manifestation of progressive painful muscle cramps in the absence of muscle weakness. This case...
    Published on: 20 Jul 2016
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  • Editorial

    Astrocyte, reactive astrocytes and self-regulative apoptosis in the neuroinflammation

    Liang-Wei Chen
    Astrocyte, one of the most abundant glial cell types, actively functions in stabilizing neural circuits and synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes not only provide metabolic and trophic supports to various CNS neurons and but also actively work in assisting synaptic transmission and plasticity. A line of growing evidences have documented that astrocytes present as an essential coordinatorin neural circuit function.[1] Firstly, calcium signaling or calcium wave calcium (Ca2+) between neighboring astrocytes contribute to establishment of a huge astrocytic glial...
    Published on: 20 Jul 2016
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Autoimmune encephalopathies in children: diagnostic clues and therapeutic challenges

    Giorgia Olivieri , Ilaria Contaldo , Gloria Ferrantini , Elisa Musto , Roberta Scalise , Maria Chiara Stefanini , Domenica Battaglia , Eugenio Mercuri
    Neuronal surface antibody syndromes (NSAS) encompass a variety of disorders associated with “neuronal surface antibodies”. These share clinical and neuroradiological features that pose challenges related to their recognition and treatment. Recent epidemiological studies show a clear predominance for the glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in both adults and pediatric population. Despite this, the overall NSAS’s incidence remains underestimated, and diagnosis persists to be not always easy to achieve. Based on current literature data, in this paper the authors propose a...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
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  • Review

    Necroptosis: a new link between cell death and inflammation

    Yuan-Hang Pan , Xun-Yuan Liu , Jia-Qiang Liu , Qian Liu , Yang Yang , Jia-Lei Yang , Xiu-Fen Zhang , Yin Wu , Ya-Zhou Wang
    Necroptosis is a type of newly identified cell death induced by apoptotic stimuli under conditions where apoptotic execution is prevented. Studies over the past 10 years have revealed the molecular mechanism of necroptosis and challenged the old conception that necrosis is un-programmed. Recently, more and more data have emerged suggesting a close association between necroptosis and inflammation. In this review, the authors summarized the current knowledge of the mechanism of necroptosis, focusing on tumour necrosis factor α induced necroptosis and the roles of necroptosis in regulating...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
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  • Case Report

    Differentiation of radiation necrosis from glioblastoma recurrence after radiotherapy

    Chrissa Sioka , Anastasia Zikou , Anna Goussia , Spyridon Tsiouris , Loucas G. Astrakas , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    The standard treatment of glioblastoma, the most common type of primary-brain-tumor, involves radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy. A patient with glioblastoma, post radiotherapy developed magnatic resonance imaging (MRI) changes consistent with either radiation-induced tumor necrosis or tumor recurrence. Perfusion MRI was suggestive of radiation necrosis, but magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 99mTc-Tetrofosmin single photon emission computed tomography was indicative of tumor recurrence. Positron emission tomography scan was not available. Tumor recurrence was...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
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  • Commentary

    Sex differences in Alzheimer’s disease

    Yi Xing
    Recently, Koran et al.[1] published an article, named “Sex differences in the association between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers and cognitive decline” in Brain Imaging and Behavior. The result proved that there were sex-specific associations between biomarkers of AD. This article added evidence to the theory of sex differences in AD.
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
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  • Review

    Statins in acute neurologic disease: which one, which dose, when to start, and when not to stop

    Bong-Su Kang , Gene Sung , May Kim-Tenser , Nerses Sanossian
    Statins could have physiologic properties that may benefit patients that have been diagnosed with various acute neurological diseases. This review aims tosummarize the literature pertaining to stain use in acute neurological disease such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), cerebral ischemia (CI), traumatic brain injury, status epilepticus and meningitis. The authors reviewed published abstracts and manuscripts pertaining to experimental and clinical trials relevant to statins in acute neurological disease. Although acute statin therapy in the setting of subarachnoid...
    Published on: 20 Jun 2016
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  • Review

    Current and emerging therapies for neuromyelitis optica

    Cong Zhao , Hong-Zeng Li , Ya-Nan Bai , Zhu-Yi Li , Jun Guo
    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease that mainly affects the optic nerve and spinal cord, potentially resulting in blindness and paralysis. Once thought to be a clinical variant of multiple sclerosis, NMO is currently considered as a different disease with its own features due to the identification of a specific autoantibody against aquaporin 4. Given the high risk of disability, treatment should be launched once the diagnosis is established. Evidence from clinical practice showed that traditional immunosuppressive agents affecting the function of T and B cells...
    Published on: 20 Jun 2016
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  • Case Report

    Huge supratentorial cortical ependymoma in a young child: case report and literature review

    Mehdi Darmoul , Mohamed Kilani , Atef Ben Nsir , Mohamed Nejib Hattab
    Supratentorial cortical ependymomas are uncommon in the pediatric population and extremely rare in very young children. Histologically, tumors of the anaplastic type are also less common in children. The authors report one case of anaplastic cortical ependymoma in a 16-month-old girl who presented with a 7-day history of left side weakness and rapid neurological deterioration. Brain imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scanning showed a huge right fronto-parietal cystic and solid lesion compressing the brain parenchyma. The young child was operated via a...
    Published on: 20 Jun 2016
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  • Commentary

    Meningeal inflammation and multiple sclerosis

    Li-Ping Liu
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Inflammation in MS is characterized by infiltration of peripheral immune cells into the CNS, especially in the meninges. The infiltration into meninges, which has been referred to as tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs), is a likely first step preceding infiltration into the CNS parenchyma. These invading autoreactive immune cells destroy myelin, the insulation surrounding neuronal axons, and cause demyelination in subpial and cortical areas, promoting disease pathogenesis. Experimental...
    Published on: 20 Jun 2016
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  • Case Report

    Status epilepticus in scleromyxedema

    Sofia Markoula , Sofia Zouroudi , Sotirios Giannopoulos , Kimon Tsoukanelis , Ananstasia Zikou , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    Scleromyxedema is a rare dermatologic disorder, characterized by erythematous or yellowish lichenoid waxy papules. Neurological manifestations are rare but well-recognized. A 51-year-old woman, diagnosed with scleromyxedema, was admitted to the hospital with status epilepticus, caused by brain lesions, as disclosed in a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The patient was treated with anticonvulsants and corticosteroids and gradually recovered fully. A complete remission of the lesions was shown in a follow-up brain MRI. In cases with scleromyxedema and the presence of neurological...
    Published on: 20 May 2016
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  • Case Report

    Good recovery of a patient with neurocysticercosis using two antihelminthic drugs combined with steroid

    Xin-Di Li , Hua-Bing Wang , Heng Zhou , An-Na Zhou , Lin Zhao , Yong-Hong Liu , Xiao-Qing Gong , Xing-Hu Zhang
    Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. We present a case report of a neurocysticercosis patient with multiple cysts, who presented with new onset generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A 4-cycle treatment of 2 different antihelminthic drugs with dexamethasone and sodium valproate led to clinical improvement without any adverse reactions. The manifestations of neurocysticercosis are protean and the diagnosis should be considered whenever multiple cysts are seen on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The antihelminthic treatment of...
    Published on: 20 May 2016
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  • Original Article

    Symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence among patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression

    Peggy Bosch , Janina Waberg , Maurits van den Noort , Heike Staudte , Sabina Lim , Jos Egger
    Aim: Treatment non-adherence is a common problem in patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression. This study investigated the possible relationships between symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence. Methods: Thirty outpatients with schizophrenia and 58 outpatients with depression were enrolled in this study. The beck depression Inventory-II, the positive and negative syndrome scale, and the pittsburgh sleep quality index were used to assess symptom severity and quality of sleep, and sleep log data were used to measure treatment adherence. Results: The preliminary...
    Published on: 20 May 2016
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  • Case Report

    A case of Hashimoto's encephalopathy presenting with seizures and cognitive impairment

    Xing-Yong Chen , Yin-Zhou Wang , Hui-Xin Lei , Xu Zhang
    Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare disease with unknown pathogenesis. An epileptic seizure is reported in association with HE. Here, the author reported an 18-year-old girl with a history of hyperthyroidism for one year. She was admitted to the hospital due to status epilepticus. Serum thyroid function test showed that the concentration of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroglobulin antibody were significantly elevated. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed that multiple abnormalities varied from bilateral frontal, parietal, occipital-temporal lobe to cerebellum...
    Published on: 20 May 2016
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  • Case Report

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension complicated with cerebral venous thrombosis and subdural effusion: a case report

    Murali Krishna Menon , Thara Prathap , Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension treatment can be complicated by concomitant cerebral venous thrombosis and subdural hematoma. A 48 years old male, presenting orthostatic headache and neck pain for 1 month displayed sagittal sinus thrombosis and bilateral subdural effusions, as well as extradural fluid collection at T3-T8 level, upon magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure was 50 mmH2O, and a leak was confirmed at C2-C3 level by computed tomography (CT) myelogram. The presence of subdural hematoma precluded anticoagulation treatments. An autologous epidural...
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016
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  • Case Report

    Herpes zoster internuclear ophthalmoplegia

    Vijayashankar Paramanandam , Sowmini Perumal , Malcolm Jeyaraj , Sakthi Velayutham , Gobinathan Shankar
    Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) is caused by a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Patients with INO are usually asymptomatic but may have diplopia and oscillopsia. The most common causes of INO are ischemia and demyelination. Occurrence of INO due to infectious etiologies like tuberculosis, AIDS, brucellosis, cysticercosis and syphilis is well known. However, clinical presentation of INO associated with herpes zoster is very rare. The possible pathogenic mechanism for varicella zoster virus (VZV) induced INO could be demyelination or microinfarction in the brainstem. In the...
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016
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  • Original Article

    Thrombolysis lead to better long-term outcome in Chinese stroke patients

    Nian-Tong Lin , Ying-Chun Cao , Zheng-Zheng Cheng , Yuan Wang , Ping-Yi Xu
    Aim: The rate of thrombolysis in Chinese acute ischemic stroke (AIS) was low and little was known about the long-term outcome. We aimed to compare the prognosis between thrombolysis and ordinary anti-platelet strategies in AIS. Methods: Patients, who were consecutively registered in our hospital from January 2005 to June 2012, were retrospectively studied. Inclusion criteria: (1) primary diagnoses of cerebral infarction coded with implantable cardioverter defibrillator-10 I63 to I69; (2) symptoms onset to treatment time (OTT) within 6 h; (3) thrombolysis with alteplase (TROM) or ordinary...
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Diagnostic algorithms in autoimmune encephalitis

    Valentina Damato
    Over the past decade the discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with neuronal surface antibodies had changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously mischaracterized. Recognition of clinical syndromes, consistent methods of diagnosis, and early targeted immunotherapy can lead to a favorable outcome in diseases that may be associated with significant disability or death if left untreated. Here the conditions associated with neuronal surface antibodies are briefly reviewed, some general aspects of these syndromes are considered and guidelines that...
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Encephalitis associated with autoantibodies binding to γ-aminobutyric acid-A, γ-aminobutyric acid-B and glycine receptors: immunopathogenic mechanisms and clinical characteristics

    Amy May Lin Quek , Orna O'Toole
    Recent, discoveries of neural antibodies have facilitated the diagnosis of immune-mediated, immunotherapy-responsive neurologic disorders. Antibodies that target inhibitory central nervous system receptors, such as γ-aminobutyric acid-B, γ-aminobutyric acid-A, and glycine receptors, disrupt inhibitory regulatory synaptic functions, and lead to neuronal hyperexcitability. The myriad of neurologic, manifestations associated with these antibodies includes seizures, encephalopathy, muscle rigidity and stiffness. This article provides a review of the immunopathogenic mechanisms and the clinical...
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Encephalitis associated with autoantibody binding to the anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor: immunopathogenesis, mechanisms, and clinical characteristics

    Adhasit Nawa-apisak , Saharat Aungsumart , Metha Apiwattanakul
    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has been increasingly recognized in recent years. This condition may be the most common cause of antibody-mediated encephalitis worldwide. The majority of patients are young at the time of onset, female, and present with an acute-to-subacute onset of behavioral changes followed by seizure, abnormal movement, autonomic dysfunction, and finally hypoventilation with coma if left untreated. The immunopathogenesis of this disease may be due to antibody-mediated internalization of NMDARs from synapses, which results in the dysfunction of...
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens

    Neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies targeting the voltage-gated potassium channel complex: immunobiology and clinical characteristics

    Domenico Plantone , Rosaria Renna , Tatiana Koudriavtseva
    Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) represent a group of tetrameric signaling proteins with several functions, including modulation of neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. Moreover, VGKCs give a key contribution to the generation of the action potential. VGKCs are complexed with other neuronal proteins, and it is now widely known that serum autoantibodies directed against VGKCs are actually directed against the potassium channel subunits only in a minority of patients. By contrast, these autoantibodies more commonly target three proteins that are complexed with...
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016
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  • Review

    Immunotherapeutic strategies for glioma treatment

    George A. Alexiou , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor. Despite intensive clinical investigation and several novel therapeutic approaches, the median survival continues to remain poor and it is usually in the range of fifteen months. Immunotherapy is a beacon of hope for cancer treatment and offers a different approach against glioma. Various approaches have been used, such as dendritic cell based vaccines, peptide vaccines, T-cell-based therapies and immune checkpoint blockade with promising results. This paper provided an overview of the results of the most exciting immune...
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016
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  • Case Report

    Disc herniation or ependymoma recurrence?

    Aristeidis H. Katsanos , Ioannis Sarmas , Sotirios Giannopoulos , Sigliti-Henrietta Pelidou , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    We present a 41-year-old female with previous history of ependymoma who underwent gross-total resection of the tumor and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt placement, followed by radiotherapy. Three years later a small enhancing area was noted in the left anterolateral spinal cord at the level of the C1-C2 vertebrae and a left posterior-lateral herniated disk in the C5-C6 level which was not present in the earlier MRI. This is a unique case, in which herniated disk pressuring effects needed to be differentiated from both radiation-induced treatment effect and tumor recurrence.
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016
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  • Case Report

    Bilateral facial weakness following dengue fever

    Samir Patel , Rajeev Ranjan , Ritu Verma , C. S. Agrawal , Pooja Gupta
    Dengue is highly endemic in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Neurological complications of dengue infection are widespread and may involve almost all parts of nervous system through various pathogenic mechanisms. It may be related to neurotropism, systemic complications or post-infectious. We report a case of a 30-year-old male who developed bilateral facial weakness after dengue fever.
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016
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  • Original Article

    Assessment of health-related quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis living in the Fars province of Iran

    Nahid Ashjazadeh , Habib Hadianfard , Soodabe Feridoni , Elham Farjam
    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) living in the Fars province of Iran. Methods: A total of 100 patients with clinically definite MS who were referred to a clinic affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were eligible to participate in this study. The HRQoL was evaluated using a Persian version of the Medical Outcomes software. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, MANOVA, ANOVA and an independent t-test. Results: Patient variables in this sample included the following: 80%...
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016
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  • Review

    Neuronal toll-like receptors and neuro-immunity in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and stroke

    Carmen D. Rietdijk , Richard J. A. van Wezel , Johan Garssen , Aletta D. Kraneveld
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are part of the innate immune system important for the initiation of proper immune responses towards microorganisms. Neuronal TLRs are considered to be part of the interactions between the immune system and the nervous system, the major sensing systems in mammals. The review entitled “Neuronal toll-like receptors and neuro-immunity in Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and stroke” by Rietdijk et al. offers an overview of the current knowledge about (neuronal) TLRs in neurodegenerative pathologies.
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016
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  • Review

    Neuro-oncogenesis and the adult human sub-ventricular zone in high grade glioma

    Sara G. M. Piccirillo
    The review focuses on the role of the sub-ventricular zone, the most well characterized germinal region of adult brain, in the commonest and most aggressive brain tumor in adults, i.e. high grade glioma (HGG). Recent findings from animal models and samples isolated from HGG patients are reviewed here with a focus on the cancer stem cell hypothesis and evolutionary trajectories of tumor growth in patients. The implications of these studies on the development of novel therapeutic approaches aimed at improving HGG patient survival and the need for personalized treatments are also discussed.
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016
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  • Original Article

    Morphological and behavioural variation in CNS innate defence cell microglia is development and age sensitive

    Payel Ghosh , Anirban Ghosh
    Aim: Microglia, the innate defence cells in central nervous system (CNS), alters their shapes and function with age. We observed and identified these morphological changes and functional association throughout the developmental gradient until adulthood in rat brain. Methods: Early and late embryonic stages, neonates and adult brains of albino rats were sectioned for routine Haematoxylin Eosin (HE) staining and specialized silver-gold staining to show distribution and morphological variation in situ. Isolated microglia from different age groups was subjected to scanning electron microscopy...
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016
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  • Case Report

    Infective endocarditis with brain lesions misdiagnosed as viral encephalitis

    Jing-Jing Zhang , Guo-Dong Feng
    Infective endocarditis (IE) is caused by infection of the endocardial surface of heart. It typically affects one or more heart valves, the mural endocardium, or a septal defect. In recent years, many IE patients suffered from atypical initial symptoms. Here, in this case report, a 12-year-old patient was initially diagnosed as encephalitis. However, it was later noticed that this was a misdiagnosis for the following reasons: the echocardiography showed a vegetation attached to his mitral valves; the cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed lesions that were consistent with a cardioembolic...
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016
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  • Case Report

    Central nervous system blastomycosis presenting as a year-long chronic headache

    Elena Grebenciucova , Maciej S. Lesniak , Peter Pytel , Rimas V. Lukas
    This case describes a posterior fossa mass due to blastomycotic infection in a non-immunocompromised 41-year-old male presenting with a chronic headache for over one year. Given the risk of herniation, no lumbar puncture could be performed. A full work-up found no evidence of systemic infection. Surgical resection helped identify the mass as a blastomycotic abscess. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the mass were helpful in the identification of the mass as a fungal abscess
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016
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  • Guidelines

    China guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of myasthenia gravis

    Zhu-Yi Li
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a typical autoimmune disease mediated by auto-antibodies, immune cells and complement systems at the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction. Over 80 % of MG patients have anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody. This guideline will describe the clinical manifestations and classification, laboratory examinations, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016
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  • Review

    The conflict on posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome: a clinical mini review

    Manos Bogdos , Sotirios Giannopoulos , Maria Kosmidou
    Is Borrelia burgdorferi responsible for the persistence of symptoms after the standard successful course of antibiotics in Lyme disease patients? This highly controversial issue, concerning the underlying mechanism of posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), still seems to be a matter of intense conflict of opinion. PTLDS is the manifestation of nonspecific symptoms including fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, dysesthesias, and neurocognitive deterioration after the standard antimicrobial therapy administered to patients suffering from Lyme disease. In this article, we review the...
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016
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  • Case Report

    Artery of Percheron occlusion: role of diffusion-weighted imaging in the early diagnosis

    Murali Krishna Menon , Suma Mariam Jacob , Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
    Bilateral thalamic infarcts have a low frequency among different subtypes of strokes. Since it does not involve a particular vascular territory, it therefore usually involves the occlusion of the artery of Percheron (AOP). Here we report a 79-year-old right-handed Parkinsonian female patient, who was found unresponsive in bed. On examination, the patient was drowsy with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 10/15 (E2M5V3). She had absent doll’s eye response with anisocoric pupils and intermittent vertical gaze palsy. Although the patient had no apparent motor deficits, she was in a state of...
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016
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