Articles
  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System

    Developments in auxiliary examination of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Wei Zhao , Jiao-Jiao Jiang , Jia-Tang Zhang
    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), which is caused by prion scrapie protein, is a rare, chronic, transmissible and fatal disease. Clinical manifestations of CJD include rapidly progressive dementia, cerebellar ataxia, visual disturbance, as well as pyramidal and extrapyramidal tract signs. Four subtypes of CJD have been reported, including sporadic, familial or genetic, iatrogenic and variant. Given the infectiousness and high mortality of the disease, it is imperative that earlier and more accurate diagnostic methods are developed. In the past years, 14-3-3 protein testing and periodic sharp...
    Published on: 21 Jul 2017
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  • Original Article

    Analysis of clinical data of viral encephalitis patients complicated with epilepsy during the acute phase

    Shi-Ying Chen , Wei Ma , Yan-Yan Chen , Xue-Wen Fan
    Aim: To compare the difference between viral encephalitis patients complicated with epilepsy group and those without epilepsy. Methods: The authors retrospectively study 116 cases of viral encephalitis patients admitted to the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and the Cardia-Cerebrovascular Disease Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from January 2011 to December 2016. There were 39 cases with epilepsy and 77 cases without epilepsy. By surveying the Hospital Information System, the authors collected their clinical data including general situations, medical history, physical...
    Published on: 11 Jul 2017
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  • Commentary

    Hot topics of autoimmune encephalitis

    Ying Peng , Jia-Wei Wang
    Published on: 11 Jul 2017
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  • Review

    The association between human cytomegalovirus and glioblastomas: a review

    Christian B. Hochhalter , Christopher Carr , Brannan E. O’Neill , Marcus L. Ware , Michael J. Strong
    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was reported in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) over a decade ago and this finding has the potential to increase our understanding of the disease and it offers an alternative tumor-specific therapeutic target. Due of this promise, there is a fair amount of time, energy and money being directed towards understanding and utilizing this connection for eventual therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, the association between GBM and HCMV remains controversial. Several studies have reported conflicting results, further undermining the potential clinical value of this...
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017
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  • Minireview

    How are necroptosis, immune dysfunction, and motoneuron death connected in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    Jian-Feng Liu , Ou-Xiang Zheng , Jun-Guo Xin , Hannah H. Chen , John J. Xin
    Abnormal immune response/inflammation is present in patients of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Autoimmune-related inflammation has been thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of ALS. However, how the abnormal immune responses are initiated, what specific immune cells and how these immune cells are involved in this disease have not been well understood. This is partly owing to two facts of ALS: late diagnosis and chronic nature. The late diagnosis makes it difficult to conclude whether the abnormal immune responses/inflammation is the cause or result of the disease. The chronic...
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017
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  • Case Report

    Thymoma-associated panencephalitis: a newly emerging paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome

    Lynda Adaobi Nwabuobi , Jacob Christian Pellinen , Thomas Mark Wisniewski
    Recently, a few case reports of thymoma-associated panencephalitis (TAPE) have brought to light a disease entity that has not been fully characterized. Literature review of TAPE reveals an array of associated neuronal antibodies, with varied responses to thymomectomy with or without immunotherapy. This report describes a case of TAPE and proposes that the GABAA receptor antibody is a potential target antigen driving the immune process in this disease entity. Treatment-wise, early thymomectomy consistently improves the overall course of disease. Further study of such cases will be critical...
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017
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  • Case Report

    Miller-Fischer syndrome after etanercept

    Elena Grebenciucova , John H. Pula
    The authors describe a case of Miller-Fischer syndrome, a rare demyelinating syndrome, preceded by a viral prodrome and three doses of etanercept, an anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα) agent. Anti-TNFα agents are associated with an induction of episodes of demyelination and may unmask multiple sclerosis in those who are immunogenetically predisposed.
    Published on: 23 May 2017
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  • Topic: Stroke

    When friend turns foe: central and peripheral neuroinflammation in central nervous system injury

    Paul Marcet , Nicole Santos , Cesar V. Borlongan
    Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is common, and though it has been well studied, many aspects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke are poorly understood. TBI and stroke are two pathologic events that can cause severe, immediate impact to the neurostructure and function of the CNS, which has been recognized recently to be exacerbated by the body’s own immune response. Although the brain damage induced by the initial trauma is most likely unsalvageable, the secondary immunologic deterioration of neural tissue gives ample opportunity for therapeutic strategists seeking to...
    Published on: 17 May 2017
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  • Case Report

    A case report of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor autoimmune encephalitis with sensory attack. Is limbic encephalitis only “limbic”?

    Sheng Chen , Xiao-Jie Zhang , Meng-Sha Yao , Xing-Hua Luan , Fei Yuan , Jun Liu , Shu-Feng Chen , Chen-Fei Jia , Sheng-Di Chen
    To emphasize the early diagnosis and treatment of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) autoimmune encephalitis, a rare clinical condition, teratoma-related, anti-NMDAR encephalitis should be suspected if young patients present with psychiatric, movement, and sensory symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment can decrease the mortality and disability rate.
    Published on: 10 May 2017
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  • Review

    Neuroimaging of corpus callosum in central nervous system demyelinating disorders

    Masoud Etemadifar , Amir Neshatfar , Amir Arsalan Zamani , Mehri Salari
    Corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter structure in the brain, consisting of 200-250 million contralateral axonal projections. It is the major commissural pathway connecting the hemispheres of human brain. The pathology of CC includes wide variety of entities that arise from different causes such as congenital, inflammatory, tumoral, degenerative, infectious, etc. This study reviews the most reliable neuroimaging data of human CC in central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases to facilitate the understanding of different pathological entities of the CC and their role in...
    Published on: 27 Apr 2017
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  • Short Communication

    Trends in neurology fellowship training

    Jordan S.A. Williams , Trent S. Hodgson , Fernando D. Goldenberg , Rimas V. Lukas
    Aim: A need for Neurologists exists in the US. The majority of Neurology residency graduates go on to additional subspecialty training. Methods: Data from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education from 2001-2014 and the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties from was analyzed for trends in the number of Neurology subspecialty training programs and their composition. Results: There has been an overall trend of growth in the number of accredited Neurology subspecialty training programs and fellows. These trends vary between specific subspecialties. Conclusion: The authors...
    Published on: 18 Apr 2017
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  • Case Report

    Two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome after cerebral hemorrhage or head trauma

    Huan Jia , Ye Tian , Yan-Min Wu , Bin Li
    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an uncommon disease involving widespread peripheral nerve inflammatory demyelination which results in ascending symmetrical limb paralysis and areflexia. Approximately 2/3 of cases occurred following a simple, trivial antecedent infection. In northern China, diarrhea caused by Campylobacter jejuni is the most common etiology of GBS. This article presents 2 cases - post cerebral hemorrhage and post head traumatic GBS. Both patients suffered from acute motor axonal neuropathy, a main subtype of GBS, 14 days after cerebral hemorrhage or head trauma without any...
    Published on: 12 Apr 2017
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System

    Developing an international consensus guidance for myasthenia gravis using RAND/UCLA appropriateness method

    Wei-Bin Liu , Hao Ran , Chuang-Yi Ou , Li Qiu , Zhi-Dong Huang , Zhong-Qiang Lin , Yin-Kai Li , Xiao-Xi Liu , Hao Huang , Wei Fang
    Aim: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare and heterogeneous disease for which there is no generally accepted standard of care. Thus, it is critical that MG experts develop consensus guidelines based on their practice and disease management to assist clinicians and provide advice for insurance companies, health organizations and institutional review boards. Methods: An international treatment guidance was developed based on national guidelines established in the US, Denmark, Norway, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and Europe. The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method (RAM) was applied to...
    Published on: 30 Mar 2017
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  • Topic: Stroke

    Cerebral ischemia at early postoperative period of direct revascularization for moyamoya disease: a case report and literature review

    Xiao-Lin Chen , Li Ma , Yu Chen , Jun-Lin Lu , Xun Ye , Rong Wang , Yuan-Li Zhao
    Hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion could be causes of early postoperative complications that lead to neurological deterioration in patients with moyamoya diseases (MMD) after superficial temporal artery (STA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis. Here, the authors described a case of child-onset bilateral MMD that manifested transient cerebral ischemia in the contralateral hemisphere after left STA-MCA bypass in young adulthood. A new onset of cerebral ischemia in the contralateral hemisphere and transient neurological deterioration suggested the fragile hemodynamics of MMD during...
    Published on: 24 Mar 2017
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  • Original Article

    Prenatal zinc supplementation to lipopolysaccharide infected female rats prevents neurochemical, behavioral and biochemical deficits produced in infants

    Neha Sharma , Palvi Arora , Bimla Nehru
    Aim: Recent research revealed an association between maternal infection i.e. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure during pregnancy and increased risk for central nervous system disorders being passed onto the off-spring. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of LPS infection during d14-17 of pregnancy (equivalent to third trimester in humans) on neurochemical, neurobehavioral abnormalities, biochemical as well as histopathological parameters in male/female pups. Also, the effect of zinc supplementation throughout pregnancy to female rats in ameliorating LPS...
    Published on: 21 Mar 2017
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System

    A review with comments on herpes simplex encephalitis in adults

    Xu-Zheng Zuo , Wei-Ju Tang , Xiu-Ying Chen , Wen Huang
    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can cause permanent injury to the brain parenchyma. As such, it is usually treated as a medical emergency for which correct immediate diagnosis and introduction of specific therapies are critical for survival and prognosis. Here, the authors review the current status of diagnosis and treatments and discuss unsolved issues surrounding therapeutic interventions. The authors also highlight the current expectations for future management of HSE.
    Published on: 20 Feb 2017
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  • Guidelines

    Treatment guidelines of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in China

    Li-Ying Cui , Chuan-Qiang Pu , Xue-Qiang Hu
    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder at the peripheral nervous system, in which the progression is chronic and also remission relapse. In most cases, it is also associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein-cell separation. Electrophysiologically, the peripheral nerve conduction velocity decreases, blocks and characterized as discrete abnormal waveform. Pathologically, there is also multifocal demyelination of myelinated fibers, nerve endometrial edema,...
    Published on: 20 Feb 2017
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  • Case Report

    Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome: single photon emission computerized tomography observations

    Salvadeeswaran Meenakshi-Sundaram , Sathyam Senthilnathan , Kaliappan Gurusamy Srinivasan , Somalinga Nagendran Karthik , Pandi Suresh , Somasundaram Palanirajan
    The authors report clinical correlations of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) findings in reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy (RPL). These are observations that have not received wide attention in literature. A 31-year-old hypertensive gentleman, on discontinuing antihypertensive medications, presented with vomiting, headache, focal motor to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures, altered sensorium, right gaze palsy and right hemiparesis. Accelerated hypertension was noted and he improved well with antihypertensive and anticonvulsant therapy. While cranial magnetic...
    Published on: 20 Feb 2017
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  • Original Article

    Single low-dose lipopolysaccharide preconditioning: neuroprotective against axonal injury and modulates glial cells

    Ryan C. Turner , Zachary J. Naser , Brandon P. Lucke-Wold , Aric F. Logsdon , Reyna L. Vangilder , Rae R. Matsumoto , Jason D. Huber , Charles L. Rosen
    Aim: Over 7 million traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are reported each year in the United States. However, treatments and neuroprotection following TBI are limited because secondary injury cascades are poorly understood. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration before controlled cortical impact can contribute to neuroprotection. However, the underlying mechanisms and whether LPS preconditioning confers neuroprotection against closed-head injuries remains unclear. Methods: The authors hypothesized that preconditioning with a low dose of LPS (0.2 mg/kg) would regulate glial reactivity and...
    Published on: 20 Jan 2017
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  • Original Article

    Meningeal carcinomatosis: a retrospective analysis of seventy-seven cases

    Feng-Na Chu , Yue Lang , Xiao-Min Sun , Li Cui
    Aim: Meningeal carcinomatosis is a special type of malignant tumor characterized by short survival and poor prognosis. In the present study, the authors aim to analyze the clinical, laboratory data and prognosis of meningeal carcinomatosis patients. Methods: The authors enrolled 77 cases of meningeal carcinomatosis from 2003 to 2013 in the First Hospital of Jilin University. The clinical data including age, gender, symptoms at onset, clinical manifestations, primary tumors and the laboratory data including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), tumor markers as well as the imaging data were analyzed....
    Published on: 20 Jan 2017
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  • Case Report

    Parasellar extra-axial cavernoma mimicking meningioma: a case report

    Arun Oommen , Thara Pratap , Sushil Chandi , Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
    Parasellar extra-axial cavernomas are rare lesions. The authors report a case of extra-axial cavernoma in a 50-year-old male patient, who presented with occipital headache and double vision. The magnetic resonance imaging showed an enhancing extra-axial dural-based mass in the left parasellar region invading cavernous sinus, hyper-intense on T2-weighted images, iso-intense on T1-weighted images and high relative cerebral blood velocity on magnetic resonance perfusion. The patient underwent a left pterional craniotomy and parasellar space occupying lesion was excised. Histopathology was...
    Published on: 20 Jan 2017
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