- Prof. Hua Su
- Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
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Special Issue Introduction
Stroke is the leading cause of serious, long-term disability in the United States and the world. The stroke incidence and mortality are increasing in less developed countries in which the lifestyles and population restructuring are rapidly changing.
After ischemic stroke, the severe disturbance of blood supply to brain tissue causes neuronal death. Pathophysiological events occur after ischemic stroke, such as, neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, and activity of microglia, exacerbating neuronal death. Despite considerable research efforts, the exact mechanisms for stroke injury have not been fully understood. None of neuroprotection and angiogenesis strategies has shown therapeutic benefit in clinical setting.
Cerebral ischemia induces a cascade of inflammatory and immune reactions that encompass genomic events as well as molecular and cellular events. Immune response has been shown to play a major role in ischemic stroke progression. The extent of neuronal damage seems to correlate with the degree of innate immune activity. However, in recently years, many studies have shown that neuroinflammation appears to be a double-edged sword in the battle for neurological recovery. For example, microglia/macrophage activation fosters brain recovery by clearing cell debris, which leads to resolving local inflammation. Activated microglia/macrophage also produces a plethora of trophic factors that promote tissue repair. The kinetics of macrophage/microglia polarization switch is different for different models, such as reperfusion vs. permanent occlusion. Therefore, the contradictory functions of microglia/macrophage might reflect their acquisition of distinct phenotypes in response to different microenvironmental cues.
In this special issue, we would like to expand our knowledge of how neuroinflammation influences ischemic stroke outcomes. We would like to solicit a collection of articles from renowned experts in the field of stroke and neuroinflammation, attempting to lift some of the veil on the pathophysiology of stroke and develop new therapies for improving the outcomes of stroke patients.
1. Pros and cons of neuroinflammation in stroke recovery
2. Role of Innate immunity in stroke pathogenesis
3. Role of astrocyte in neuroinflammation
4. Neuroinflammation and neuronal death
5. Link of blood brain barrier impairment and neuroinflammation
6. Influence of systemic inflammation on stroke recovery
7. Role of lymphocyte in stroke pathogenesis
8. Neuroinflammation and post-stroke cognitive dysfunction
Stroke, neuroinflammation, microphage activation, macrophage infiltration, microphage/macrophage polarization, role of lymphocyte in stroke pathogenesis, astrocyte, blood brain barrier
Submission Deadline30 Oct 2021