Cover Picture: Oligodendrocytes are key neural cells that are responsible for producing myelin sheaths that wrap around neuronal axons in the central nervous system. Myelin is essential to insulate neurons and maintain a fast and saltatory propagation of action potentials along the axon. However, oligodendrocytes are very susceptible to damage, and thus demyelination may arise from a brain lesion or a neurodegenerative disorder. Consequently, demyelination produces a loss of axonal insulation leading to sensory or motor neuron failure. During adulthood there are two main sources of oligodendrocytes: parenchymal oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and subventricular zone derived OPCs. In this review, we will discuss oligodendrogenesis derived from these two sources, and also will highlight their main extrinsic and intrinsic modulators. In addition, the neuroinflammatory mediators of oligodendrogenesis will also be assessed.
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