Articles
  • Case Report|Open Access

    Sparganosis of the brain: a case report and brief review

    Hai-Xia Li , Shi-Hai Luan , Wei Guo , Ling-Yang Hua , Hong-Da Zhu , Jiao-Jiao Deng , Hai-Liang Tang , Xian-Cheng Chen , Qing Xie , Ye Gong
    Human sparganosis is a rare disease often affecting muscle, subcutaneous tissue and other locations, but sparganosis invading the brain is rather rare. Cerebral sparganosis has no specific symptoms which makes the diagnosis quite difficult and is usually neglected in the clinic. Here the authors... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:238-42. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.16
    Published on: 20 Nov 2017  | Viewed:13  | Downloaded:0
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Peripheral plasmablasts in anti-MuSK myasthenia gravis

    Guillermo Delgado-García , Teresa Corona-Vázquez
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:236-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.39
    Published on: 9 Nov 2017  | Viewed:77  | Downloaded:5
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A rare case of quadrigeminal plate lipoma presenting with the sixth cranial nerve palsy

    Bipin Kumar Chaurasia , Narendra Shalike , Silak Ram Chaudhary , Shamsul Alam , Dhiman Chowdhory , Kanak Kanti Barua , Ranjit Kumar Chaurasiya , Raushan Kumar Chaurasia , Ramesh Kumar Chaurasia , Tolga Dundar
    Intracranial lipomas are rare benign tumour that is slow growing, generally asymptomatic, most frequently located in the midline areas and are usually an incidental finding on imaging and therefore cases are not frequently reported. This study reports a case of a patient with quadrigeminal plate... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:232-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.40
    Published on: 9 Nov 2017  | Viewed:1346  | Downloaded:10
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Dramatic recovery from stroke following intravenous thrombolysis in a patient on prasugrel for recent percutaneous coronary angioplasty

    Salvadeeswaran Meenakshi-Sundaram , Palanikumar Subburamakrishnan , Jude Vinoth , Simon Victor Rajah Sanjeevi Madhan-Rajah , Somalinga Nagendran Karthik , Pandi Suresh
    The authors report the first case of thrombolysis in a patient already receiving both aspirin and prasugrel following a recent ischemic coronary event. A 55-year-old gentleman was treated for inferior wall myocardial infarction with aspirin, prasugrel and percutaneous angioplasty of right... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:216-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.57
    Published on: 19 Oct 2017  | Viewed:1302  | Downloaded:19
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case of atypical progressive multifocal encephalopathy mimicking acute ischemic stroke: case report and review of literature

    Maria Teresa Infante , Giovanni Novi , Riccarda Gentile , Laura Malfatto , Lucio Castellan , Carlo Serrati , Laura Barletta
    Progressive multifocal encephalopathy (PML) is a rare but often fatal infectious brain disease caused by the reactivation of John Cunningham polyomavirus. Reactivation occurs in immunocompromised individuals with AIDS and leukemia, on chemotherapy or being treated with immunosuppressant drugs... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:211-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.52
    Published on: 19 Oct 2017  | Viewed:1270  | Downloaded:10
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    LPS-induced TLR4 neuroinflammatory signaling in CHME-5 microglial cells

    Leandra K. Figueroa-Hall , Michael B. Anderson , Subhas Das , Craig W. Stevens , Randall L. Davis
    Aim: In the field of neuroinflammation, identifying specific effects of pharmacological agents and other factors is problematic given the relative difficulty and expense in obtaining and culturing primary microglia. Immortalized microglial cell lines are very useful, but only a limited number... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:219-31. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.38
    Published on: 19 Oct 2017  | Viewed:1213  | Downloaded:15
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    The roles of endoglin gene in cerebrovascular diseases

    Wan Zhu , Li Ma , Rui Zhang , Hua Su
    Endoglin (ENG, also known as CD105) is a transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) associated receptor and is required for both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is important in the development of cerebral vasculature and in the pathogenesis of cerebral vascular diseases. ENG is an... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:199-210. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.18
    Published on: 17 Oct 2017  | Viewed:1144  | Downloaded:26
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Characteristics and predictive biomarkers of drug resistant epilepsy -- study in Georgia

    Maia Alkhidze , Giorgi Lomidze , Sofia Kasradze , Aleksander Tsiskaridze
    Aim: The authors conducted a case-control study to estimate predictive factors for timely identification of patients at higher risk for developing drug resistant epilepsy. Methods: The retrospective case-control study was conducted among people diagnosed as having drug resistant epilepsy (cases)... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:191-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.14
    Published on: 27 Sep 2017  | Viewed:1739  | Downloaded:32
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Acute demyelinating lesions with restricted diffusion in multiple sclerosis: a new variant?

    Sofia Markoula , Anastassia Zikou , Persephoni Margariti , Maria Argyropoulou , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:188-90. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.33
    Published on: 21 Sep 2017  | Viewed:278  | Downloaded:15
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Advancements in diagnosis and treatment of meningeal carcinomatosis in solid cancer

    Jun-Zhao Cui , Jun-Ying He , Qing Li , Xiao-Qing Li , Rui-Ping Gao , Hui Bu , Yue-Li Zou , Xiao-Su Guo , Wei-Xin Han , Ze-Yan Zhao , Yuan-Yuan Li , Ming-Ming Zheng , Ya-Juan Liu , Li-Tian Yan
    Meningeal carcinomatosis (MC) is a disease that malignant tumor cells cultivate in the cerebrospinal fluid or meninges. With the development of therapy methods and new techniques, survival time of patients with tumor is prolonged, and the incidence of MC is increasing. Diagnosis is based on the... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:167-78. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.26
    Published on: 18 Sep 2017  | Viewed:1223  | Downloaded:28
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Peripheral NK and B regulatory cell frequencies are altered with symptomatic exacerbation in generalized myasthenia gravis patients

    Xiao-Yin Lai , Meng-Cui Gui , Jing Lin , Yue Li , Xuan Luo , Long-Xuan Li , Bi-Tao Bu
    Aim: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease, in which immunotherapy can improve symptoms for a period, but the majority of patients still experience symptomatic fluctuation or develop myasthenic crisis. This study aimed to explore the relationship between frequency of peripheral... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:179-87. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.29
    Published on: 18 Sep 2017  | Viewed:2009  | Downloaded:49
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    Role of neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke

    Rui Liu , Meng-Xian Pan , Jun-Chun Tang , Ya Zhang , Hua-Bao Liao , Yang Zhuang , Dan Zhao , Qi Wan
    Ischemic stroke causes the depletion of energy and induce excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation in the brain that results from thrombotic blockage. Neuroinflammation occurs initially depending on activated resident microglia that has the same function as the macrophage. Activated microglia... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:158-66. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.09
    Published on: 28 Aug 2017  | Viewed:3233  | Downloaded:168
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Cytology abnormal of cerebrospinal fluid in superficial siderosis of the central nervous system

    Cui Wang , Jian-Xia Diao , Shu-Min Li
    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SSCNS) is usually caused by chronic subarachnoid hemorrhage which leads to the accumulation of hemosiderin in the subpial layers of the brain and the spinal cord. The exact clinical manifestations and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:155-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.03
    Published on: 9 Aug 2017  | Viewed:1150  | Downloaded:40
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    Relationship of cerebral microbleeds to inflammatory marker levels

    Qiao-Li Lu , Chen Li , Ying Song , Liang Wang , Zhi-Rong Jia
    Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence, distribution and risk factors of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and the relation between CMBs and inflammation in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Methods: Two hundred and one patients without acute infarction or transient ischemic... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:145-51. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.05
    Published on: 8 Aug 2017  | Viewed:1245  | Downloaded:48
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Neurocysticercosis and hippocampal damage: a causal link favored by epileptogenesis or neuroinflammation?

    Oscar H. Del Brutto , Victor J. Del Brutto
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:152-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.23
    Published on: 8 Aug 2017  | Viewed:638  | Downloaded:47
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Developments in auxiliary examination of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Wei Zhao , Jiao-Jiao Jiang , Jia-Tang Zhang
    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), which is caused by prion scrapie protein, is a rare, chronic, transmissible and fatal disease. Clinical manifestations of CJD include rapidly progressive dementia, cerebellar ataxia, visual disturbance, as well as pyramidal and extrapyramidal tract signs. Four... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:136-44. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.01
    Published on: 21 Jul 2017  | Viewed:833  | Downloaded:65
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Analysis of clinical data of viral encephalitis patients complicated with epilepsy during the acute phase

    Shi-Ying Chen , Wei Ma , Yan-Yan Chen , Xue-Wen Fan
    Aim: To compare the difference between viral encephalitis patients complicated with epilepsy group and those without epilepsy. Methods: The authors retrospectively study 116 cases of viral encephalitis patients admitted to the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and the... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:124-31. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.17
    Published on: 11 Jul 2017  | Viewed:2095  | Downloaded:81
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Hot topics of autoimmune encephalitis

    Ying Peng , Jia-Wei Wang
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:132-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.50
    Published on: 11 Jul 2017  | Viewed:792  | Downloaded:115
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  • Review|Open Access

    The association between human cytomegalovirus and glioblastomas: a review

    Christian B. Hochhalter , Christopher Carr , Brannan E. O’Neill , Marcus L. Ware , Michael J. Strong
    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was reported in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) over a decade ago and this finding has the potential to increase our understanding of the disease and it offers an alternative tumor-specific therapeutic target. Due of this promise, there is a fair amount of time, energy... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:96-108. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.10
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017  | Viewed:3087  | Downloaded:151
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  • Minireview|Open Access

    How are necroptosis, immune dysfunction, and motoneuron death connected in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    Jian-Feng Liu , Ou-Xiang Zheng , Jun-Guo Xin , Hannah H. Chen , John J. Xin
    Abnormal immune response/inflammation is present in patients of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Autoimmune-related inflammation has been thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of ALS. However, how the abnormal immune responses are initiated, what specific immune cells and how these... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:109-16. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.12
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017  | Viewed:1648  | Downloaded:111
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Thymoma-associated panencephalitis: a newly emerging paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome

    Lynda Adaobi Nwabuobi , Jacob Christian Pellinen , Thomas Mark Wisniewski
    Recently, a few case reports of thymoma-associated panencephalitis (TAPE) have brought to light a disease entity that has not been fully characterized. Literature review of TAPE reveals an array of associated neuronal antibodies, with varied responses to thymomectomy with or without... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:117-23. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.53
    Published on: 16 Jun 2017  | Viewed:653  | Downloaded:45
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Miller-Fisher syndrome after etanercept

    Elena Grebenciucova , John H. Pula
    The authors describe a case of Miller-Fischer syndrome, a rare demyelinating syndrome, preceded by a viral prodrome and three doses of etanercept, an anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα) agent. Anti-TNFα agents are associated with an induction of episodes of demyelination and may unmask... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:93-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.48
    Published on: 23 May 2017  | Viewed:639  | Downloaded:77
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    When friend turns foe: central and peripheral neuroinflammation in central nervous system injury

    Paul Marcet , Nicole Santos , Cesar V. Borlongan
    Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is common, and though it has been well studied, many aspects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke are poorly understood. TBI and stroke are two pathologic events that can cause severe, immediate impact to the neurostructure and function of the CNS,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:82-92. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.07
    Published on: 17 May 2017  | Viewed:2075  | Downloaded:145
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case report of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor autoimmune encephalitis with sensory attack. Is limbic encephalitis only “limbic”?

    Sheng Chen , Xiao-Jie Zhang , Meng-Sha Yao , Xing-Hua Luan , Fei Yuan , Jun Liu , Shu-Feng Chen , Chen-Fei Jia , Sheng-Di Chen
    To emphasize the early diagnosis and treatment of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) autoimmune encephalitis, a rare clinical condition, teratoma-related, anti-NMDAR encephalitis should be suspected if young patients present with psychiatric, movement, and sensory symptoms. Early... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:78-81. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.39
    Published on: 10 May 2017  | Viewed:1598  | Downloaded:67
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neuroimaging of corpus callosum in central nervous system demyelinating disorders

    Masoud Etemadifar , Amir Neshatfar , Amir Arsalan Zamani , Mehri Salari
    Corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter structure in the brain, consisting of 200-250 million contralateral axonal projections. It is the major commissural pathway connecting the hemispheres of human brain. The pathology of CC includes wide variety of entities that arise from different... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:69-77. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.02
    Published on: 27 Apr 2017  | Viewed:2891  | Downloaded:103
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  • Short Communication|Open Access

    Trends in neurology fellowship training

    Jordan S.A. Williams , Trent S. Hodgson , Fernando D. Goldenberg , Rimas V. Lukas
    Aim: A need for Neurologists exists in the US. The majority of Neurology residency graduates go on to additional subspecialty training. Methods: Data from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education from 2001-2014 and the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties from was analyzed... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:65-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.11
    Published on: 18 Apr 2017  | Viewed:4266  | Downloaded:84
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome after cerebral hemorrhage or head trauma

    Huan Jia , Ye Tian , Yan-Min Wu , Bin Li
    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an uncommon disease involving widespread peripheral nerve inflammatory demyelination which results in ascending symmetrical limb paralysis and areflexia. Approximately 2/3 of cases occurred following a simple, trivial antecedent infection. In northern China,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:61-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.51
    Published on: 12 Apr 2017  | Viewed:919  | Downloaded:86
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Developing an international consensus guidance for myasthenia gravis using RAND/UCLA appropriateness method

    Wei-Bin Liu , Hao Ran , Chuang-Yi Ou , Li Qiu , Zhi-Dong Huang , Zhong-Qiang Lin , Yin-Kai Li , Xiao-Xi Liu , Hao Huang , Wei Fang
    Aim: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare and heterogeneous disease for which there is no generally accepted standard of care. Thus, it is critical that MG experts develop consensus guidelines based on their practice and disease management to assist clinicians and provide advice for insurance... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:54-60. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.47
    Published on: 30 Mar 2017  | Viewed:1074  | Downloaded:81
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  • Topic: Stroke|Open Access

    Cerebral ischemia at early postoperative period of direct revascularization for moyamoya disease: a case report and literature review

    Xiao-Lin Chen , Li Ma , Yu Chen , Jun-Lin Lu , Xun Ye , Rong Wang , Yuan-Li Zhao
    Hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion could be causes of early postoperative complications that lead to neurological deterioration in patients with moyamoya diseases (MMD) after superficial temporal artery (STA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis. Here, the authors described a case of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:46-53. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2017.04
    Published on: 24 Mar 2017  | Viewed:1577  | Downloaded:107
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Prenatal zinc supplementation to lipopolysaccharide infected female rats prevents neurochemical, behavioral and biochemical deficits produced in infants

    Neha Sharma , Palvi Arora , Bimla Nehru
    Aim: Recent research revealed an association between maternal infection i.e. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure during pregnancy and increased risk for central nervous system disorders being passed onto the off-spring. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of LPS... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:33-45. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.38
    Published on: 21 Mar 2017  | Viewed:1792  | Downloaded:90
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    A review with comments on herpes simplex encephalitis in adults

    Xu-Zheng Zuo , Wei-Ju Tang , Xiu-Ying Chen , Wen Huang
    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can cause permanent injury to the brain parenchyma. As such, it is usually treated as a medical emergency for which correct immediate diagnosis and introduction of specific therapies are critical for survival and prognosis. Here, the authors review the current... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:24-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.34
    Published on: 20 Feb 2017  | Viewed:2492  | Downloaded:362
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  • Guidelines|Open Access

    Treatment guidelines of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in China

    Li-Ying Cui , Chuan-Qiang Pu , Xue-Qiang Hu
    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder at the peripheral nervous system, in which the progression is chronic and also remission relapse. In most cases, it is also... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:20-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.14
    Published on: 20 Feb 2017  | Viewed:1612  | Downloaded:420
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome: single photon emission computerized tomography observations

    Salvadeeswaran Meenakshi-Sundaram , Sathyam Senthilnathan , Kaliappan Gurusamy Srinivasan , Somalinga Nagendran Karthik , Pandi Suresh , Somasundaram Palanirajan
    The authors report clinical correlations of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) findings in reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy (RPL). These are observations that have not received wide attention in literature. A 31-year-old hypertensive gentleman, on discontinuing... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:28-32. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.12
    Published on: 20 Feb 2017  | Viewed:1951  | Downloaded:91
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Single low-dose lipopolysaccharide preconditioning: neuroprotective against axonal injury and modulates glial cells

    Ryan C. Turner , Zachary J. Naser , Brandon P. Lucke-Wold , Aric F. Logsdon , Reyna L. Vangilder , Rae R. Matsumoto , Jason D. Huber , Charles L. Rosen
    Aim: Over 7 million traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are reported each year in the United States. However, treatments and neuroprotection following TBI are limited because secondary injury cascades are poorly understood. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration before controlled cortical impact can... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:6-15. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.40
    Published on: 20 Jan 2017  | Viewed:2145  | Downloaded:149
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Meningeal carcinomatosis: a retrospective analysis of seventy-seven cases

    Feng-Na Chu , Yue Lang , Xiao-Min Sun , Li Cui
    Aim: Meningeal carcinomatosis is a special type of malignant tumor characterized by short survival and poor prognosis. In the present study, the authors aim to analyze the clinical, laboratory data and prognosis of meningeal carcinomatosis patients. Methods: The authors enrolled 77 cases of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:1-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.23
    Published on: 20 Jan 2017  | Viewed:2893  | Downloaded:85
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Parasellar extra-axial cavernoma mimicking meningioma: a case report

    Arun Oommen , Thara Pratap , Sushil Chandi , Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
    Parasellar extra-axial cavernomas are rare lesions. The authors report a case of extra-axial cavernoma in a 50-year-old male patient, who presented with occipital headache and double vision. The magnetic resonance imaging showed an enhancing extra-axial dural-based mass in the left parasellar... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2017;4:16-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.49
    Published on: 20 Jan 2017  | Viewed:2440  | Downloaded:187
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    On the need to unify neuroscience and physics

    Maurits van den Noort , Sabina Lim , Peggy Bosch
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:271-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.55
    Published on: 26 Dec 2016  | Viewed:5278  | Downloaded:883
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Screening of genetic loci predisposing to herpes simplex virus infection on mouse chromosome 17

    Xiu-Ying Chen , Wei-Ju Tang , Xu-Zheng Zuo , Gong Wang , Hao-Xiang Wang , Peng Xie , Wen Huang
    Aim: The herpes simplex virus (HSV), one of the most common viruses infecting humans, is featured by a high infection rate and usually causes complex disorders difficult to diagnose and treat. Disease progression is always combined with the specific interaction between organism and environment,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:274-82. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.21
    Published on: 26 Dec 2016  | Viewed:2387  | Downloaded:117
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Low antioxidant status of patients with central nervous system infections

    Jia Liu , Feng Tan , Min Li , Huan Yi , Li Xu , Xuan Wang , Xiu-Feng Zhong , Fu-Hua Peng
    Aim: The pathogenesis of central nervous system infections (CNSI) has not been fully understood; some studies indicated that reactive oxygen species may induce brain damage. The aim of our study was to investigate serum antioxidant status in patients with CNSI. Methods: The serum levels of uric... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:262-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.20
    Published on: 15 Dec 2016  | Viewed:1086  | Downloaded:83
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Endocannabinoid metabolism in neurodegenerative diseases

    Chu Chen
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:268-70. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.46
    Published on: 15 Dec 2016  | Viewed:3019  | Downloaded:144
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  • Topic: Infectious Disease of Central Nervous System|Open Access

    Current diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Xiao-Su Guo , Hui Bu , Jun-Ying He , Yue-Li Zou , Yue Zhao , Yuan-Yuan Li , Jun-Zhao Cui , Ming-Ming Zheng , Wei-Xin Han , Ze-Yan Zhao
    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a central nervous system infectious disease caused by Cryptococcus. It is the most common fungal infection in the central nervous system, accounting for about 48% of fungal infection. The disease occurs mainly in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:249-56. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.10
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016  | Viewed:34190  | Downloaded:275
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis with ADEM-like clinical/MR findings

    Jia Liu , Huan Yi , Li Xu , Min Li , Xuan Wang , Fu-Hua Peng
    In recent years, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis overlapping with demyelinating disorders has attracted more and more attention. The case is about a 52-year-old woman with anti-NMDAR encephalitis presenting acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like clinical/magnetic... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:257-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.28
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016  | Viewed:2175  | Downloaded:208
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Isolated unilateral chorea: a diagnostic challenge

    Marta Lopes , Eva Brandão
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:260-1. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.45
    Published on: 18 Nov 2016  | Viewed:783  | Downloaded:132
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Schizophrenia and comorbid sleep disorders

    Maurits van den Noort , Heike Staudte , Benoît Perriard , Sujung Yeo , Sabina Lim , Peggy Bosch
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:225-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.42
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:1574  | Downloaded:190
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neurological manifestations in Fabry disease

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks , Yara Dadalti Fragoso
    Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, progressive, multisystem and highly debilitating disease. FD is an X-linked lysosome storage disorder that results in α-galactosidase A deficiency. The subsequent accumulation of glycosphingolipids is more evident in vascular endothelium and smooth-muscle cells. The... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:228-31. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.36
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:20167  | Downloaded:1239
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Possible role of microparticles in neuroimmune signaling of microglial cells

    Stephanie M. Schindler , Ekta Bajwa , Jonathan P. Little , Andis Klegeris
    Aim: Submicron fragments termed microparticles (MPs), derived from all major central nervous system cell types including neurons and glia (microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes), have emerged as novel intercellular signaling agents. This study tested the hypothesis that MPs derived from... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:232-42. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.25
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:1895  | Downloaded:100
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Cerebral venous thrombosis in patient of relapse of ulcerative colitis: report of a case

    Rajat Agarwal , Anuradha Batra , Ish Anand , Davinder Singh Rana , Samir Patel
    Amongst the various systemic complications of ulcerative colitis, cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon and serious neurological complication mainly associated during episodes of relapse of ulcerative colitis. CVT is suspected to be a consequence of hypercoagulable state occurring... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:243-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.15
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:1314  | Downloaded:77
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Comments on “Loss of intranetwork and internetwork resting state functional connections with Alzheimer’s disease progression”

    Jiu Chen
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:247-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.30
    Published on: 28 Oct 2016  | Viewed:992  | Downloaded:52
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    The expanding spectrum of pediatric anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody mediated CNS disease - a chance association?

    Deepak Menon , Ramshekhar N. Menon , Hardeep Kumar , Ashalatha Radhakrishnan , Sudheeran Kannoth , Muralidharan Nair Nair , Sanjeev Thomas
    Central nervous system autoimmunity in the pediatric age group represents an evolving constellation of various syndromes distinct from the adult age group. One of the rarely described pathogenic auto-antibodies (ab) is the one directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). While its... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:219-24. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.02
    Published on: 28 Sep 2016  | Viewed:1444  | Downloaded:144
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Emerging roles of microglia cells in the regulation of adult neural stem cells

    Eduardo Lira-Diaz , Oscar Gonzalez-Perez
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:204-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.32
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:1351  | Downloaded:89
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Serum immuno-biomarkers in gliomas

    Robin A. Buerki , Rimas V. Lukas
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:198-200. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.41
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:962  | Downloaded:95
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Interleukin-1beta: a common thread between inflammation, pain and opioid tolerance

    Shekher Mohan
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:201-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.37
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:1711  | Downloaded:108
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  • Review|Open Access

    Immune-to-brain signaling and substrates of altered behavior during inflammation

    Jan Pieter Konsman
    During the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection, and when in a safe environment, endothermic mammals typically display reduced activity and food intake, increased sleep, and the adoption of a curled-up position. These changes in behavior, in concert with fever, are adaptive in that... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:207-14. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.19
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:4360  | Downloaded:181
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case report of acute pediatric bacterial meningitis due to the rare isolate, Pseudomonas putida

    Grishma V. Kulkarni
    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is the medical emergency which warrants an early diagnosis and an aggressive therapy. Despite the availability of the potent newer antibiotics, the mortality caused by ABM and its complications remain high in India, ranging from 16% to 32%. The aim of this case... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:215-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.55
    Published on: 26 Sep 2016  | Viewed:2016  | Downloaded:118
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Takayasu’s arteritis - aphasia as an initial presentation

    Davinder Singh Rana , Anuradha Batra , Ish Anand , Samir Patel , Pooja Gupta
    Takayasu arteritis (TA) is an uncommon disease of young women, characterized by granulomatous vasculitis of medium and large arteries. Neurological involvement is reported in only a minority of patients and occurrence of neurological syndromes as the first manifestation of disease has been rarely... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:192-5. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.52
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:1607  | Downloaded:111
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  • Review|Open Access

    Population of inflammatory cells in intracranial aneurysm with the special insight to the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches

    Hirokazu Koseki , Tomohiro Aoki
    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) can cause a lethal subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture. The prevalence of IA is high in the general public; however, the annual risk for the rupture of an incidentally found lesion is relatively low. Therefore, it is crucial to selectively diagnose rupture-prone IAs... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:173-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.05
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:1442  | Downloaded:123
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Inhibition and reversal of growth cone collapse in adult sensory neurons by enteric glia-induced neurotrophic factors

    Simon Feng , Kiran Reddy , Cai-Xin Su , Shu-Cui Jiang
    Aim: Previous studies show enteric glia (EG)-conditioned medium promotes neurite outgrowth in adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) derived sensory neurons. This EG-conditioned medium contains various neurotrophic factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF),... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:180-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.03
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:3247  | Downloaded:108
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    D-cycloserin, a NMDA-agonist may be a treatment option for anti-NMDAR encephalitis

    Hong-Zhi Guan , Tie-Kuan Du , Jin Xu , Xia Lv , Hua-Dong Zhu , Yi-Cheng Zhu , Bin Peng , Li-Ying Cui
    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is caused by reversible neuron dysfunction associated an autoantibody-mediated decrease of NMDAR in the entire brain. A N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) -agonist treatment for anti-NMDAR encephalitis might have a role considering its specific... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:189-91. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.29
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:1386  | Downloaded:192
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Auto-reactive B cells in MuSK myasthenia gravis

    Yoon-Ho Hong , Jung-Joon Sung
    Acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) is a protoypical autoimmune disease caused by a dysfunction of neuromuscular transmission at the postsynaptic part. Patients experience fluctuating muscle weakness that increases with exertion. It is typically classified into clinical subtypes depending on... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:196-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.33
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:923  | Downloaded:71
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Progressive muscle cramps with pain as atypical initial presentations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case report

    Cheng-Hui Liu , Chi Zhu , Fan Zeng , Heng Yang , Yan-Jiang Wang
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease and is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative disease that affects both lower and upper motor neurons. Muscle cramps, which are characterized by a sudden, painful, involuntary contraction of muscles, are... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:170-2. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.49
    Published on: 20 Jul 2016  | Viewed:7061  | Downloaded:466
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Astrocyte, reactive astrocytes and self-regulative apoptosis in the neuroinflammation

    Liang-Wei Chen
    Astrocyte, one of the most abundant glial cell types, actively functions in stabilizing neural circuits and synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes not only provide metabolic and trophic supports to various CNS neurons and but also actively work in assisting synaptic... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:167-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.31
    Published on: 20 Jul 2016  | Viewed:1301  | Downloaded:196
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens|Open Access

    Autoimmune encephalopathies in children: diagnostic clues and therapeutic challenges

    Giorgia Olivieri , Ilaria Contaldo , Gloria Ferrantini , Elisa Musto , Roberta Scalise , Maria Chiara Stefanini , Domenica Battaglia , Eugenio Mercuri
    Neuronal surface antibody syndromes (NSAS) encompass a variety of disorders associated with “neuronal surface antibodies”. These share clinical and neuroradiological features that pose challenges related to their recognition and treatment. Recent epidemiological studies show a clear predominance... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:147-55. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.09
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016  | Viewed:8623  | Downloaded:584
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  • Review|Open Access

    Necroptosis: a new link between cell death and inflammation

    Yuan-Hang Pan , Xun-Yuan Liu , Jia-Qiang Liu , Qian Liu , Yang Yang , Jia-Lei Yang , Xiu-Fen Zhang , Yin Wu , Ya-Zhou Wang
    Necroptosis is a type of newly identified cell death induced by apoptotic stimuli under conditions where apoptotic execution is prevented. Studies over the past 10 years have revealed the molecular mechanism of necroptosis and challenged the old conception that necrosis is un-programmed.... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:156-60. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.59
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016  | Viewed:13239  | Downloaded:488
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Differentiation of radiation necrosis from glioblastoma recurrence after radiotherapy

    Chrissa Sioka , Anastasia Zikou , Anna Goussia , Spyridon Tsiouris , Loucas G. Astrakas , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    The standard treatment of glioblastoma, the most common type of primary-brain-tumor, involves radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy. A patient with glioblastoma, post radiotherapy developed magnatic resonance imaging (MRI) changes consistent with either radiation-induced tumor... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:161-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.08
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016  | Viewed:6498  | Downloaded:233
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Sex differences in Alzheimer’s disease

    Yi Xing
    Recently, Koran et al.[1] published an article, named “Sex differences in the association between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers and cognitive decline” in Brain Imaging and Behavior. The result proved that there were sex-specific associations between biomarkers of AD. This article added... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:165-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.27
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016  | Viewed:1728  | Downloaded:143
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  • Review|Open Access

    Statins in acute neurologic disease: which one, which dose, when to start, and when not to stop

    Bong-Su Kang , Gene Sung , May Kim-Tenser , Nerses Sanossian
    Statins could have physiologic properties that may benefit patients that have been diagnosed with various acute neurological diseases. This review aims tosummarize the literature pertaining to stain use in acute neurological disease such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH),... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:133-40. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.27
    Published on: 20 Jun 2016  | Viewed:2869  | Downloaded:130
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  • Review|Open Access

    Current and emerging therapies for neuromyelitis optica

    Cong Zhao , Hong-Zeng Li , Ya-Nan Bai , Zhu-Yi Li , Jun Guo
    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease that mainly affects the optic nerve and spinal cord, potentially resulting in blindness and paralysis. Once thought to be a clinical variant of multiple sclerosis, NMO is currently considered as a different disease with its own... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:127-32. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.11
    Published on: 20 Jun 2016  | Viewed:1992  | Downloaded:165
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Huge supratentorial cortical ependymoma in a young child: case report and literature review

    Mehdi Darmoul , Mohamed Kilani , Atef Ben Nsir , Mohamed Nejib Hattab
    Supratentorial cortical ependymomas are uncommon in the pediatric population and extremely rare in very young children. Histologically, tumors of the anaplastic type are also less common in children. The authors report one case of anaplastic cortical ependymoma in a 16-month-old girl who... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:141-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.53
    Published on: 20 Jun 2016  | Viewed:3403  | Downloaded:139
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Meningeal inflammation and multiple sclerosis

    Li-Ping Liu
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Inflammation in MS is characterized by infiltration of peripheral immune cells into the CNS, especially in the meninges. The infiltration into meninges, which has been referred to as... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:145-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.22
    Published on: 20 Jun 2016  | Viewed:1690  | Downloaded:200
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Status epilepticus in scleromyxedema

    Sofia Markoula , Sofia Zouroudi , Sotirios Giannopoulos , Kimon Tsoukanelis , Ananstasia Zikou , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    Scleromyxedema is a rare dermatologic disorder, characterized by erythematous or yellowish lichenoid waxy papules. Neurological manifestations are rare but well-recognized. A 51-year-old woman, diagnosed with scleromyxedema, was admitted to the hospital with status epilepticus, caused by brain... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:124-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.39
    Published on: 20 May 2016  | Viewed:1754  | Downloaded:77
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Good recovery of a patient with neurocysticercosis using two antihelminthic drugs combined with steroid

    Xin-Di Li , Hua-Bing Wang , Heng Zhou , An-Na Zhou , Lin Zhao , Yong-Hong Liu , Xiao-Qing Gong , Xing-Hu Zhang
    Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. We present a case report of a neurocysticercosis patient with multiple cysts, who presented with new onset generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A 4-cycle treatment of 2 different antihelminthic drugs with... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:120-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.51
    Published on: 20 May 2016  | Viewed:4076  | Downloaded:382
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence among patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression

    Peggy Bosch , Janina Waberg , Maurits van den Noort , Heike Staudte , Sabina Lim , Jos Egger
    Aim: Treatment non-adherence is a common problem in patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression. This study investigated the possible relationships between symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence. Methods: Thirty outpatients with schizophrenia and 58 outpatients with... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:109-16. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.54
    Published on: 20 May 2016  | Viewed:4955  | Downloaded:133
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case of Hashimoto's encephalopathy presenting with seizures and cognitive impairment

    Xing-Yong Chen , Yin-Zhou Wang , Hui-Xin Lei , Xu Zhang
    Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare disease with unknown pathogenesis. An epileptic seizure is reported in association with HE. Here, the author reported an 18-year-old girl with a history of hyperthyroidism for one year. She was admitted to the hospital due to status epilepticus. Serum... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:117-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.57
    Published on: 20 May 2016  | Viewed:1928  | Downloaded:131
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension complicated with cerebral venous thrombosis and subdural effusion: a case report

    Murali Krishna Menon , Thara Prathap , Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension treatment can be complicated by concomitant cerebral venous thrombosis and subdural hematoma. A 48 years old male, presenting orthostatic headache and neck pain for 1 month displayed sagittal sinus thrombosis and bilateral subdural effusions, as well as... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:104-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.35
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016  | Viewed:4048  | Downloaded:218
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Herpes zoster internuclear ophthalmoplegia

    Vijayashankar Paramanandam , Sowmini Perumal , Malcolm Jeyaraj , Sakthi Velayutham , Gobinathan Shankar
    Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) is caused by a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Patients with INO are usually asymptomatic but may have diplopia and oscillopsia. The most common causes of INO are ischemia and demyelination. Occurrence of INO due to infectious etiologies like... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:102-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.41
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016  | Viewed:1148  | Downloaded:113
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Thrombolysis lead to better long-term outcome in Chinese stroke patients

    Nian-Tong Lin , Ying-Chun Cao , Zheng-Zheng Cheng , Yuan Wang , Ping-Yi Xu
    Aim: The rate of thrombolysis in Chinese acute ischemic stroke (AIS) was low and little was known about the long-term outcome. We aimed to compare the prognosis between thrombolysis and ordinary anti-platelet strategies in AIS. Methods: Patients, who were consecutively registered in our hospital... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:98-101. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.46
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016  | Viewed:1583  | Downloaded:103
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens|Open Access

    Diagnostic algorithms in autoimmune encephalitis

    Valentina Damato
    Over the past decade the discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with neuronal surface antibodies had changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously mischaracterized. Recognition of clinical syndromes, consistent methods of diagnosis, and early... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:93-7. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.43
    Published on: 19 Apr 2016  | Viewed:10520  | Downloaded:735
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens|Open Access

    Encephalitis associated with autoantibodies binding to γ-aminobutyric acid-A, γ-aminobutyric acid-B and glycine receptors: immunopathogenic mechanisms and clinical characteristics

    Amy May Lin Quek , Orna O'Toole
    Recent, discoveries of neural antibodies have facilitated the diagnosis of immune-mediated, immunotherapy-responsive neurologic disorders. Antibodies that target inhibitory central nervous system receptors, such as γ-aminobutyric acid-B, γ-aminobutyric acid-A, and glycine receptors, disrupt... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:86-92. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.170633
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016  | Viewed:4283  | Downloaded:270
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens|Open Access

    Encephalitis associated with autoantibody binding to the anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor: immunopathogenesis, mechanisms, and clinical characteristics

    Adhasit Nawa-apisak , Saharat Aungsumart , Metha Apiwattanakul
    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has been increasingly recognized in recent years. This condition may be the most common cause of antibody-mediated encephalitis worldwide. The majority of patients are young at the time of onset, female, and present with an acute-to-subacute... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:79-85. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.169913
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016  | Viewed:3889  | Downloaded:221
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  • Topic: Autoimmune neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies specific for synaptic antigens|Open Access

    Neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies targeting the voltage-gated potassium channel complex: immunobiology and clinical characteristics

    Domenico Plantone , Rosaria Renna , Tatiana Koudriavtseva
    Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) represent a group of tetrameric signaling proteins with several functions, including modulation of neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. Moreover, VGKCs give a key contribution to the generation of the action potential. VGKCs are complexed... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:69-78. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.169883
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016  | Viewed:19743  | Downloaded:488
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  • Review|Open Access

    Immunotherapeutic strategies for glioma treatment

    George A. Alexiou , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor. Despite intensive clinical investigation and several novel therapeutic approaches, the median survival continues to remain poor and it is usually in the range of fifteen months. Immunotherapy is a beacon of hope for cancer... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:51-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.45
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016  | Viewed:1776  | Downloaded:177
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Disc herniation or ependymoma recurrence?

    Aristeidis H. Katsanos , Ioannis Sarmas , Sotirios Giannopoulos , Sigliti-Henrietta Pelidou , Athanassios P. Kyritsis
    We present a 41-year-old female with previous history of ependymoma who underwent gross-total resection of the tumor and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt placement, followed by radiotherapy. Three years later a small enhancing area was noted in the left anterolateral spinal cord at the level of the... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:65-8. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.42
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016  | Viewed:9083  | Downloaded:101
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Bilateral facial weakness following dengue fever

    Samir Patel , Rajeev Ranjan , Ritu Verma , C. S. Agrawal , Pooja Gupta
    Dengue is highly endemic in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Neurological complications of dengue infection are widespread and may involve almost all parts of nervous system through various pathogenic mechanisms. It may be related to neurotropism, systemic complications or... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:63-4. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.48
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016  | Viewed:1339  | Downloaded:105
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Assessment of health-related quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis living in the Fars province of Iran

    Nahid Ashjazadeh , Habib Hadianfard , Soodabe Feridoni , Elham Farjam
    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) living in the Fars province of Iran. Methods: A total of 100 patients with clinically definite MS who were referred to a clinic affiliated with Shiraz University of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:57-62. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.40
    Published on: 14 Mar 2016  | Viewed:1581  | Downloaded:119
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neuronal toll-like receptors and neuro-immunity in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and stroke

    Carmen D. Rietdijk , Richard J. A. van Wezel , Johan Garssen , Aletta D. Kraneveld
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are part of the innate immune system important for the initiation of proper immune responses towards microorganisms. Neuronal TLRs are considered to be part of the interactions between the immune system and the nervous system, the major sensing systems in mammals. The... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:27-37. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.28
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016  | Viewed:16879  | Downloaded:472
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neuro-oncogenesis and the adult human sub-ventricular zone in high grade glioma

    Sara G. M. Piccirillo
    The review focuses on the role of the sub-ventricular zone, the most well characterized germinal region of adult brain, in the commonest and most aggressive brain tumor in adults, i.e. high grade glioma (HGG). Recent findings from animal models and samples isolated from HGG patients are reviewed... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:20-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.37
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016  | Viewed:2818  | Downloaded:186
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Morphological and behavioural variation in CNS innate defence cell microglia is development and age sensitive

    Payel Ghosh , Anirban Ghosh
    Aim: Microglia, the innate defence cells in central nervous system (CNS), alters their shapes and function with age. We observed and identified these morphological changes and functional association throughout the developmental gradient until adulthood in rat brain. Methods: Early and late... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:38-47. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.32
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016  | Viewed:5751  | Downloaded:180
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Infective endocarditis with brain lesions misdiagnosed as viral encephalitis

    Jing-Jing Zhang , Guo-Dong Feng
    Infective endocarditis (IE) is caused by infection of the endocardial surface of heart. It typically affects one or more heart valves, the mural endocardium, or a septal defect. In recent years, many IE patients suffered from atypical initial symptoms. Here, in this case report, a 12-year-old... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:48-50. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.29
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016  | Viewed:1588  | Downloaded:191
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Central nervous system blastomycosis presenting as a year-long chronic headache

    Elena Grebenciucova , Maciej S. Lesniak , Peter Pytel , Rimas V. Lukas
    This case describes a posterior fossa mass due to blastomycotic infection in a non-immunocompromised 41-year-old male presenting with a chronic headache for over one year. Given the risk of herniation, no lumbar puncture could be performed. A full work-up found no evidence of systemic infection.... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:17-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.26
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016  | Viewed:2811  | Downloaded:82
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  • Guidelines|Open Access

    China guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of myasthenia gravis

    Zhu-Yi Li
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a typical autoimmune disease mediated by auto-antibodies, immune cells and complement systems at the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction. Over 80 % of MG patients have anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody. This guideline will describe the clinical... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:1-9. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.60
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016  | Viewed:12560  | Downloaded:301
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  • Review|Open Access

    The conflict on posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome: a clinical mini review

    Manos Bogdos , Sotirios Giannopoulos , Maria Kosmidou
    Is Borrelia burgdorferi responsible for the persistence of symptoms after the standard successful course of antibiotics in Lyme disease patients? This highly controversial issue, concerning the underlying mechanism of posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), still seems to be a matter of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:10-3. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.36
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016  | Viewed:1654  | Downloaded:289
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Artery of Percheron occlusion: role of diffusion-weighted imaging in the early diagnosis

    Murali Krishna Menon , Suma Mariam Jacob , Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal
    Bilateral thalamic infarcts have a low frequency among different subtypes of strokes. Since it does not involve a particular vascular territory, it therefore usually involves the occlusion of the artery of Percheron (AOP). Here we report a 79-year-old right-handed Parkinsonian female patient, who... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:14-6. | doi:10.20517/2347-8659.2015.30
    Published on: 20 Jan 2016  | Viewed:6889  | Downloaded:242
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorders

    Georgios D. Kotzalidis , Elisa Ambrosi , Alessio Simonetti , Ilaria Cuomo , Antonio Del Casale , Matteo Caloro , Valeria Savoja , Chiara Rapinesi
    Recent literature based on peripheral immunity findings speculated that neuroinflammation, with its connection to microglial activation, is linked to bipolar disorder. The endorsement of the neuroinflammatory hypotheses of bipolar disorder requires the demonstration of causality, which requires... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:252-62. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167309
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:4093  | Downloaded:329
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    The role of neuroinflammation in juvenile bipolar disorder

    Giulia Serra , Lavinia De Chiara , Ciro Marangoni , Gianni L. Faedda
    A pathophysiological relationship has been reported between inflammatory processes, decreased levels of neurotrophins, increased oxidative stress and psychiatric disorders in both juvenile and adult ages. Moreover, this relationship remains unclear in juvenile bipolar disorder (BD). We performed... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:244-51. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167303
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:4735  | Downloaded:77
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    The role of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies in mood disorders

    Marco Liguori , Mirko Manchia , Leonardo Tondo
    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) possibly plays a causative role in mood disorders. This hypothesis originated with studies on the beneficial effect of valproate in mania and as a mood stabilizer. Since valproate is known for its action in increasing the level of GABA, it was indirectly suggested... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:237-43. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167300
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:4562  | Downloaded:137
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    Psychotic and nonpsychotic mood disorders in autoimmune encephalitis: diagnostic issues and research implications

    Giuseppe Quaranta , Nunzio Bucci , Cristina Toni , Giulio Perugi
    Recent research on autoimmune disorders suggests additional links between systemic and central nervous system (CNS) pathophysiology, among which the identification of antibody-induced limbic encephalitis provided the strongest evidence for the potential involvement of autoimmunity in the... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:228-36. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.160986
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:6729  | Downloaded:214
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    Neuroinflammation and excitatory symptoms in bipolar disorder

    Isabella Panaccione , Gianfranco Spalletta , Gabriele Sani
    Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a strong biological factor underlying the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. A role for dysregulation of the immune system was initially suggested in depressive disorders and subsequently extended to other illnesses, including bipolar disorder (BD).... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:215-27. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167304
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:4621  | Downloaded:127
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    Microstructural brain abnormalities, affective temperaments, and suicidal behavior in patients with major depression

    Gianluca Serafini , Mario Amore , Zoltan Rihmer
    According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, brain white matter (WM) abnormalities have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and related suicidal behavior. However, MRI findings may be limited by low spatial resolution; therefore,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:200-14. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167301
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:3972  | Downloaded:138
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  • Review|Open Access

    The endonuclease VIII-like proteins: new targets in the treatment of ischemic stroke?

    Long-Xiu Yang , Wei Wang , Xiao Zhang , Qi Zhu , Qing Zhao , Gang Zhao
    Oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage is one of the major causes of neuronal injury in ischemia. The endonuclease VIII-like (NEIL) DNA glycosylases have a specific role in recognition and removal of oxidative DNA damage. The NEIL family includes NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3, that differ in... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:281-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167308
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:5354  | Downloaded:106
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    Bipolar disorder preceding the onset of multiple sclerosis

    Ciro Marangoni , Maria Giulia Nanni , Luigi Grassi , Gianni M. Faedda
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory demyelinating brain disease. The occurrence of psychiatric disorders, especially for major depression, in the course of MS is high. Reports concerning bipolar disorder (BD) remain rather scarce although early descriptions were found in the... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:195-9. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167302
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:5523  | Downloaded:148
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  • Review|Open Access

    Progress in mechanisms of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

    Shao-Min Li , Ming-Shu Mo , Ping-Yi Xu
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Currently, only two classes of drugs, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and memantine are approved. AChEIs ameliorate cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in AD patients through activation of acetylcholine (ACh)... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:274-80. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167305
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:4542  | Downloaded:197
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Angioplasty and stenting for a young stroke patient diagnosed as cerebrovascular fibromuscular dysplasia

    Jia-Ping Xu , Yong-Jun Cao , Guo-Dong Xiao , Chun-Yuan Zhang , Ji-Jun Shi
    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a noninflammatory, nonatherosclerotic, and multifocal vascular disease, commonly involving the cerebral and renal arteries. Cerebrovascular stenosis and spontaneous dissection resulting from cerebrovascular FMD (cFMD) is one of the important causes of young... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:291-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167310
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:3941  | Downloaded:70
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  • Topic: Neurovascular and neuroinflammation mechanisms associated with bipolar disorder|Open Access

    Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory mechanisms associated with mood disorders

    Gianfranco Spalletta , Gabriele Sani
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:193-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167306
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:3849  | Downloaded:126
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neuroinflammatory modulators of oligodendrogenesis

    Ana Armada-Moreira , Filipa F. Ribeiro , Ana M. Sebastião , Sara Xapelli
    Oligodendrocytes are key neural cells that are responsible for producing myelin sheaths that wrap around neuronal axons in the central nervous system. Myelin is essential to insulate neurons and maintain a fast and saltatory propagation of action potentials along the axon. However,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:263-73. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167311
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:14789  | Downloaded:271
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Isolated neurosarcoidosis presenting with recurrent hydrocephalus

    Frederick L. Hitti , Benjamin C. Kennedy , Yazmin Odia , Claire S. Riley , Sameer A. Sheth
    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory process that is characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. This protean disease may afflict nearly any organ system, including the central nervous system. Here, we present a case of isolated neurosarcoidosis that initially presented with... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:287-90. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.167307
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:3150  | Downloaded:90
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Isolated palatal palsy: a clinical rarity

    Harpreet Singh , Rekha Mathur , Parminder Kaur
    Acquired isolated palatal palsy is a rare disease. It is commonly seen in children. It usually presents with acute onset nasal regurgitation of fluids, rhinolalia, and palatal asymmetry. Many causes of this disease, such as infections, trauma, tumor, and brainstem lesions, etc., have been... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:190-2. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153981
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:11350  | Downloaded:1483
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Gamma-aminobutyric-acid-B receptor antibodies in limbic encephalitis with small cell lung cancer

    Ke-Qin Liu , Sheng-Qiang Yan , Min Lou
    Encephalitis associated with antibodies to gamma-aminobutyric-acid B (GABA-B) is a subgroup of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis with typical features of limbic encephalitis and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We report a case of anti-GABA-B receptor encephalitis in a 57-year-old man who presented... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:187-9. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.159077
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:3224  | Downloaded:122
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Decompressive craniectomy in herpes simplex encephalitis

    Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal , Shirley Joan Fernandez , Prithvi Varghese , Murali Krishna Menon
    Intracranial hypertension is a common cause of morbidity in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). HSE is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis. Hereby we report a case of HSE in which decompressive craniectomy was performed to treat refractory intracranial hypertension. A 32-year-old male... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:182-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.158460
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:5437  | Downloaded:106
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  • Review|Open Access

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation research on reading and dyslexia: a new clinical intervention technique for treating dyslexia?

    Maurits van den Noort , Esli Struys , Peggy Bosch
    Nowadays, several noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), exist. The working mechanism behind TMS is a rapidly changing magnetic field that generates an electric current via electromagnetic induction. When the coil is placed on the scalp, the... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:145-52. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.157967
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:8540  | Downloaded:386
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Neurocysticercosis in Nepal: a retrospective clinical analysis

    Rajeev Ojha , Dinesh Bikram Shah , Amina Shrestha , Sunil Koirala , Apurba Dahal , Khem Adhikari , Anjal Bisht , Pratik Wagle
    Aim: The prevalence of epilepsy is higher in Nepal. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC) among seizure patients admitted to our center. Methods: We retrospectively studied all the NCC patients admitted to Neurology Department, Bir Hospital,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:167-70. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.160856
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:6107  | Downloaded:163
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Complete recovery from paraplegia following total spondylectomy for a primary diffuse B-cell lymphoma of the lumbar spine

    Atef Ben Nsir , Mohamed Boughamoura , Rym Hadhri , Mouroug Mahfoudh , Nejib Hattab
    Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the spine is very rare and occurs mostly in adults with strong male predominance. Here, we present the case of a 24-year-old girl harboring a primary diffuse B-cell lymphoma of L2 vertebral body, who was admitted in an emergency with cauda equina syndrome and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:179-81. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.157962
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:3792  | Downloaded:76
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  • Review|Open Access

    Neuroinflammation and neurological alterations in chronic liver diseases

    Carmina Montoliu , Marta Llansola , Vicente Felipo
    Several million people with chronic liver diseases (cirrhosis, hepatitis) show neurological alterations, named hepatic encephalopathy (HE) with cognitive and motor alterations that impair quality of life and reduces life span. Inflammation acts synergistically with hyperammonemia to induce... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:138-44. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.160845
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:6663  | Downloaded:113
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Intrathecal dexamethasone and methotrexate treatment of neoplastic meningitis from solid tumors

    Wen-Jing Lv , Jun-Ying He , Yue-Li Zou , Ya-Juan Liu , Qin-Qin Zhang , Xin Liu , Hui Bu
    Aim: Neoplastic meningitis (NM) from solid tumors is an advanced malignancy with poor prognosis. Intrathecal chemotherapy is a reliable treatment, and we have obtained some experiences in the treatment of NM with intrathecal dexamethasone and methotrexate (IT DXM and MTX). Methods: Retrospective... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:162-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.160855
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:5624  | Downloaded:170
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A clinically isolated syndrome: butterfly glioma mimic

    Ramshekhar Menon , Bejoy Thomas , Hariharan Venkat Easwer , Samvedam Sandhyamani , Amita Nair , Muralidharan Nair
    The report explores a unique and treatable “butterfly”-glioma mimic and the neuroimaging characteristics that help to diagnose this entity. A 35-year-old patient presented with subacute-onset, progressive frontal lobe dysfunction followed by features of raised intracranial pressure. Neuroimaging... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:174-8. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.154435
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:4624  | Downloaded:103
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    The role of glutamate excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation in depression and suicidal behavior: focus on microglia cells

    Gianluca Serafini , Zoltan Rihmer , Mario Amore
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:127-30. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.157955
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:4042  | Downloaded:323
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  • Review|Open Access

    Microglia and astroglia: the role of neuroinflammation in lead toxicity and neuronal injury in the brain

    Jin-Tao Liu , Mo-Han Dong , Jie-Qiong Zhang , Ya Bai , Fang Kuang , Liang-Wei Chen
    Lead (Pb2+), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, may widely affect the function of many organs or systems of human beings, especially the brain. Although lead is believed to transport into the brain through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cause direct neuronal injury, growing data have shown... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:131-7. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.156980
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:10451  | Downloaded:344
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Brain abscess: surgical experiences of 162 cases

    Forhad Hossain Chowdhury , Md Raziul Haque , Mainul Haque Sarkar , S. M. Noman Khaled Chowdhury , Zahed Hossain , Shisir Ranjan
    Aim: Brain abscess still poses a public health challenge in spite of the advent of modern neurosurgical techniques and antibiotics. Here, we present our surgical experiences and ultimate outcome in the management of brain abscess. Methods: Totally, 162 patients with proved brain abscess who... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:153-61. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.160851
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:13139  | Downloaded:153
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A case report on subarachnoid and intraventricular neurocysticercosis

    Chen Shang , Hong-Zhi Guan , Li-Ying Cui , Bo Hou , Feng Feng , Ding-Rong Zhong
    Neurocysticercosis is the most common central nervous system helminthic infection in humans. We hereby present a case combining two rare manifestations of neurocysticercosis: the subarachnoid and intraventricular forms. The patient presented with hydrocephalus and neurologic deficits and although... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:171-3. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.160858
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:3135  | Downloaded:74
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    The role of leukocytes in the formation and rupture of intracranial aneurysms

    Michael J. Strong , Peter S. Amenta , Aaron S. Dumont , Ricky Medel
    Ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) affect a small proportion of the population; however, the morbidity and mortality is disproportionally high. Although little is known about IA formation, progression, and rupture, mounting evidence suggests that inflammation may play an important role in IA... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:107-14. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153972
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:3845  | Downloaded:83
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    The role of inflammation in cerebral aneurysms

    Ali H. Turkmani , Nancy J. Edwards , Peng R. Chen
    The natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is poorly understood. At present, risk factors for aneurysm rupture are limited to demographics and rudimentary anatomic features of the aneurysm. The first sign of aneurysm destabilization and rupture may be subarachnoid hemorrhage,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:102-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153982
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:4400  | Downloaded:157
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Role of the complement cascade in cerebral aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture

    Blake E. S. Taylor , Geoff Appelboom , Robert Zilinyi , Ariana Goodman , David Chapel , Melissa LoPresti , Edward Sander Connolly Jr.
    Rupture of intracranial aneurysms is the most common cause of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, but the intricate neuroinflammatory processes which contribute to aneurysm pathophysiology are not well-understood. Mounting evidence has implicated the complement cascade in the progression of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:93-101. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.154888
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:17727  | Downloaded:234
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Inflammation mediates the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm and becomes therapeutic target

    Tomohiro Aoki
    The treatment of cerebral aneurysms (CAs) is of social importance, because poor outcomes result in subarachnoid hemorrhages after rupture. However, there is currently no medical treatment available to prevent the progression and rupture of CAs, which results in a large number of patients without... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:86-92. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.154381
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:5224  | Downloaded:108
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Inflammation in human cerebral aneurysms: pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, genetics, and therapeutics

    Sarah A. Dooley , Joseph S. Hudson , David M. Hasan
    Intracranial aneurysms are a life-threatening cerebrovascular pathology with a probability of spontaneous rupture. Current intervention techniques carry inherent risk. Recent investigation has reinforced inflammation’s role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral aneurysms. These data... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:77-85. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.154433
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:4938  | Downloaded:122
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Inflammation and intracranial aneurysms: mechanisms of initiation, growth, and rupture

    Peter S. Amenta , Edison Valle , Aaron S. Dumont , Ricky Medel
    Outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remain poor in many patients, despite advances in microsurgical and endovascular management. Consequently, considerable effort has been placed in determining the mechanisms of aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture. Various environmental and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:68-76. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153975
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:4183  | Downloaded:132
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Hemodynamics, inflammation, vascular remodeling, and the development and rupture of intracranial aneurysms: a review

    Francesco Signorelli , Benjamin Gory , Roberto Riva , Paul-Emile Labeyrie , Isabelle Pelissou-Guyotat , Francis Turjman
    The central nervous system is an immunologically active environment where several components of the immune and inflammatory response interact among them and with the constituents of nervous tissue and vasculature in a critically orchestrated manner, influencing physiologic and pathologic... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:59-67. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.154885
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:4416  | Downloaded:150
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Cerebral aneurysms and inflammation

    Toshihiro Yokoi , Makoto Saito , Yayoi Yoshimura , Keiichi Tsuji , Kazuhiko Nozaki
    Multiple inflammatory factors, playing a crucial role in cerebral aneurysm formation, have been identified. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been revealed to have a close connection with several risk factors that affect aneurysm formation. Remarkable expression in aneurysm walls of mRNA... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:55-8. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153977
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:3959  | Downloaded:83
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Advances in the imaging of cerebral aneurysm inflammation

    Michael R. Levitt , M. Yashar S. Kalani , Karam Moon , Cameron G. McDougall , Felipe C. Albuquerque
    Cerebral aneurysm formation, growth and rupture are thought to be the result of a complex interaction between cerebrovascular hemodynamics and pathobiology. Recently, new evidence has emerged regarding the role of inflammation in the walls of cerebral aneurysms. Noninvasive methods to... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:51-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153970
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:4141  | Downloaded:131
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Primary supratentorial intracerebral malignant paraganglioma

    Ahmed A. Al Jishi , Boleslaw Lach , Ali Elgheriani , Edward Kachur , Aleksa Cenic
    Paragangliomas are extra-adrenal neuroendocrine tumors that derive from neural crest. In general, they are benign tumors but few cases had shown a tendency to metastasize. Malignant forms have been reported previously with intracranial metastasis from duodenal origin, but primary intracranial... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:121-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.154431
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:4738  | Downloaded:141
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  • Topic: The Role of Inflammation in Cerebral Aneurysms|Open Access

    Inflammation of the cerebral arteries: lifting the veil on the pathobiology of intracranial aneurysms

    Dale Ding
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:49-50. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153968
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:3228  | Downloaded:117
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Astrocytes: everything but the glue

    Oscar Gonzalez-Perez , Veronica Lopez-Virgen , Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:115-7. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153979
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:3238  | Downloaded:90
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Concurrent occurrence of both intracranial and intramedullary tuberculomas

    Sreeramulu Diguvinti , Srinivasulu Damam , Kiran Kumar Ubara , Chennakesavulu Dara
    Tuberculosis involving spinal cord in the form of intramedullary tuberculoma is uncommon, and the concurrent occurrence of cranial and intramedullary tuberculomas is extremely rare. We report a case of disseminated tuberculoma involving brain and spinal cord with miliary tuberculosis in a... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:118-20. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.153980
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:6557  | Downloaded:81
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  • Topic: Neuroimmunology and Cancer|Open Access

    The influence of postoperative infection in survival of patients with high-grade gliomas

    George A Alexiou , Amalia Kallinteri , Euaggelos Michos , Panagiota Zagorianakou , Efthalia Priavali , Dimitrios Pachatouridis , Stamatina Levidiotou , Spyridon Voulgaris
    High-grade gliomas are the most common type of brain tumors. Of these, glioblastoma account for 60-70% and despite treatment carries a dismal prognosis. Postoperative surgical site infection has been associated with prolonged survival. Herewith, we present a case of glioblastoma and a case of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:18-20. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149418
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:3999  | Downloaded:105
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  • Topic: Neuroimmunology and Cancer|Open Access

    Serum IgE levels in patients with intracranial tumors

    George A Alexiou , Amalia Kallinteri , Eleni Nita , Panagiota Zagorianakou , Stamatina Levidiotou , Spyridon Voulgaris
    Aim: Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between allergy and brain cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare the serum IgE levels between patients with gliomas and nonglial tumors and their possible prognostic role. Methods: A total of 84 patients with... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:15-7. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149398
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:5029  | Downloaded:87
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  • Topic: Neuroimmunology and Cancer|Open Access

    A potential role of karyopherin a2 in the impaired maturation of dendritic cells observed in glioblastoma patients

    Konstantinos Gousias , Alexander von Ruecker , Gerrit H Gielen , Pitt Niehusmann , Andreas Waha , Hartmut Vatter , Matthias Simon
    Aim: Patients with glioblastomas demonstrate well-documented immunological impairments including decreased numbers of mature dendritic cells (DCs). Recent data identified karyopherin a2 (KPNA2), a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling receptor, as diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for gliomas. The aim of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:8-14. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149396
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:6220  | Downloaded:77
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Influence of chlorpyrifos oxon on the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice

    Jin Yu , Hong Zhu , Aruna Bhat , Hanaa El-Sayed , Tatyana Gudz , Sebastiano Gattoni-Celli , Mark S Kindy
    Aim: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurological disorder and the most common form of dementia. Until date, the cause of AD eludes us, but a number of hypotheses have been put forward to try and understand the mechanisms involved. A series of studies have indicated that environmental... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:31-42. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149421
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:4250  | Downloaded:76
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  • Topic: Neuroimmunology and Cancer|Open Access

    Integrins and focal adhesion kinase in the malignant behavior of gliomas

    Efstathia Giannopoulou , Andreas Tzakos , Andreas A Argyriou
    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of glioma and is associated with a very poor prognosis. The standard treatment includes radiotherapy concurrent with temozolomide, however recently the Food and Drug Administration approved bevacizumab for use in patients with progressive... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:4-7. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149395
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:3083  | Downloaded:78
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Central somatosensory conduction slowing in adults with isolated elevated plasma level of homocysteine

    Jin Jun Luo , Favio Bumanlag , Ramin Ansari , Ya-Mei Tang , Nae J Dun
    Aim: Elevated plasma level of homocysteine (eHcy) is a recognized risk factor for dementia. However, whether the central conduction is affected in patients with an isolated eHcy is unknown. In this study, we addressed whether central conduction is altered in adults with eHcy. Methods: Evoked... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:26-30. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149420
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:5834  | Downloaded:90
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Multiple autoimmune antibody limbic encephalitis: a case in a pregnant woman

    Meha Goyal , Kasey L Gildersleeve , Stuart L Tomko , Joseph S Kass
    Autoimmune limbic encephalitis is most commonly associated with antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), among other neuronal cell surface receptors. Here, a case of a pregnant female with limbic encephalitis in the presence of multiple additional autoimmune antibodies is... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:46-8. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149423
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:3780  | Downloaded:82
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  • Topic: Neuroimmunology and Cancer|Open Access

    Targeting glioblastoma with oncolytic adenovirus delta 24

    Konstantinos I Tsamis , George A Alexiou , Athanasios P Kyritsis
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:1-3. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149392
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:3444  | Downloaded:79
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Cardiac autonomic function in patients with myasthenia gravis: analysis of the heart-rate variability in the time-domain

    Sherifa Ahmed Hamed , Khaled Osama Mohamad , Mohamad Adam
    Aim: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular transmission disorder caused by acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies. Cardiac autonomic dysfunctions were rarely reported in patients with MG. Functional cardiac abnormalities were variable and reported in patients at severe stages of the disease... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:21-5. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149419
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:6402  | Downloaded:83
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Cardiac arrhythmia with premature ventricular contractures induced by interferon beta in a patient with multiple sclerosis

    Igor Sobol , Marina Sobol , Konstantin E Balashov
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Interferon (IFN) beta is an active ingredient of five out of twelve disease modifying treatments approved for MS. We report a case of IFN-beta-induced cardiac arrhythmia with... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:43-5. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.149422
    Published on: 15 Jan 2015  | Viewed:3697  | Downloaded:78
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Increased circulating rather than spinal cytokines accompany chronic pain behaviors in experimental bone cancer and arthritis

    Line Pourtau , Amarins Nieske Heeringa , Carole Rovère , Agnès Aubert , Jean-Louis Nahon , Sylvain Miraux , Jan Pieter Konsman
    Aim: Peripheral cytokines contribute to arthritis and bone cancer pain through sensory nerve actions. However, increased spinal cytokine and glial filament expression, coined neuroinflammation, has also been proposed to play a part in chronic pain. Therefore, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:153-60. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143680
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:7576  | Downloaded:116
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  • Review|Open Access

    Current overview of myasthenia gravis and experience in China

    Jun Guo , Dan Dang , Hong-Zeng Li , Zhu-Yi Li
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an acquired autoimmune disease affecting synaptic transmission via the neuromuscular junction mainly due to the presence of auto-antibodies targeting acetylcholine receptors. Ocular or generalized MG is clinically diagnosed when the extra-ocular muscles or other muscle... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:127-30. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143664
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:12913  | Downloaded:1077
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Distinctive distribution of lymphocytes in unruptured and previously untreated brain arteriovenous malformation

    Yi Guo , Tarik Tihan , Helen Kim , Christopher Hess , Michael T Lawton , William L Young , Yuan-Li Zhao , Hua Su
    Aim: To test the hypothesis that lymphocyte infiltration in brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is not associated with iron deposition (indicator of micro-hemorrhage). Methods: Sections of unruptured, previously untreated bAVM specimens (n = 19) were stained immunohistochemically for... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:147-52. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143674
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:7104  | Downloaded:104
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  • Review|Open Access

    Clinicogenetics of Parkinson's disease: a drawing but not completed picture

    Chao-Dong Wang , Piu Chan
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder mainly affecting the population over the age of 60 years. The past decade has seen rapidly emerging data supporting a major importance of genetic factors in the development of PD. Increasing number of large-scale and replicating... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:115-26. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143662
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:8944  | Downloaded:157
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Assessment of cognitive function in patients with myasthenia gravis

    Sherifa A Hamed , Ahmad H Youssef , Mohamad A Abd ElHameed , Mohamed F Mohamed , Amal M Elattar
    Aim: During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in the evaluation of cognitive function in myasthenia gravis (MG), neuromuscular transmission disorder caused by acetylcholine receptor auto-antibodies. However, the results of previous studies on cognition and MG are inconsistent... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:141-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143671
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:8520  | Downloaded:235
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  • Review|Open Access

    Positron emission tomography imaging in gliomas

    Assimakis Assimakopoulos , Konstantinos Polyzoidis , Chrissa Sioka
    Glioma, the most frequent primary brain tumor in adults, is a highly infiltrative tumor exhibiting resistance to most treatments and associated with short survival of patients. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using various tracers takes advantage of the increased metabolic rate of... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:107-14. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143659
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:7208  | Downloaded:152
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 is upregulated in the endothelium and tumor cells in melanoma brain metastasis

    Patrick N Harter , Anna-Eva Blank , Benjamin Weide , Rudi Beschorner , Simon Bernatz , Peter Baumgarten , Anne K Braczynski , Elke Hattingen , Michael W Ronellenfitsch , Herbert Schwarz , Michel Mittelbronn
    Aim: The cytokine receptor tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9) is mainly considered to be a co-stimulatory activation marker in hematopoietic cells. Several preclinical models have shown a dramatic beneficial effect of treatment approaches targeting TNFRSF9 with... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:135-40. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143670
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:6862  | Downloaded:145
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  • Review|Open Access

    Role of the neuromuscular ultrasound in the diagnostic of the multifocal motor neuropathy

    Antonios Kerasnoudis , Kalliopi Pitarokoili , Min-Suk Yoon
    Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is the one of the most common acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorders of the peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis is based on the distribution pattern of the neurological semiology and the pathological changes of nerve conduction studies (NCS) in... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:103-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143657
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:6931  | Downloaded:167
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in glioblastoma

    George A Alexiou , Evrysthenis Vartholomatos , Panagiota Zagorianakou , Spyridon Voulgaris
    Aim: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has prognostic value in patients with a variety of cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of NLR in patients with glioblastoma. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on patients receiving surgery for... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:131-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143666
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:6337  | Downloaded:172
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Systemic non-albicans infections presented as meningitis in chronic hepatitis B patient: a case report

    Wen-Jing Lv , Hui Bu , Jun-Ying He , Ran-Ran Sun , Yue-Li Zou
    Non-albicans candida meningitis is a relatively rare disease, with nonspecific clinical manifestation, which makes the misdiagnosis occur sometimes, especially in the early stage of the disease. Abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids, central vein cannulas, senility, big operation,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:161-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.143681
    Published on: 30 Oct 2014  | Viewed:5583  | Downloaded:122
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  • Review|Open Access

    Chronic inflammation drives glioma growth: cellular and molecular factors responsible for an immunosuppressive microenvironment

    Edward T Ha , Joseph P Antonios , Horacio Soto , Robert M Prins , Isaac Yang , Noriyuki Kasahara , Linda M Liau , Carol A Kruse
    This review examines glioma disease initiation, promotion, and progression with a focus on the cell types present within the tumor mass and the molecules responsible for the immunosuppressive microenvironment that are present at each step of the disease. The cell types and molecules present also... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:66-76. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139717
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:12241  | Downloaded:582
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Primary diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cranial vault

    Shantanu Ghosh , Debabrata Das , Praveen Kumar , Rahul Varshney
    Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cranial vault with extra and intracranial extension in a nonimmunocompromised patient is extremely uncommon. Until date, only limited number of such cases has been reported in the literature and none was the lesion located as a diffuse swelling in the forehead.... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:98-101. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139723
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:6768  | Downloaded:113
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  • Review|Open Access

    Pyroptosis and neurological diseases

    Zhen Xie , Gang Zhao
    Pyroptosis is a new process of programmed cell death, which has been discovered and confirmed in recent years. Its cardinal features include activation of caspase-1 and a massive release of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18), etc. The morphological characteristics, occurrence and... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:60-5. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139716
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:7279  | Downloaded:357
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Malignant middle-cerebral artery territory infarction in tuberculous vasculitis

    Salvadeeswaran Meenakshi-Sundaram , Sundararajan Srinivasan , Somalinga Nagendran Karthik , Suresh Pandi , Alagappan Periyakaruppan , Bharathi Sundar
    Intracranial large vessel involvement is an unusual complication of tuberculous meningitis. The authors report a 39-year-old female presenting with an episode of seizure, followed by rapid decline in sensorium without prominent systemic features. An initial cranial magnetic resonance imaging... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:95-7. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139722
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:6605  | Downloaded:135
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  • Review|Open Access

    Targeting glioma stem cells via the Hedgehog signaling pathway

    Yang Liu , Xing Liu , Ling-Chao Chen , Wen-Zhong Du , Yu-Qiong Cui , Xing-Yin Piao , Yong-Li Li , Chuan-Lu Jiang
    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Gliomas are among the most devastating tumor types, and current clinical therapies are unsatisfactory. Recent reports revealed the importance of glioma-propagating cells in the malignancy of gliomas. These cells, also referred to as glioma... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:51-9. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139715
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:17003  | Downloaded:231
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    A novel method for evaluating microglial activation using ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 staining: cell body to cell size ratio

    Iris Bertha Hovens , Csaba Nyakas , Regien Geertruida Schoemaker
    Aim: The aim was to validate a newly developed methodology of semi-automatic image analysis to analyze microglial morphology as marker for microglial activation in ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 (IBA-1) stained brain sections. Methods: The novel method was compared to currently used... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:82-8. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139719
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:13495  | Downloaded:490
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Fan Zeng , Heng Yang , Hua-Dong Zhou , Yan-Jiang Wang
    Toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy is a frequently seen medical condition worldwide; however the lack of specific clinical manifestations and laboratory tests makes it difficult to diagnose. Neuroimaging and medical history are often crucial to diagnosis of this disorder. In this report, a case... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:92-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139721
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:6086  | Downloaded:373
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  • Review|Open Access

    Human leukocyte antigens-immunogenetics of neuromyelitis optica or Devic's disease and the impact on the immunopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment: a critical review

    Maria Panos Gontika , Maria Constantinos Anagnostouli
    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder, predominantly characterized by severe optic neuritis, transverse myelitis and the high level of antibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4) or NMO-immunoglobulin G (IgG). Researches trying to correlate NMO with specific human leukocyte... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:44-50. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139713
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:8745  | Downloaded:164
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Effect of conduction block in classification and prognosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Yu-Chen Wang , Guo-Dong Feng , Jing Wang , Xue-Dong Liu , Gang Zhao
    Aim: The aim was to investigate the electro-physiological characteristics in disease progression of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and observe the effect of conduction block (CB) in classification and severity of the disease. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-four patients with GBS were divided into... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:77-81. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139718
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:8852  | Downloaded:192
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome due to seronegative systemic lupus erythematosus

    Sawan Verma , Irfan Yousuf , Mushtaq Ahmad Wani , Ravouf Asimi , Sheikh Saleem , Mudasir Mushtaq , Irfan Shah , Skeikh Nawaz , Riyaz Ahmad Daga
    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurotoxic state coupled with a unique computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance. Recognized in the setting of a number of complex conditions (preeclampsia/eclampsia, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, organ... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:89-91. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.139720
    Published on: 28 Aug 2014  | Viewed:6275  | Downloaded:129
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Diagnosis and therapy of rare central nervous system infections

    Xiao-Kun Qi
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:8-12. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135568
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:8522  | Downloaded:136
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    The M1/M2 immune polarization concept in microglia: a fair transfer?

    Michel Mittelbronn
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:6-7. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135567
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:9869  | Downloaded:355
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Neonatal immune activation during early and late postnatal brain development differently influences depression-related behaviors in adolescent and adult C57BL/6 mice

    Jafar Majidi-Zolbanin , Mohammad-Hossein Doosti , Behzad Baradaran , Mohammad Amani , Maryam Azarfarin , Ali-Akbar Salari
    Aim: Immune challenge during early and late neonatal periods can induce robust alterations in physiological and behavioral functions, resulting in greater risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, later in life. In addition, previous studies concluded... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:35-9. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135575
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:10297  | Downloaded:227
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Pitfalls in clinical diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis in China

    Jia-Tang Zhang
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:3-5. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135566
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:7076  | Downloaded:117
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  • Research Highlights|Open Access

    The expanding phenotype of stroke-induced immune alterations

    Johanna Ruhnau , Antje Vogelgesang , Alexander Dressel
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:15-6. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135570
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:6384  | Downloaded:119
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Imaging and cytological analysis of 92 patients with Japanese encephalitis

    Qi Meng , Yue-Li Zou , Hui Bu , Jun-Ying He
    Aim: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus and demonstrates high mortality and serious sequelae. Imaging and cytological examinations are important for the diagnosis of JE. We performed this study to analyze the imaging and cytological characteristics of JE. Methods:... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:29-34. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135574
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:9021  | Downloaded:116
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Welcome to Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation: a new open access journal for neuroscience

    Gang Zhao , Thomas Müller
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:1-2. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135565
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:6596  | Downloaded:101
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  • Research Highlights|Open Access

    Differences in stroke damage in aged mice may not be due to differential cerebral blood flow dynamics

    Venugopal Reddy Venna , Louise D McCullough
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:13-4. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135569
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:6295  | Downloaded:123
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  • Review|Open Access

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in China

    Li Li , Cheng-Bin Wang , Gang Zhao
    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are mainly distributed in the central nervous system, and play important roles in the mechanisms of learning and memory. A newly discovered disease caused by autoantibody to NMDAR has been described, and is called anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Patients with this... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:17-23. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135571
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:9385  | Downloaded:125
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Detection of Epstein-Barr virus infection subtype in patients with multiple sclerosis by indirect immunofluorescence assay

    Shan-Chao Zhang , Lei Liu , Rui-Jin Wang , Hou-Zhen Tuo , Yan-Jun Guo , Li Yi , De-Xin Wang , Jia-Wei Wang
    Aim: The aim was to investigate the infectious conditions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 20 patients with MS and 20 with other neurological diseases (OND) were tested with indirect immunofluorescence for anti-EBV capsid... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:24-8. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135572
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:10656  | Downloaded:3493
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    POEMS syndrome associated with Castleman disease: a case report and literature review

    Juan Kang , Fang Yang , Hong-Ya Zhang , Meng-Meng Hu , Feng Xia , Jin-Cun Wang , Yan-Chun Deng , Gang Zhao
    Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M proteins, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a multisystemic disorder that clinically manifests as paraneoplastic and monoclonal plasma cell dyscrasia. Its acronym is derived from its principal characteristics: polyneuropathy, organomegaly,... Read more
    Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2014;1:40-3. | doi:10.4103/2347-8659.135577
    Published on: 27 Jun 2014  | Viewed:5629  | Downloaded:277
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Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation Print ISSN: 2347-8659; Online ISSN: 2349-6142
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