Articles
  • Review

    Neuro-oncogenesis and the adult human sub-ventricular zone in high grade glioma

    Sara G. M. Piccirillo
    The review focuses on the role of the sub-ventricular zone, the most well characterized germinal region of adult brain, in the commonest and most aggressive brain tumor in adults, i.e. high grade glioma (HGG). Recent findings from animal models and samples isolated from HGG patients are reviewed here with a focus on the cancer stem cell hypothesis and evolutionary trajectories of tumor growth in patients. The implications of these studies on the development of novel therapeutic approaches aimed at improving HGG patient survival and the need for personalized treatments are also discussed.
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016
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  • Review

    Neuronal toll-like receptors and neuro-immunity in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and stroke

    Carmen D. Rietdijk , Richard J. A. van Wezel , Johan Garssen , Aletta D. Kraneveld
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are part of the innate immune system important for the initiation of proper immune responses towards microorganisms. Neuronal TLRs are considered to be part of the interactions between the immune system and the nervous system, the major sensing systems in mammals. The review entitled “Neuronal toll-like receptors and neuro-immunity in Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and stroke” by Rietdijk et al. offers an overview of the current knowledge about (neuronal) TLRs in neurodegenerative pathologies.
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016
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  • Original Article

    Morphological and behavioural variation in CNS innate defence cell microglia is development and age sensitive

    Payel Ghosh , Anirban Ghosh
    Aim: Microglia, the innate defence cells in central nervous system (CNS), alters their shapes and function with age. We observed and identified these morphological changes and functional association throughout the developmental gradient until adulthood in rat brain. Methods: Early and late embryonic stages, neonates and adult brains of albino rats were sectioned for routine Haematoxylin Eosin (HE) staining and specialized silver-gold staining to show distribution and morphological variation in situ. Isolated microglia from different age groups was subjected to scanning electron microscopy...
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016
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  • Case Report

    Infective endocarditis with brain lesions misdiagnosed as viral encephalitis

    Jing-Jing Zhang , Guo-Dong Feng
    Infective endocarditis (IE) is caused by infection of the endocardial surface of heart. It typically affects one or more heart valves, the mural endocardium, or a septal defect. In recent years, many IE patients suffered from atypical initial symptoms. Here, in this case report, a 12-year-old patient was initially diagnosed as encephalitis. However, it was later noticed that this was a misdiagnosis for the following reasons: the echocardiography showed a vegetation attached to his mitral valves; the cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed lesions that were consistent with a cardioembolic...
    Published on: 15 Feb 2016
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